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1# This file is in the public domain, so clarified as of
2# 2009-05-17 by Arthur David Olson.
984263bc 3
48afb8ac 4# This file is by no means authoritative; if you think you know better,
984263bc 5# go ahead and edit the file (and please send any changes to
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6# tz@iana.org for general use in the future). For more, please see
7# the file CONTRIBUTING in the tz distribution.
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03b0b587 9# From Paul Eggert (2014-10-31):
984263bc 10#
03b0b587 11# Unless otherwise specified, the source for data through 1990 is:
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12# Thomas G. Shanks and Rique Pottenger, The International Atlas (6th edition),
13# San Diego: ACS Publications, Inc. (2003).
03b0b587 14# Unfortunately this book contains many errors and cites no sources.
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15#
16# Gwillim Law writes that a good source
17# for recent time zone data is the International Air Transport
18# Association's Standard Schedules Information Manual (IATA SSIM),
19# published semiannually. Law sent in several helpful summaries
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20# of the IATA's data after 1990. Except where otherwise noted,
21# IATA SSIM is the source for entries after 1990.
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22#
23# Another source occasionally used is Edward W. Whitman, World Time Differences,
24# Whitman Publishing Co, 2 Niagara Av, Ealing, London (undated), which
25# I found in the UCLA library.
26#
80e7e01d 27# For data circa 1899, a common source is:
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28# Milne J. Civil time. Geogr J. 1899 Feb;13(2):173-94.
29# http://www.jstor.org/stable/1774359
30#
31# For Russian data circa 1919, a source is:
32# Byalokoz EL. New Counting of Time in Russia since July 1, 1919.
33# (See the 'europe' file for a fuller citation.)
80e7e01d 34#
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35# A reliable and entertaining source about time zones is
36# Derek Howse, Greenwich time and longitude, Philip Wilson Publishers (1997).
37#
48afb8ac 38# I invented the abbreviations marked '*' in the following table;
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39# the rest are from earlier versions of this file, or from other sources.
40# Corrections are welcome!
41# std dst
42# LMT Local Mean Time
43# 2:00 EET EEST Eastern European Time
44# 2:00 IST IDT Israel
45# 3:00 AST ADT Arabia*
46# 3:30 IRST IRDT Iran
47# 4:00 GST Gulf*
48# 5:30 IST India
f6ca936c 49# 7:00 ICT Indochina, most times and locations*
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50# 7:00 WIB west Indonesia (Waktu Indonesia Barat)
51# 8:00 WITA central Indonesia (Waktu Indonesia Tengah)
984263bc 52# 8:00 CST China
f6ca936c 53# 8:00 IDT Indochina, 1943-45, 1947-55, 1960-75 (some locations)*
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54# 8:00 JWST Western Standard Time (Japan, 1896/1937)*
55# 9:00 JCST Central Standard Time (Japan, 1896/1937)
d1bcb6be 56# 9:00 WIT east Indonesia (Waktu Indonesia Timur)
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57# 9:00 JST JDT Japan
58# 9:00 KST KDT Korea
48afb8ac 59# 9:30 ACST Australian Central Standard Time
984263bc 60#
48afb8ac 61# See the 'europe' file for Russia and Turkey in Asia.
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62
63# From Guy Harris:
64# Incorporates data for Singapore from Robert Elz' asia 1.1, as well as
65# additional information from Tom Yap, Sun Microsystems Intercontinental
66# Technical Support (including a page from the Official Airline Guide -
67# Worldwide Edition). The names for time zones are guesses.
68
69###############################################################################
70
48afb8ac 71# These rules are stolen from the 'europe' file.
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72# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
73Rule EUAsia 1981 max - Mar lastSun 1:00u 1:00 S
bd7414aa 74Rule EUAsia 1979 1995 - Sep lastSun 1:00u 0 -
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75Rule EUAsia 1996 max - Oct lastSun 1:00u 0 -
76Rule E-EurAsia 1981 max - Mar lastSun 0:00 1:00 S
77Rule E-EurAsia 1979 1995 - Sep lastSun 0:00 0 -
78Rule E-EurAsia 1996 max - Oct lastSun 0:00 0 -
79Rule RussiaAsia 1981 1984 - Apr 1 0:00 1:00 S
80Rule RussiaAsia 1981 1983 - Oct 1 0:00 0 -
81Rule RussiaAsia 1984 1991 - Sep lastSun 2:00s 0 -
82Rule RussiaAsia 1985 1991 - Mar lastSun 2:00s 1:00 S
83Rule RussiaAsia 1992 only - Mar lastSat 23:00 1:00 S
84Rule RussiaAsia 1992 only - Sep lastSat 23:00 0 -
85Rule RussiaAsia 1993 max - Mar lastSun 2:00s 1:00 S
86Rule RussiaAsia 1993 1995 - Sep lastSun 2:00s 0 -
87Rule RussiaAsia 1996 max - Oct lastSun 2:00s 0 -
88
89# Afghanistan
90# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
91Zone Asia/Kabul 4:36:48 - LMT 1890
92 4:00 - AFT 1945
93 4:30 - AFT
94
95# Armenia
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96# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
97# Shanks & Pottenger have Yerevan switching to 3:00 (with Russian DST)
98# in spring 1991, then to 4:00 with no DST in fall 1995, then
99# readopting Russian DST in 1997. Go with Shanks & Pottenger, even
100# when they disagree with others. Edgar Der-Danieliantz
34850bd5 101# reported (1996-05-04) that Yerevan probably wouldn't use DST
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102# in 1996, though it did use DST in 1995. IATA SSIM (1991/1998) reports that
103# Armenia switched from 3:00 to 4:00 in 1998 and observed DST after 1991,
104# but started switching at 3:00s in 1998.
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105
106# From Arthur David Olson (2011-06-15):
107# While Russia abandoned DST in 2011, Armenia may choose to
108# follow Russia's "old" rules.
109
110# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2012-02-10):
111# According to News Armenia, on Feb 9, 2012,
112# http://newsarmenia.ru/society/20120209/42609695.html
113#
114# The Armenia National Assembly adopted final reading of Amendments to the
115# Law "On procedure of calculation time on the territory of the Republic of
116# Armenia" according to which Armenia [is] abolishing Daylight Saving Time.
117# or
118# (brief)
119# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_armenia03.html
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120# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
121Zone Asia/Yerevan 2:58:00 - LMT 1924 May 2
122 3:00 - YERT 1957 Mar # Yerevan Time
48afb8ac 123 4:00 RussiaAsia YER%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
984263bc 124 3:00 1:00 YERST 1991 Sep 23 # independence
48afb8ac 125 3:00 RussiaAsia AM%sT 1995 Sep 24 2:00s
984263bc 126 4:00 - AMT 1997
48afb8ac 127 4:00 RussiaAsia AM%sT 2012 Mar 25 2:00s
bca44125 128 4:00 - AMT
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129
130# Azerbaijan
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131# From Rustam Aliyev of the Azerbaijan Internet Forum (2005-10-23):
132# According to the resolution of Cabinet of Ministers, 1997
133# Resolution available at: http://aif.az/docs/daylight_res.pdf
984263bc 134# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
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135Rule Azer 1997 max - Mar lastSun 4:00 1:00 S
136Rule Azer 1997 max - Oct lastSun 5:00 0 -
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137# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
138Zone Asia/Baku 3:19:24 - LMT 1924 May 2
139 3:00 - BAKT 1957 Mar # Baku Time
48afb8ac 140 4:00 RussiaAsia BAK%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
984263bc 141 3:00 1:00 BAKST 1991 Aug 30 # independence
bc95ec93 142 3:00 RussiaAsia AZ%sT 1992 Sep lastSat 23:00
48afb8ac 143 4:00 - AZT 1996 # Azerbaijan Time
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144 4:00 EUAsia AZ%sT 1997
145 4:00 Azer AZ%sT
146
147# Bahrain
30d1d955 148# See Asia/Qatar.
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149
150# Bangladesh
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151# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-05-13):
152# According to newspaper Asian Tribune (May 6, 2009) Bangladesh may introduce
153# Daylight Saving Time from June 16 to Sept 30
154#
155# Bangladesh to introduce daylight saving time likely from June 16
78a8cef0 156# http://www.asiantribune.com/?q=node/17288
78a8cef0 157# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_bangladesh02.html
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158#
159# "... Bangladesh government has decided to switch daylight saving time from
160# June
161# 16 till September 30 in a bid to ensure maximum use of daylight to cope with
162# crippling power crisis. "
163#
164# The switch will remain in effect from June 16 to Sept 30 (2009) but if
165# implemented the next year, it will come in force from April 1, 2010
166
167# From Steffen Thorsen (2009-06-02):
168# They have finally decided now, but changed the start date to midnight between
169# the 19th and 20th, and they have not set the end date yet.
