Add the DragonFly cvs id and perform general cleanups on cvs/rcs/sccs ids. Most
[dragonfly.git] / bin / ln / ln.1
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1.\" Copyright (c) 1980, 1990, 1993
2.\" The Regents of the University of California. All rights reserved.
3.\"
4.\" This code is derived from software contributed to Berkeley by
5.\" the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc.
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35.\" @(#)ln.1 8.2 (Berkeley) 12/30/93
36.\" $FreeBSD: src/bin/ln/ln.1,v 1.11.2.8 2003/02/04 07:31:59 keramida Exp $
1de703da 37.\" $DragonFly: src/bin/ln/ln.1,v 1.2 2003/06/17 04:22:50 dillon Exp $
984263bc
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38.\"
39.Dd December 30, 1993
40.Dt LN 1
41.Os
42.Sh NAME
43.Nm ln ,
44.Nm link
45.Nd make links
46.Sh SYNOPSIS
47.Nm
48.Op Fl fhinsv
49.Ar source_file
50.Op Ar target_file
51.Nm
52.Op Fl fhinsv
53.Ar source_file ...
54.Ar target_dir
55.Nm link
56.Ar source_file Ar target_file
57.Sh DESCRIPTION
58The
59.Nm
60utility creates a new directory entry (linked file) which has the
61same modes as the original file.
62It is useful for maintaining multiple copies of a file in many places
63at once without using up storage for the
64.Dq copies ;
65instead, a link
66.Dq points
67to the original copy.
68There are two types of links; hard links and symbolic links.
69How a link
70.Dq points
71to a file is one of the differences between a hard and symbolic link.
72.Pp
73The options are as follows:
74.Bl -tag -width flag
75.It Fl f
76If the target file already exists,
77then unlink it so that the link may occur.
78(The
79.Fl f
80option overrides any previous
81.Fl i
82options.)
83.It Fl h
84If the
85.Ar target_file
86or
87.Ar target_dir
88is a symbolic link, do not follow it. This is most useful with the
89.Fl f
90option, to replace a symlink which may point to a directory.
91.It Fl i
92Cause
93.Nm
94to write a prompt to standard error if the target file exists.
95If the response from the standard input begins with the character
96.Sq Li y
97or
98.Sq Li Y ,
99then unlink the target file so that the link may occur.
100Otherwise, do not attempt the link.
101(The
102.Fl i
103option overrides any previous
104.Fl f
105options.)
106.It Fl n
107Same as
108.Fl h ,
109for compatibility with other
110.Nm
111implementations.
112.It Fl s
113Create a symbolic link.
114.It Fl v
115Cause
116.Nm
117to be verbose, showing files as they are processed.
118.El
119.Pp
120By default,
121.Nm
122makes
123.Em hard
124links.
125A hard link to a file is indistinguishable from the original directory entry;
126any changes to a file are effectively independent of the name used to reference
127the file.
128Hard links may not normally refer to directories and may not span file systems.
129.Pp
130A symbolic link contains the name of the file to
131which it is linked. The referenced file is used when an
132.Xr open 2
133operation is performed on the link.
134A
135.Xr stat 2
136on a symbolic link will return the linked-to file; an
137.Xr lstat 2
138must be done to obtain information about the link.
139The
140.Xr readlink 2
141call may be used to read the contents of a symbolic link.
142Symbolic links may span file systems and may refer to directories.
143.Pp
144Given one or two arguments,
145.Nm
146creates a link to an existing file
147.Ar source_file .
148If
149.Ar target_file
150is given, the link has that name;
151.Ar target_file
152may also be a directory in which to place the link;
153otherwise it is placed in the current directory.
154If only the directory is specified, the link will be made
155to the last component of
156.Ar source_file .
157.Pp
158Given more than two arguments,
159.Nm
160makes links in
161.Ar target_dir
162to all the named source files.
163The links made will have the same name as the files being linked to.
164.Pp
165When the utility is called as
166.Nm link ,
167exactly two arguments must be supplied,
168neither of which may specify a directory.
169No options may be supplied in this simple mode of operation,
170which performs a
171.Xr link 2
172operation using the two passed arguments.
173.Sh SEE ALSO
174.Xr link 2 ,
175.Xr lstat 2 ,
176.Xr readlink 2 ,
177.Xr stat 2 ,
178.Xr symlink 2 ,
179.Xr symlink 7
180.Sh COMPATIBILITY
181The
182.Fl h ,
183.Fl i ,
184.Fl n
185and
186.Fl v
187options are non-standard and their use in scripts is not recommended.
188They are provided solely for compatibility with other
189.Nm
190implementations.
191.Sh STANDARDS
192The
193.Nm
194utility conforms to
195.St -p1003.2-92 .
196.Pp
197The simplified
198.Nm link
199command conforms to
200.St -susv2 .
201.Sh HISTORY
202An
203.Nm
204command appeared in
205.At v1 .