170#
171# Some sources:
78a8cef0 172# http://in.reuters.com/article/southAsiaNews/idINIndia-40017620090601
78a8cef0 173# http://bdnews24.com/details.php?id=85889&cid=2
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174#
175# Our wrap-up:
78a8cef0 176# http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/bangladesh-daylight-saving-2009.html
78a8cef0 177
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178# From A. N. M. Kamrus Saadat (2009-06-15):
179# Finally we've got the official mail regarding DST start time where DST start
180# time is mentioned as Jun 19 2009, 23:00 from BTRC (Bangladesh
181# Telecommunication Regulatory Commission).
182#
183# No DST end date has been announced yet.
78a8cef0 184
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185# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-09-25):
186# Bangladesh won't go back to Standard Time from October 1, 2009,
187# instead it will continue DST measure till the cabinet makes a fresh decision.
188#
189# Following report by same newspaper-"The Daily Star Friday":
190# "DST change awaits cabinet decision-Clock won't go back by 1-hr from Oct 1"
83c88d65 191# http://www.thedailystar.net/newDesign/news-details.php?nid=107021
83c88d65 192# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_bangladesh04.html
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193
194# From Steffen Thorsen (2009-10-13):
195# IANS (Indo-Asian News Service) now reports:
196# Bangladesh has decided that the clock advanced by an hour to make
197# maximum use of daylight hours as an energy saving measure would
198# "continue for an indefinite period."
199#
200# One of many places where it is published:
83c88d65 201# http://www.thaindian.com/newsportal/business/bangladesh-to-continue-indefinitely-with-advanced-time_100259987.html
ca05ab86 202
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203# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-12-24):
204# According to Bangladesh newspaper "The Daily Star,"
205# Bangladesh will change its clock back to Standard Time on Dec 31, 2009.
206#
207# Clock goes back 1-hr on Dec 31 night.
3c502036 208# http://www.thedailystar.net/newDesign/news-details.php?nid=119228
3c502036 209# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_bangladesh05.html
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210#
211# "...The government yesterday decided to put the clock back by one hour
212# on December 31 midnight and the new time will continue until March 31,
213# 2010 midnight. The decision came at a cabinet meeting at the Prime
214# Minister's Office last night..."
215
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216# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2010-03-22):
217# According to Bangladesh newspaper "The Daily Star,"
218# Cabinet cancels Daylight Saving Time
63c2ac5e 219# http://www.thedailystar.net/newDesign/latest_news.php?nid=22817
63c2ac5e 220# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_bangladesh06.html
5a0c5ddc 221
3c502036 222# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
ea962814 223Rule Dhaka 2009 only - Jun 19 23:00 1:00 S
48afb8ac 224Rule Dhaka 2009 only - Dec 31 24:00 0 -
3c502036 225
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226# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
227Zone Asia/Dhaka 6:01:40 - LMT 1890
228 5:53:20 - HMT 1941 Oct # Howrah Mean Time?
229 6:30 - BURT 1942 May 15 # Burma Time
230 5:30 - IST 1942 Sep
231 6:30 - BURT 1951 Sep 30
232 6:00 - DACT 1971 Mar 26 # Dacca Time
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233 6:00 - BDT 2009
234 6:00 Dhaka BD%sT
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235
236# Bhutan
237# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
238Zone Asia/Thimphu 5:58:36 - LMT 1947 Aug 15 # or Thimbu
239 5:30 - IST 1987 Oct
240 6:00 - BTT # Bhutan Time
241
242# British Indian Ocean Territory
243# Whitman and the 1995 CIA time zone map say 5:00, but the
244# 1997 and later maps say 6:00. Assume the switch occurred in 1996.
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245# We have no information as to when standard time was introduced;
246# assume it occurred in 1907, the same year as Mauritius (which
247# then contained the Chagos Archipelago).
984263bc 248# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
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249Zone Indian/Chagos 4:49:40 - LMT 1907
250 5:00 - IOT 1996 # BIOT Time
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251 6:00 - IOT
252
253# Brunei
254# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
48afb8ac 255Zone Asia/Brunei 7:39:40 - LMT 1926 Mar # Bandar Seri Begawan
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256 7:30 - BNT 1933
257 8:00 - BNT
258
259# Burma / Myanmar
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260
261# Milne says 6:24:40 was the meridian of the time ball observatory at Rangoon.
262
984263bc 263# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
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264Zone Asia/Rangoon 6:24:40 - LMT 1880 # or Yangon
265 6:24:40 - RMT 1920 # Rangoon Mean Time?
266 6:30 - BURT 1942 May # Burma Time
267 9:00 - JST 1945 May 3
268 6:30 - MMT # Myanmar Time
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269
270# Cambodia
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271# See Asia/Bangkok.
272
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273
274# China
275
276# From Guy Harris:
277# People's Republic of China. Yes, they really have only one time zone.
278
279# From Bob Devine (1988-01-28):
280# No they don't. See TIME mag, 1986-02-17 p.52. Even though
281# China is across 4 physical time zones, before Feb 1, 1986 only the
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282# Peking (Beijing) time zone was recognized. Since that date, China
283# has two of 'em - Peking's and Ürümqi (named after the capital of
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284# the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region). I don't know about DST for it.
285#
286# . . .I just deleted the DST table and this editor makes it too
48afb8ac 287# painful to suck in another copy. So, here is what I have for
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288# DST start/end dates for Peking's time zone (info from AP):
289#
290# 1986 May 4 - Sept 14
291# 1987 mid-April - ??
292
293# From U. S. Naval Observatory (1989-01-19):
294# CHINA 8 H AHEAD OF UTC ALL OF CHINA, INCL TAIWAN
295# CHINA 9 H AHEAD OF UTC APR 17 - SEP 10
296
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297# From Paul Eggert (2008-02-11):
298# Jim Mann, "A clumsy embrace for another western custom: China on daylight
299# time - sort of", Los Angeles Times, 1986-05-05 ... [says] that China began
300# observing daylight saving time in 1986.
984263bc 301
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302# From Paul Eggert (2014-06-30):
303# Shanks & Pottenger have China switching to a single time zone in 1980, but
304# this doesn't seem to be correct. They also write that China observed summer
305# DST from 1986 through 1991, which seems to match the above commentary, so
306# go with them for DST rules as follows:
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307# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
308Rule Shang 1940 only - Jun 3 0:00 1:00 D
309Rule Shang 1940 1941 - Oct 1 0:00 0 S
310Rule Shang 1941 only - Mar 16 0:00 1:00 D
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311Rule PRC 1986 only - May 4 0:00 1:00 D
312Rule PRC 1986 1991 - Sep Sun>=11 0:00 0 S
313Rule PRC 1987 1991 - Apr Sun>=10 0:00 1:00 D
bd7414aa 314
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315# From Anthony Fok (2001-12-20):
316# BTW, I did some research on-line and found some info regarding these five
317# historic timezones from some Taiwan websites. And yes, there are official
bd7414aa 318# Chinese names for these locales (before 1949).
8393cd87 319#
48afb8ac 320# From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2006-07-14):
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321# I have investigated the timezones around 1970 on the
322# http://www.astro.com/atlas site [with provinces and county
323# boundaries summarized below].... A few other exceptions were two
324# counties on the Sichuan side of the Xizang-Sichuan border,
325# counties Dege and Baiyu which lies on the Sichuan side and are
326# therefore supposed to be GMT+7, Xizang region being GMT+6, but Dege
327# county is GMT+8 according to astro.com while Baiyu county is GMT+6
328# (could be true), for the moment I am assuming that those two
329# counties are mistakes in the astro.com data.
330
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331# From Paul Eggert (2014-06-30):
332# Alois Treindl kindly sent me translations of the following two sources:
333#
334# (1)
335# Guo Qingsheng (National Time-Service Center, CAS, Xi'an 710600, China)
336# Beijing Time at the Beginning of the PRC
337# China Historical Materials of Science and Technology
338# (Zhongguo ke ji shi liao, 中国科技史料), Vol. 24, No. 1 (2003)
339# It gives evidence that at the beginning of the PRC, Beijing time was
340# officially apparent solar time! However, Guo also says that the
341# evidence is dubious, as the relevant institute of astronomy had not
342# been taken over by the PRC yet. It's plausible that apparent solar
343# time was announced but never implemented, and that people continued
344# to use UT+8. As the Shanghai radio station (and I presume the
345# observatory) was still under control of French missionaries, it
346# could well have ignored any such mandate.
347#
348# (2)
349# Guo Qing-sheng (Shaanxi Astronomical Observatory, CAS, Xi'an 710600, China)
350# A Study on the Standard Time Changes for the Past 100 Years in China
351# [undated and unknown publication location]
352# It says several things:
353# * The Qing dynasty used local apparent solar time throughout China.
354# * The Republic of China instituted Beijing mean solar time effective
355# the official calendar book of 1914.
356# * The French Concession in Shanghai set up signal stations in
357# French docks in the 1890s, controlled by Xujiahui (Zikawei)
358# Observatory and set to local mean time.
359# * "From the end of the 19th century" it changed to UT+8.
360# * Chinese Customs (by then reduced to a tool of foreign powers)
361# eventually standardized on this time for all ports, and it
362# became used by railways as well.
363# * In 1918 the Central Observatory proposed dividing China into
364# five time zones (see below for details). This caught on
365# at first only in coastal areas observing UT+8.
366# * During WWII all of China was in theory was at UT+7. In practice
367# this was ignored in the west, and I presume was ignored in
368# Japanese-occupied territory.
369# * Japanese-occupied Manchuria was at UT+9, i.e., Japan time.
370# * The five-zone plan was resurrected after WWII and officially put into
371# place (with some modifications) in March 1948. It's not clear
372# how well it was observed in areas under Nationalist control.
373# * The People's Liberation Army used UT+8 during the civil war.
374#
375# An AP article "Shanghai Internat'l Area Little Changed" in the
376# Lewiston (ME) Daily Sun (1939-05-29), p 17, said "Even the time is
377# different - the occupied districts going by Tokyo time, an hour
378# ahead of that prevailing in the rest of Shanghai." Guess that the
379# Xujiahui Observatory was under French control and stuck with UT+8.
380#
381# In earlier versions of this file, China had many separate Zone entries, but
382# this was based on what were apparently incorrect data in Shanks & Pottenger.
383# This has now been simplified to the two entries Asia/Shanghai and
384# Asia/Urumqi, with the others being links for backward compatibility.
385# Proposed in 1918 and theoretically in effect until 1949 (although in practice
386# mainly observed in coastal areas), the five zones were:
387#
388# Changbai Time ("Long-white Time", Long-white = Heilongjiang area) UT+8.5
389# Asia/Harbin (currently a link to Asia/Shanghai)
bd7414aa 390# Heilongjiang (except Mohe county), Jilin
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391#
392# Zhongyuan Time ("Central plain Time") UT+8
393# Asia/Shanghai
bd7414aa 394# most of China
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395# This currently represents most other zones as well,
396# as apparently these regions have been the same since 1970.
397# Milne gives 8:05:43.2 for Xujiahui Observatory time; round to nearest.
398# Guo says Shanghai switched to UT+8 "from the end of the 19th century".
399#
400# Long-shu Time (probably due to Long and Shu being two names of that area) UT+7
401# Asia/Chongqing (currently a link to Asia/Shanghai)
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402# Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Ningxia, Sichuan, Shaanxi, and Yunnan;
403# most of Gansu; west Inner Mongolia; west Qinghai; and the Guangdong
404# counties Deqing, Enping, Kaiping, Luoding, Taishan, Xinxing,
405# Yangchun, Yangjiang, Yu'nan, and Yunfu.
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406#
407# Xin-zang Time ("Xinjiang-Tibet Time") UT+6
408# Asia/Urumqi
409# This currently represents Kunlun Time as well,
410# as apparently the two regions have been the same since 1970.
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411# The Gansu counties Aksay, Anxi, Dunhuang, Subei; west Qinghai;
412# the Guangdong counties Xuwen, Haikang, Suixi, Lianjiang,
413# Zhanjiang, Wuchuan, Huazhou, Gaozhou, Maoming, Dianbai, and Xinyi;
414# east Tibet, including Lhasa, Chamdo, Shigaise, Jimsar, Shawan and Hutubi;
48afb8ac 415# east Xinjiang, including Ürümqi, Turpan, Karamay, Korla, Minfeng, Jinghe,
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416# Wusu, Qiemo, Xinyan, Wulanwusu, Jinghe, Yumin, Tacheng, Tuoli, Emin,
417# Shihezi, Changji, Yanqi, Heshuo, Tuokexun, Tulufan, Shanshan, Hami,
418# Fukang, Kuitun, Kumukuli, Miquan, Qitai, and Turfan.
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419#
420# Kunlun Time UT+5.5
421# Asia/Kashgar (currently a link to Asia/Urumqi)
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422# West Tibet, including Pulan, Aheqi, Shufu, Shule;
423# West Xinjiang, including Aksu, Atushi, Yining, Hetian, Cele, Luopu, Nileke,
424# Zhaosu, Tekesi, Gongliu, Chabuchaer, Huocheng, Bole, Pishan, Suiding,
425# and Yarkand.
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426
427# From Luther Ma (2009-10-17):
428# Almost all (>99.9%) ethnic Chinese (properly ethnic Han) living in
429# Xinjiang use Chinese Standard Time. Some are aware of Xinjiang time,
430# but have no need of it. All planes, trains, and schools function on
431# what is called "Beijing time." When Han make an appointment in Chinese
432# they implicitly use Beijing time.
433#
434# On the other hand, ethnic Uyghurs, who make up about half the
435# population of Xinjiang, typically use "Xinjiang time" which is two
436# hours behind Beijing time, or UTC +0600. The government of the Xinjiang
437# Uyghur Autonomous Region, (XAUR, or just Xinjiang for short) as well as
48afb8ac 438# local governments such as the Ürümqi city government use both times in
757483ac 439# publications, referring to what is popularly called Xinjiang time as
48afb8ac 440# "Ürümqi time." When Uyghurs make an appointment in the Uyghur language
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441# they almost invariably use Xinjiang time.
442#
443# (Their ethnic Han compatriots would typically have no clue of its
444# widespread use, however, because so extremely few of them are fluent in
445# Uyghur, comparable to the number of Anglo-Americans fluent in Navajo.)
446#
447# (...As with the rest of China there was a brief interval ending in 1990
448# or 1991 when summer time was in use. The confusion was severe, with
449# the province not having dual times but four times in use at the same
450# time. Some areas remained on standard Xinjiang time or Beijing time and
451# others moving their clocks ahead.)
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452
453# From Luther Ma (2009-11-19):
454# With the risk of being redundant to previous answers these are the most common
455# English "transliterations" (w/o using non-English symbols):
456#
457# 1. Wulumuqi...
458# 2. Kashi...
459# 3. Urumqi...
460# 4. Kashgar...
461# ...
48afb8ac 462# 5. It seems that Uyghurs in Ürümqi has been using Xinjiang since at least the
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463# 1960's. I know of one Han, now over 50, who grew up in the surrounding
464# countryside and used Xinjiang time as a child.
465#
466# 6. Likewise for Kashgar and the rest of south Xinjiang I don't know of any
467# start date for Xinjiang time.
468#
469# Without having access to local historical records, nor the ability to legally
470# publish them, I would go with October 1, 1949, when Xinjiang became the Uyghur
471# Autonomous Region under the PRC. (Before that Uyghurs, of course, would also
472# not be using Beijing time, but some local time.)
473
48afb8ac
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474# From David Cochrane (2014-03-26):
475# Just a confirmation that Ürümqi time was implemented in Ürümqi on 1 Feb 1986:
476# http://content.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,960684,00.html
477
478# From Luther Ma (2014-04-22):
479# I have interviewed numerous people of various nationalities and from
480# different localities in Xinjiang and can confirm the information in Guo's
481# report regarding Xinjiang, as well as the Time article reference by David
482# Cochrane. Whether officially recognized or not (and both are officially
483# recognized), two separate times have been in use in Xinjiang since at least
484# the Cultural Revolution: Xinjiang Time (XJT), aka Ürümqi Time or local time;
485# and Beijing Time. There is no confusion in Xinjiang as to which name refers
486# to which time. Both are widely used in the province, although in some
487# population groups might be use one to the exclusion of the other. The only
488# problem is that computers and smart phones list Ürümqi (or Kashgar) as
489# having the same time as Beijing.
490
491# From Paul Eggert (2014-06-30):
492# In the early days of the PRC, Tibet was given its own time zone (UT+6) but
493# this was withdrawn in 1959 and never reinstated; see Tubten Khétsun,
494# Memories of life in Lhasa under Chinese Rule, Columbia U Press, ISBN
495# 978-0231142861 (2008), translator's introduction by Matthew Akester, p x.
496# As this is before our 1970 cutoff, Tibet doesn't need a separate zone.
497#
498# Xinjiang Time is well-documented as being officially recognized. E.g., see
499# "The Working-Calendar for The Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region Government"
500# <http://www.sinkiang.gov.cn/service/ourworking/> (2014-04-22).
501# Unfortunately, we have no good records of time in Xinjiang before 1986.
502# During the 20th century parts of Xinjiang were ruled by the Qing dynasty,
503# the Republic of China, various warlords, the First and Second East Turkestan
504# Republics, the Soviet Union, the Kuomintang, and the People's Republic of
505# China, and tracking down all these organizations' timekeeping rules would be
506# quite a trick. Approximate this lost history by a transition from LMT to
507# XJT at the start of 1928, the year of accession of the warlord Jin Shuren,
508# which happens to be the date given by Shanks & Pottenger (no doubt as a
509# guess) as the transition from LMT. Ignore the usage of UT+8 before
510# 1986-02-01 under the theory that the transition date to UT+8 is unknown and
511# that the sort of users who prefer Asia/Urumqi now typically ignored the
512# UT+8 mandate back then.
513
514# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
515# Beijing time, used throughout China; represented by Shanghai.
516Zone Asia/Shanghai 8:05:43 - LMT 1901
517 8:00 Shang C%sT 1949
984263bc 518 8:00 PRC C%sT
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519# Xinjiang time, used by many in western China; represented by Ürümqi / Ürümchi
520# / Wulumuqi. (Please use Asia/Shanghai if you prefer Beijing time.)
521Zone Asia/Urumqi 5:50:20 - LMT 1928
522 6:00 - XJT
984263bc 523
f4d6ca16 524
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525# Hong Kong (Xianggang)
526
527# Milne gives 7:36:41.7; round this.
528
f4d6ca16 529# From Lee Yiu Chung (2009-10-24):
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530# I found there are some mistakes for the...DST rule for Hong
531# Kong. [According] to the DST record from Hong Kong Observatory (actually,
f4d6ca16
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532# it is not [an] observatory, but the official meteorological agency of HK,
533# and also serves as the official timing agency), there are some missing
534# and incorrect rules. Although the exact switch over time is missing, I
535# think 3:30 is correct. The official DST record for Hong Kong can be
536# obtained from
f4d6ca16 537# http://www.hko.gov.hk/gts/time/Summertime.htm
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538
539# From Arthur David Olson (2009-10-28):
540# Here are the dates given at
f4d6ca16 541# http://www.hko.gov.hk/gts/time/Summertime.htm
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542# as of 2009-10-28:
543# Year Period
544# 1941 1 Apr to 30 Sep
545# 1942 Whole year
546# 1943 Whole year
547# 1944 Whole year
548# 1945 Whole year
549# 1946 20 Apr to 1 Dec
550# 1947 13 Apr to 30 Dec
551# 1948 2 May to 31 Oct
552# 1949 3 Apr to 30 Oct
553# 1950 2 Apr to 29 Oct
554# 1951 1 Apr to 28 Oct
555# 1952 6 Apr to 25 Oct
556# 1953 5 Apr to 1 Nov
557# 1954 21 Mar to 31 Oct
558# 1955 20 Mar to 6 Nov
559# 1956 18 Mar to 4 Nov
560# 1957 24 Mar to 3 Nov
561# 1958 23 Mar to 2 Nov
562# 1959 22 Mar to 1 Nov
563# 1960 20 Mar to 6 Nov
564# 1961 19 Mar to 5 Nov
565# 1962 18 Mar to 4 Nov
566# 1963 24 Mar to 3 Nov
567# 1964 22 Mar to 1 Nov
568# 1965 18 Apr to 17 Oct
569# 1966 17 Apr to 16 Oct
570# 1967 16 Apr to 22 Oct
571# 1968 21 Apr to 20 Oct
572# 1969 20 Apr to 19 Oct
573# 1970 19 Apr to 18 Oct
574# 1971 18 Apr to 17 Oct
575# 1972 16 Apr to 22 Oct
576# 1973 22 Apr to 21 Oct
577# 1973/74 30 Dec 73 to 20 Oct 74
578# 1975 20 Apr to 19 Oct
579# 1976 18 Apr to 17 Oct
580# 1977 Nil
581# 1978 Nil
582# 1979 13 May to 21 Oct
583# 1980 to Now Nil
584# The page does not give start or end times of day.
585# The page does not give a start date for 1942.
586# The page does not givw an end date for 1945.
587# The Japanese occupation of Hong Kong began on 1941-12-25.
588# The Japanese surrender of Hong Kong was signed 1945-09-15.
589# For lack of anything better, use start of those days as the transition times.
590
984263bc 591# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
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592Rule HK 1941 only - Apr 1 3:30 1:00 S
593Rule HK 1941 only - Sep 30 3:30 0 -
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594Rule HK 1946 only - Apr 20 3:30 1:00 S
595Rule HK 1946 only - Dec 1 3:30 0 -
596Rule HK 1947 only - Apr 13 3:30 1:00 S
597Rule HK 1947 only - Dec 30 3:30 0 -
598Rule HK 1948 only - May 2 3:30 1:00 S
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599Rule HK 1948 1951 - Oct lastSun 3:30 0 -
600Rule HK 1952 only - Oct 25 3:30 0 -
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601Rule HK 1949 1953 - Apr Sun>=1 3:30 1:00 S
602Rule HK 1953 only - Nov 1 3:30 0 -
603Rule HK 1954 1964 - Mar Sun>=18 3:30 1:00 S
604Rule HK 1954 only - Oct 31 3:30 0 -
605Rule HK 1955 1964 - Nov Sun>=1 3:30 0 -
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606Rule HK 1965 1976 - Apr Sun>=16 3:30 1:00 S
607Rule HK 1965 1976 - Oct Sun>=16 3:30 0 -
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608Rule HK 1973 only - Dec 30 3:30 1:00 S
609Rule HK 1979 only - May Sun>=8 3:30 1:00 S
610Rule HK 1979 only - Oct Sun>=16 3:30 0 -
984263bc 611# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
80e7e01d 612Zone Asia/Hong_Kong 7:36:42 - LMT 1904 Oct 30
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613 8:00 HK HK%sT 1941 Dec 25
614 9:00 - JST 1945 Sep 15
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615 8:00 HK HK%sT
616
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617###############################################################################
618
619# Taiwan
620
72a17f7b 621# From smallufo (2010-04-03):
48afb8ac 622# According to Taiwan's CWB [Central Weather Bureau],
72a17f7b 623# http://www.cwb.gov.tw/V6/astronomy/cdata/summert.htm
72a17f7b
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624# Taipei has DST in 1979 between July 1st and Sep 30.
625
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626# From Yu-Cheng Chuang (2013-07-12):
627# On Dec 28, 1895, the Meiji Emperor announced Ordinance No. 167 of
628# Meiji Year 28 "The clause about standard time", mentioned that
629# Taiwan and Penghu Islands, as well as Yaeyama and Miyako Islands
630# (both in Okinawa) adopt the Western Standard Time which is based on
631# 120E. The adoption began from Jan 1, 1896. The original text can be
632# found on Wikisource:
633# http://ja.wikisource.org/wiki/標準時ニ關スル件_(公布時)
634# ... This could be the first adoption of time zone in Taiwan, because
635# during the Qing Dynasty, it seems that there was no time zone
636# declared officially.
637#
638# Later, in the beginning of World War II, on Sep 25, 1937, the Showa
639# Emperor announced Ordinance No. 529 of Showa Year 12 "The clause of
640# revision in the ordinance No. 167 of Meiji year 28 about standard
641# time", in which abolished the adoption of Western Standard Time in
642# western islands (listed above), which means the whole Japan
643# territory, including later occupations, adopt Japan Central Time
644# (UTC+9). The adoption began on Oct 1, 1937. The original text can
645# be found on Wikisource:
646# http://ja.wikisource.org/wiki/明治二十八年勅令第百六十七號標準時ニ關スル件中改正ノ件
647#
648# That is, the time zone of Taipei switched to UTC+9 on Oct 1, 1937.
649
650# From Yu-Cheng Chuang (2014-07-02):
651# I've found more evidence about when the time zone was switched from UTC+9
652# back to UTC+8 after WW2. I believe it was on Sep 21, 1945. In a document
653# during Japanese era [1] in which the officer told the staff to change time
654# zone back to Western Standard Time (UTC+8) on Sep 21. And in another
655# history page of National Cheng Kung University [2], on Sep 21 there is a
656# note "from today, switch back to Western Standard Time". From these two
657# materials, I believe that the time zone change happened on Sep 21. And
658# today I have found another monthly journal called "The Astronomical Herald"
659# from The Astronomical Society of Japan [3] in which it mentioned the fact
660# that:
661#
662# 1. Standard Time of the Country (Japan) was adopted on Jan 1, 1888, using
663# the time at 135E (GMT+9)
664#
665# 2. Standard Time of the Country was renamed to Central Standard Time, on Jan
666# 1, 1898, and on the same day, the new territories Taiwan and Penghu islands,
667# as well as Yaeyama and Miyako islands, adopted a new time zone called
668# Western Standard Time, which is in GMT+8.
669#
670# 3. Western Standard Time was deprecated on Sep 30, 1937. From then all the
671# territories of Japan adopted the same time zone, which is Central Standard
672# Time.
673#
674# [1] Academica Historica, Taiwan:
675# http://163.29.208.22:8080/govsaleShowImage/connect_img.php?s=00101738900090036&e=00101738900090037
676# [2] Nat'l Cheng Kung University 70th Anniversary Special Site:
677# http://www.ncku.edu.tw/~ncku70/menu/001/01_01.htm
678# [3] Yukio Niimi, The Standard Time in Japan (1997), p.475:
679# http://www.asj.or.jp/geppou/archive_open/1997/pdf/19971001c.pdf
680
681# Yu-Cheng Chuang (2014-07-03):
682# I finally have found the real official gazette about changing back to
683# Western Standard Time on Sep 21 in Taiwan. It's Taiwan Governor-General
684# Bulletin No. 386 in Showa 20 years (1945), published on Sep 19, 1945. [1] ...
685# [It] abolishes Bulletin No. 207 in Showa 12 years (1937), which is a local
686# bulletin in Taiwan for that Ordinance No. 529. It also mentioned that 1am on
687# Sep 21, 1945 will be 12am on Sep 21. I think this bulletin is much more
688# official than the one I mentioned in my first mail, because it's from the
689# top-level government in Taiwan. If you're going to quote any resource, this
690# would be a good one.
691# [1] Taiwan Governor-General Gazette, No. 1018, Sep 19, 1945:
692# http://db2.th.gov.tw/db2/view/viewImg.php?imgcode=0072031018a&num=19&bgn=019&end=019&otherImg=&type=gener
693
694# From Yu-Cheng Chuang (2014-07-02):
695# In 1946, DST in Taiwan was from May 15 and ended on Sep 30. The info from
696# Central Weather Bureau website was not correct.
697#
698# Original Bulletin:
699# http://subtpg.tpg.gov.tw/og/image2.asp?f=03502F0AKM1AF
700# http://subtpg.tpg.gov.tw/og/image2.asp?f=0350300AKM1B0 (cont.)
701#
702# In 1947, DST in Taiwan was expanded to Oct 31. There is a backup of that
703# telegram announcement from Taiwan Province Government:
704#
705# http://subtpg.tpg.gov.tw/og/image2.asp?f=0360310AKZ431
706#
707# Here is a brief translation:
708#
709# The Summer Time this year is adopted from midnight Apr 15 until Sep 20
710# midnight. To save (energy?) consumption, we're expanding Summer Time
711# adoption till Oct 31 midnight.
712#
713# The Central Weather Bureau website didn't mention that, however it can
714# be found from historical government announcement database.
715
716# From Paul Eggert (2014-07-03):
717# As per Yu-Cheng Chuang, say that Taiwan was at UT+9 from 1937-10-01
718# until 1945-09-21 at 01:00, overriding Shanks & Pottenger.
719# Likewise, use Yu-Cheng Chuang's data for DST in Taiwan.
72a17f7b 720
984263bc 721# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
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722Rule Taiwan 1946 only - May 15 0:00 1:00 D
723Rule Taiwan 1946 only - Oct 1 0:00 0 S
724Rule Taiwan 1947 only - Apr 15 0:00 1:00 D
725Rule Taiwan 1947 only - Nov 1 0:00 0 S
726Rule Taiwan 1948 1951 - May 1 0:00 1:00 D
727Rule Taiwan 1948 1951 - Oct 1 0:00 0 S
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728Rule Taiwan 1952 only - Mar 1 0:00 1:00 D
729Rule Taiwan 1952 1954 - Nov 1 0:00 0 S
730Rule Taiwan 1953 1959 - Apr 1 0:00 1:00 D
731Rule Taiwan 1955 1961 - Oct 1 0:00 0 S
732Rule Taiwan 1960 1961 - Jun 1 0:00 1:00 D
733Rule Taiwan 1974 1975 - Apr 1 0:00 1:00 D
734Rule Taiwan 1974 1975 - Oct 1 0:00 0 S
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735Rule Taiwan 1979 only - Jul 1 0:00 1:00 D
736Rule Taiwan 1979 only - Oct 1 0:00 0 S
72a17f7b 737
984263bc 738# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
48afb8ac
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739# Taipei or Taibei or T'ai-pei
740Zone Asia/Taipei 8:06:00 - LMT 1896 Jan 1
741 8:00 - JWST 1937 Oct 1
742 9:00 - JST 1945 Sep 21 1:00
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743 8:00 Taiwan C%sT
744
745# Macau (Macao, Aomen)
746# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
747Rule Macau 1961 1962 - Mar Sun>=16 3:30 1:00 S
748Rule Macau 1961 1964 - Nov Sun>=1 3:30 0 -
749Rule Macau 1963 only - Mar Sun>=16 0:00 1:00 S
750Rule Macau 1964 only - Mar Sun>=16 3:30 1:00 S
751Rule Macau 1965 only - Mar Sun>=16 0:00 1:00 S
752Rule Macau 1965 only - Oct 31 0:00 0 -
753Rule Macau 1966 1971 - Apr Sun>=16 3:30 1:00 S
754Rule Macau 1966 1971 - Oct Sun>=16 3:30 0 -
755Rule Macau 1972 1974 - Apr Sun>=15 0:00 1:00 S
756Rule Macau 1972 1973 - Oct Sun>=15 0:00 0 -
757Rule Macau 1974 1977 - Oct Sun>=15 3:30 0 -
758Rule Macau 1975 1977 - Apr Sun>=15 3:30 1:00 S
759Rule Macau 1978 1980 - Apr Sun>=15 0:00 1:00 S
760Rule Macau 1978 1980 - Oct Sun>=15 0:00 0 -
761# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
48afb8ac 762Zone Asia/Macau 7:34:20 - LMT 1912 Jan 1
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763 8:00 Macau MO%sT 1999 Dec 20 # return to China
764 8:00 PRC C%sT
765
766
767###############################################################################
768
769# Cyprus
80e7e01d
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770#
771# Milne says the Eastern Telegraph Company used 2:14:00. Stick with LMT.
772#
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773# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
774Rule Cyprus 1975 only - Apr 13 0:00 1:00 S
775Rule Cyprus 1975 only - Oct 12 0:00 0 -
776Rule Cyprus 1976 only - May 15 0:00 1:00 S
777Rule Cyprus 1976 only - Oct 11 0:00 0 -
778Rule Cyprus 1977 1980 - Apr Sun>=1 0:00 1:00 S
779Rule Cyprus 1977 only - Sep 25 0:00 0 -
780Rule Cyprus 1978 only - Oct 2 0:00 0 -
781Rule Cyprus 1979 1997 - Sep lastSun 0:00 0 -
782Rule Cyprus 1981 1998 - Mar lastSun 0:00 1:00 S
783# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
784Zone Asia/Nicosia 2:13:28 - LMT 1921 Nov 14
785 2:00 Cyprus EE%sT 1998 Sep
786 2:00 EUAsia EE%sT
787# IATA SSIM (1998-09) has Cyprus using EU rules for the first time.
788
789# Classically, Cyprus belongs to Asia; e.g. see Herodotus, Histories, I.72.
790# However, for various reasons many users expect to find it under Europe.
791Link Asia/Nicosia Europe/Nicosia
792
793# Georgia
9ffe4b14 794# From Paul Eggert (1994-11-19):
984263bc
MD
795# Today's _Economist_ (p 60) reports that Georgia moved its clocks forward
796# an hour recently, due to a law proposed by Zurab Murvanidze,
797# an MP who went on a hunger strike for 11 days to force discussion about it!
798# We have no details, but we'll guess they didn't move the clocks back in fall.
799#
9ffe4b14 800# From Mathew Englander, quoting AP (1996-10-23 13:05-04):
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801# Instead of putting back clocks at the end of October, Georgia
802# will stay on daylight savings time this winter to save energy,
803# President Eduard Shevardnadze decreed Wednesday.
ba5ba9da
JR
804#
805# From the BBC via Joseph S. Myers (2004-06-27):
bc95ec93 806#
ba5ba9da
JR
807# Georgia moved closer to Western Europe on Sunday... The former Soviet
808# republic has changed its time zone back to that of Moscow. As a result it
809# is now just four hours ahead of Greenwich Mean Time, rather than five hours
810# ahead. The switch was decreed by the pro-Western president of Georgia,
48afb8ac 811# Mikheil Saakashvili, who said the change was partly prompted by the process
ba5ba9da
JR
812# of integration into Europe.
813
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814# From Teimuraz Abashidze (2005-11-07):
815# Government of Georgia ... decided to NOT CHANGE daylight savings time on
816# [Oct.] 30, as it was done before during last more than 10 years.
817# Currently, we are in fact GMT +4:00, as before 30 October it was GMT
818# +3:00.... The problem is, there is NO FORMAL LAW or governmental document
819# about it. As far as I can find, I was told, that there is no document,
820# because we just DIDN'T ISSUE document about switching to winter time....
821# I don't know what can be done, especially knowing that some years ago our
822# DST rules where changed THREE TIMES during one month.
823
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824# Milne 1899 says Tbilisi (Tiflis) time was 2:59:05.7.
825# Byalokoz 1919 says Georgia was 2:59:11.
826# Go with Byalokoz.
aa65d21a 827
984263bc 828# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
48afb8ac
SW
829Zone Asia/Tbilisi 2:59:11 - LMT 1880
830 2:59:11 - TBMT 1924 May 2 # Tbilisi Mean Time
984263bc 831 3:00 - TBIT 1957 Mar # Tbilisi Time
48afb8ac 832 4:00 RussiaAsia TBI%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
984263bc 833 3:00 1:00 TBIST 1991 Apr 9 # independence
48afb8ac 834 3:00 RussiaAsia GE%sT 1992 # Georgia Time
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835 3:00 E-EurAsia GE%sT 1994 Sep lastSun
836 4:00 E-EurAsia GE%sT 1996 Oct lastSun
837 4:00 1:00 GEST 1997 Mar lastSun
ba5ba9da 838 4:00 E-EurAsia GE%sT 2004 Jun 27
48afb8ac 839 3:00 RussiaAsia GE%sT 2005 Mar lastSun 2:00
aa65d21a 840 4:00 - GET
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841
842# East Timor
843
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844# See Indonesia for the 1945 transition.
845
48afb8ac 846# From João Carrascalão, brother of the former governor of East Timor, in
984263bc 847# East Timor may be late for its millennium
48afb8ac 848# <http://etan.org/et99c/december/26-31/30ETMAY.htm> (1999-12-26/31):
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849# Portugal tried to change the time forward in 1974 because the sun
850# rises too early but the suggestion raised a lot of problems with the
851# Timorese and I still don't think it would work today because it
852# conflicts with their way of life.
853
854# From Paul Eggert (2000-12-04):
855# We don't have any record of the above attempt.
856# Most likely our records are incomplete, but we have no better data.
857
984263bc 858# From Manoel de Almeida e Silva, Deputy Spokesman for the UN Secretary-General
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859# http://www.hri.org/news/world/undh/2000/00-08-16.undh.html
860# (2000-08-16):
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861# The Cabinet of the East Timor Transition Administration decided
862# today to advance East Timor's time by one hour. The time change,
863# which will be permanent, with no seasonal adjustment, will happen at
864# midnight on Saturday, September 16.
865
866# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
48afb8ac 867Zone Asia/Dili 8:22:20 - LMT 1912 Jan 1
9ffe4b14 868 8:00 - TLT 1942 Feb 21 23:00 # E Timor Time
8393cd87 869 9:00 - JST 1945 Sep 23
9ffe4b14 870 9:00 - TLT 1976 May 3
48afb8ac 871 8:00 - WITA 2000 Sep 17 0:00
9ffe4b14 872 9:00 - TLT
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873
874# India
875# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
48afb8ac 876Zone Asia/Kolkata 5:53:28 - LMT 1880 # Kolkata
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877 5:53:20 - HMT 1941 Oct # Howrah Mean Time?
878 6:30 - BURT 1942 May 15 # Burma Time
879 5:30 - IST 1942 Sep
880 5:30 1:00 IST 1945 Oct 15
881 5:30 - IST
e4a74243 882# The following are like Asia/Kolkata:
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883# Andaman Is
884# Lakshadweep (Laccadive, Minicoy and Amindivi Is)
885# Nicobar Is
886
887# Indonesia
888#
48afb8ac
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889# From Paul Eggert (2014-09-06):
890# The 1876 Report of the Secretary of the [US] Navy, p 306 says that Batavia
891# civil time was 7:07:12.5; round to even for Jakarta.
892#
bd7414aa 893# From Gwillim Law (2001-05-28), overriding Shanks & Pottenger:
48afb8ac 894# http://www.sumatera-inc.com/go_to_invest/about_indonesia.asp#standtime
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895# says that Indonesia's time zones changed on 1988-01-01. Looking at some
896# time zone maps, I think that must refer to Western Borneo (Kalimantan Barat
897# and Kalimantan Tengah) switching from UTC+8 to UTC+7.
898#
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899# From Paul Eggert (2007-03-10):
900# Here is another correction to Shanks & Pottenger.
901# JohnTWB writes that Japanese forces did not surrender control in
902# Indonesia until 1945-09-01 00:00 at the earliest (in Jakarta) and
903# other formal surrender ceremonies were September 9, 11, and 13, plus
904# September 12 for the regional surrender to Mountbatten in Singapore.
905# These would be the earliest possible times for a change.
48afb8ac 906# Régimes horaires pour le monde entier, by Henri Le Corre, (Éditions
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907# Traditionnelles, 1987, Paris) says that Java and Madura switched
908# from JST to UTC+07:30 on 1945-09-23, and gives 1944-09-01 for Jayapura
909# (Hollandia). For now, assume all Indonesian locations other than Jayapura
910# switched on 1945-09-23.
911#
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912# From Paul Eggert (2013-08-11):
913# Normally the tz database uses English-language abbreviations, but in
914# Indonesia it's typical to use Indonesian-language abbreviations even
915# when writing in English. For example, see the English-language
916# summary published by the Time and Frequency Laboratory of the
917# Research Center for Calibration, Instrumentation and Metrology,
918# Indonesia, <http://time.kim.lipi.go.id/time-eng.php> (2006-09-29).
919# The abbreviations are:
920#
921# WIB - UTC+7 - Waktu Indonesia Barat (Indonesia western time)
922# WITA - UTC+8 - Waktu Indonesia Tengah (Indonesia central time)
923# WIT - UTC+9 - Waktu Indonesia Timur (Indonesia eastern time)
924#
984263bc 925# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
d1bcb6be 926# Java, Sumatra
984263bc 927Zone Asia/Jakarta 7:07:12 - LMT 1867 Aug 10
bd7414aa 928# Shanks & Pottenger say the next transition was at 1924 Jan 1 0:13,
984263bc 929# but this must be a typo.
d1bcb6be 930 7:07:12 - BMT 1923 Dec 31 23:47:12 # Batavia
48afb8ac 931 7:20 - JAVT 1932 Nov # Java Time
d1bcb6be 932 7:30 - WIB 1942 Mar 23
8393cd87 933 9:00 - JST 1945 Sep 23
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934 7:30 - WIB 1948 May
935 8:00 - WIB 1950 May
936 7:30 - WIB 1964
937 7:00 - WIB
938# west and central Borneo
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MD
939Zone Asia/Pontianak 7:17:20 - LMT 1908 May
940 7:17:20 - PMT 1932 Nov # Pontianak MT
d1bcb6be 941 7:30 - WIB 1942 Jan 29
8393cd87 942 9:00 - JST 1945 Sep 23
d1bcb6be
SW
943 7:30 - WIB 1948 May
944 8:00 - WIB 1950 May
945 7:30 - WIB 1964
946 8:00 - WITA 1988 Jan 1
947 7:00 - WIB
948# Sulawesi, Lesser Sundas, east and south Borneo
984263bc
MD
949Zone Asia/Makassar 7:57:36 - LMT 1920
950 7:57:36 - MMT 1932 Nov # Macassar MT
d1bcb6be 951 8:00 - WITA 1942 Feb 9
8393cd87 952 9:00 - JST 1945 Sep 23
d1bcb6be
SW
953 8:00 - WITA
954# Maluku Islands, West Papua, Papua
984263bc 955Zone Asia/Jayapura 9:22:48 - LMT 1932 Nov
d1bcb6be 956 9:00 - WIT 1944 Sep 1
48afb8ac 957 9:30 - ACST 1964
d1bcb6be 958 9:00 - WIT
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959
960# Iran
961
962# From Roozbeh Pournader (2003-03-15):
963# This is an English translation of what I just found (originally in Persian).
964# The Gregorian dates in brackets are mine:
965#
966# Official Newspaper No. 13548-1370/6/25 [1991-09-16]
967# No. 16760/T233 H 1370/6/10 [1991-09-01]
968#
969# The Rule About Change of the Official Time of the Country
970#
971# The Board of Ministers, in the meeting dated 1370/5/23 [1991-08-14],
972# based on the suggestion number 2221/D dated 1370/4/22 [1991-07-13]
973# of the Country's Organization for Official and Employment Affairs,
974# and referring to the law for equating the working hours of workers
975# and officers in the whole country dated 1359/4/23 [1980-07-14], and
976# for synchronizing the official times of the country, agreed that:
977#
978# The official time of the country will should move forward one hour
979# at the 24[:00] hours of the first day of Farvardin and should return
980# to its previous state at the 24[:00] hours of the 30th day of
981# Shahrivar.
982#
983# First Deputy to the President - Hassan Habibi
984#
985# From personal experience, that agrees with what has been followed
986# for at least the last 5 years. Before that, for a few years, the
987# date used was the first Thursday night of Farvardin and the last
988# Thursday night of Shahrivar, but I can't give exact dates....
989# I have also changed the abbreviations to what is considered correct
990# here in Iran, IRST for regular time and IRDT for daylight saving time.
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991#
992# From Roozbeh Pournader (2005-04-05):
993# The text of the Iranian law, in effect since 1925, clearly mentions
994# that the true solar year is the measure, and there is no arithmetic
995# leap year calculation involved. There has never been any serious
996# plan to change that law....
997#
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998# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
999# Go with Shanks & Pottenger before Sept. 1991, and with Pournader thereafter.
bc95ec93
SW
1000# I used Ed Reingold's cal-persia in GNU Emacs 21.2 to check Persian dates,
1001# stopping after 2037 when 32-bit time_t's overflow.
1002# That cal-persia used Birashk's approximation, which disagrees with the solar
1003# calendar predictions for the year 2025, so I corrected those dates by hand.
1004#
1005# From Oscar van Vlijmen (2005-03-30), writing about future
1006# discrepancies between cal-persia and the Iranian calendar:
1007# For 2091 solar-longitude-after yields 2091-03-20 08:40:07.7 UT for
1008# the vernal equinox and that gets so close to 12:00 some local
1009# Iranian time that the definition of the correct location needs to be
1010# known exactly, amongst other factors. 2157 is even closer:
1011# 2157-03-20 08:37:15.5 UT. But the Gregorian year 2025 should give
1012# no interpretation problem whatsoever. By the way, another instant
1013# in the near future where there will be a discrepancy between
1014# arithmetical and astronomical Iranian calendars will be in 2058:
1015# vernal equinox on 2058-03-20 09:03:05.9 UT. The Java version of
1016# Reingold's/Dershowitz' calculator gives correctly the Gregorian date
1017# 2058-03-21 for 1 Farvardin 1437 (astronomical).
984263bc 1018#
bd7414aa
SW
1019# From Steffen Thorsen (2006-03-22):
1020# Several of my users have reported that Iran will not observe DST anymore:
1021# http://www.irna.ir/en/news/view/line-17/0603193812164948.htm
1022#
48afb8ac 1023# From Reuters (2007-09-16), with a heads-up from Jesper Nørgaard Welen:
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SW
1024# ... the Guardian Council ... approved a law on Sunday to re-introduce
1025# daylight saving time ...
1026# http://uk.reuters.com/article/oilRpt/idUKBLA65048420070916
1027#
9d5f55b0
SW
1028# From Roozbeh Pournader (2007-11-05):
1029# This is quoted from Official Gazette of the Islamic Republic of
1030# Iran, Volume 63, Number 18242, dated Tuesday 1386/6/24
1031# [2007-10-16]. I am doing the best translation I can:...
1032# The official time of the country will be moved forward for one hour
1033# on the 24 hours of the first day of the month of Farvardin and will
1034# be changed back to its previous state on the 24 hours of the
1035# thirtieth day of Shahrivar.
1036#
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MD
1037# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
1038Rule Iran 1978 1980 - Mar 21 0:00 1:00 D
1039Rule Iran 1978 only - Oct 21 0:00 0 S
1040Rule Iran 1979 only - Sep 19 0:00 0 S
1041Rule Iran 1980 only - Sep 23 0:00 0 S
1042Rule Iran 1991 only - May 3 0:00 1:00 D
1043Rule Iran 1992 1995 - Mar 22 0:00 1:00 D
1044Rule Iran 1991 1995 - Sep 22 0:00 0 S
1045Rule Iran 1996 only - Mar 21 0:00 1:00 D
1046Rule Iran 1996 only - Sep 21 0:00 0 S
1047Rule Iran 1997 1999 - Mar 22 0:00 1:00 D
1048Rule Iran 1997 1999 - Sep 22 0:00 0 S
1049Rule Iran 2000 only - Mar 21 0:00 1:00 D
1050Rule Iran 2000 only - Sep 21 0:00 0 S
1051Rule Iran 2001 2003 - Mar 22 0:00 1:00 D
1052Rule Iran 2001 2003 - Sep 22 0:00 0 S
1053Rule Iran 2004 only - Mar 21 0:00 1:00 D
1054Rule Iran 2004 only - Sep 21 0:00 0 S
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SW
1055Rule Iran 2005 only - Mar 22 0:00 1:00 D
1056Rule Iran 2005 only - Sep 22 0:00 0 S
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SW
1057Rule Iran 2008 only - Mar 21 0:00 1:00 D
1058Rule Iran 2008 only - Sep 21 0:00 0 S
1059Rule Iran 2009 2011 - Mar 22 0:00 1:00 D
1060Rule Iran 2009 2011 - Sep 22 0:00 0 S
1061Rule Iran 2012 only - Mar 21 0:00 1:00 D
1062Rule Iran 2012 only - Sep 21 0:00 0 S
1063Rule Iran 2013 2015 - Mar 22 0:00 1:00 D
1064Rule Iran 2013 2015 - Sep 22 0:00 0 S
1065Rule Iran 2016 only - Mar 21 0:00 1:00 D
1066Rule Iran 2016 only - Sep 21 0:00 0 S
1067Rule Iran 2017 2019 - Mar 22 0:00 1:00 D
1068Rule Iran 2017 2019 - Sep 22 0:00 0 S
1069Rule Iran 2020 only - Mar 21 0:00 1:00 D
1070Rule Iran 2020 only - Sep 21 0:00 0 S
1071Rule Iran 2021 2023 - Mar 22 0:00 1:00 D
1072Rule Iran 2021 2023 - Sep 22 0:00 0 S
1073Rule Iran 2024 only - Mar 21 0:00 1:00 D
1074Rule Iran 2024 only - Sep 21 0:00 0 S
1075Rule Iran 2025 2027 - Mar 22 0:00 1:00 D
1076Rule Iran 2025 2027 - Sep 22 0:00 0 S
1077Rule Iran 2028 2029 - Mar 21 0:00 1:00 D
1078Rule Iran 2028 2029 - Sep 21 0:00 0 S
1079Rule Iran 2030 2031 - Mar 22 0:00 1:00 D
1080Rule Iran 2030 2031 - Sep 22 0:00 0 S
1081Rule Iran 2032 2033 - Mar 21 0:00 1:00 D
1082Rule Iran 2032 2033 - Sep 21 0:00 0 S
1083Rule Iran 2034 2035 - Mar 22 0:00 1:00 D
1084Rule Iran 2034 2035 - Sep 22 0:00 0 S
1085Rule Iran 2036 2037 - Mar 21 0:00 1:00 D
1086Rule Iran 2036 2037 - Sep 21 0:00 0 S
984263bc
MD
1087# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
1088Zone Asia/Tehran 3:25:44 - LMT 1916
48afb8ac 1089 3:25:44 - TMT 1946 # Tehran Mean Time
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MD
1090 3:30 - IRST 1977 Nov
1091 4:00 Iran IR%sT 1979
1092 3:30 Iran IR%sT
1093
1094
1095# Iraq
1096#
9ffe4b14 1097# From Jonathan Lennox (2000-06-12):
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MD
1098# An article in this week's Economist ("Inside the Saddam-free zone", p. 50 in
1099# the U.S. edition) on the Iraqi Kurds contains a paragraph:
1100# "The three northern provinces ... switched their clocks this spring and
1101# are an hour ahead of Baghdad."
1102#
1103# But Rives McDow (2000-06-18) quotes a contact in Iraqi-Kurdistan as follows:
1104# In the past, some Kurdish nationalists, as a protest to the Iraqi
1105# Government, did not adhere to daylight saving time. They referred
1106# to daylight saving as Saddam time. But, as of today, the time zone
1107# in Iraqi-Kurdistan is on standard time with Baghdad, Iraq.
1108#
1109# So we'll ignore the Economist's claim.
1110
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SW
1111# From Steffen Thorsen (2008-03-10):
1112# The cabinet in Iraq abolished DST last week, according to the following
1113# news sources (in Arabic):
e4a74243 1114# http://www.aljeeran.net/wesima_articles/news-20080305-98602.html
e4a74243 1115# http://www.aswataliraq.info/look/article.tpl?id=2047&IdLanguage=17&IdPublication=4&NrArticle=71743&NrIssue=1&NrSection=10
e4a74243
SW
1116#
1117# We have published a short article in English about the change:
e4a74243 1118# http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/iraq-dumps-daylight-saving.html
e4a74243 1119
984263bc
MD
1120# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
1121Rule Iraq 1982 only - May 1 0:00 1:00 D
1122Rule Iraq 1982 1984 - Oct 1 0:00 0 S
1123Rule Iraq 1983 only - Mar 31 0:00 1:00 D
1124Rule Iraq 1984 1985 - Apr 1 0:00 1:00 D
1125Rule Iraq 1985 1990 - Sep lastSun 1:00s 0 S
1126Rule Iraq 1986 1990 - Mar lastSun 1:00s 1:00 D
48afb8ac 1127# IATA SSIM (1991/1996) says Apr 1 12:01am UTC; guess the ':01' is a typo.
bd7414aa 1128# Shanks & Pottenger say Iraq did not observe DST 1992/1997; ignore this.
8393cd87 1129#
e4a74243
SW
1130Rule Iraq 1991 2007 - Apr 1 3:00s 1:00 D
1131Rule Iraq 1991 2007 - Oct 1 3:00s 0 S
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MD
1132# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
1133Zone Asia/Baghdad 2:57:40 - LMT 1890
48afb8ac 1134 2:57:36 - BMT 1918 # Baghdad Mean Time?
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MD
1135 3:00 - AST 1982 May
1136 3:00 Iraq A%sT
1137
1138
1139###############################################################################
1140
1141# Israel
1142
1143# From Ephraim Silverberg (2001-01-11):
1144#
1145# I coined "IST/IDT" circa 1988. Until then there were three
1146# different abbreviations in use:
1147#
1148# JST Jerusalem Standard Time [Danny Braniss, Hebrew University]
1149# IZT Israel Zonal (sic) Time [Prof. Haim Papo, Technion]
1150# EEST Eastern Europe Standard Time [used by almost everyone else]
1151#
1152# Since timezones should be called by country and not capital cities,
1153# I ruled out JST. As Israel is in Asia Minor and not Eastern Europe,
1154# EEST was equally unacceptable. Since "zonal" was not compatible with
1155# any other timezone abbreviation, I felt that 'IST' was the way to go
1156# and, indeed, it has received almost universal acceptance in timezone
1157# settings in Israeli computers.
1158#
1159# In any case, I am happy to share timezone abbreviations with India,
1160# high on my favorite-country list (and not only because my wife's
1161# family is from India).
1162
bd7414aa 1163# From Shanks & Pottenger:
984263bc
MD
1164# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
1165Rule Zion 1940 only - Jun 1 0:00 1:00 D
1166Rule Zion 1942 1944 - Nov 1 0:00 0 S
1167Rule Zion 1943 only - Apr 1 2:00 1:00 D
1168Rule Zion 1944 only - Apr 1 0:00 1:00 D
1169Rule Zion 1945 only - Apr 16 0:00 1:00 D
1170Rule Zion 1945 only - Nov 1 2:00 0 S
1171Rule Zion 1946 only - Apr 16 2:00 1:00 D
1172Rule Zion 1946 only - Nov 1 0:00 0 S
1173Rule Zion 1948 only - May 23 0:00 2:00 DD
1174Rule Zion 1948 only - Sep 1 0:00 1:00 D
1175Rule Zion 1948 1949 - Nov 1 2:00 0 S
1176Rule Zion 1949 only - May 1 0:00 1:00 D
1177Rule Zion 1950 only - Apr 16 0:00 1:00 D
1178Rule Zion 1950 only - Sep 15 3:00 0 S
1179Rule Zion 1951 only - Apr 1 0:00 1:00 D
1180Rule Zion 1951 only - Nov 11 3:00 0 S
1181Rule Zion 1952 only - Apr 20 2:00 1:00 D
1182Rule Zion 1952 only - Oct 19 3:00 0 S
1183Rule Zion 1953 only - Apr 12 2:00 1:00 D
1184Rule Zion 1953 only - Sep 13 3:00 0 S
1185Rule Zion 1954 only - Jun 13 0:00 1:00 D
1186Rule Zion 1954 only - Sep 12 0:00 0 S
1187Rule Zion 1955 only - Jun 11 2:00 1:00 D
1188Rule Zion 1955 only - Sep 11 0:00 0 S
1189Rule Zion 1956 only - Jun 3 0:00 1:00 D
1190Rule Zion 1956 only - Sep 30 3:00 0 S
1191Rule Zion 1957 only - Apr 29 2:00 1:00 D
1192Rule Zion 1957 only - Sep 22 0:00 0 S
1193Rule Zion 1974 only - Jul 7 0:00 1:00 D
1194Rule Zion 1974 only - Oct 13 0:00 0 S
1195Rule Zion 1975 only - Apr 20 0:00 1:00 D
1196Rule Zion 1975 only - Aug 31 0:00 0 S
1197Rule Zion 1985 only - Apr 14 0:00 1:00 D
1198Rule Zion 1985 only - Sep 15 0:00 0 S
1199Rule Zion 1986 only - May 18 0:00 1:00 D
1200Rule Zion 1986 only - Sep 7 0:00 0 S
1201Rule Zion 1987 only - Apr 15 0:00 1:00 D
1202Rule Zion 1987 only - Sep 13 0:00 0 S
39560a18
SW
1203
1204# From Avigdor Finkelstein (2014-03-05):
1205# I check the Parliament (Knesset) records and there it's stated that the
1206# [1988] transition should take place on Saturday night, when the Sabbath
1207# ends and changes to Sunday.
1208Rule Zion 1988 only - Apr 10 0:00 1:00 D
1209Rule Zion 1988 only - Sep 4 0:00 0 S
984263bc 1210
9ffe4b14 1211# From Ephraim Silverberg
bc95ec93
SW
1212# (1997-03-04, 1998-03-16, 1998-12-28, 2000-01-17, 2000-07-25, 2004-12-22,
1213# and 2005-02-17):
984263bc
MD
1214
1215# According to the Office of the Secretary General of the Ministry of
1216# Interior, there is NO set rule for Daylight-Savings/Standard time changes.
1217# One thing is entrenched in law, however: that there must be at least 150
1218# days of daylight savings time annually. From 1993-1998, the change to
1219# daylight savings time was on a Friday morning from midnight IST to
1220# 1 a.m IDT; up until 1998, the change back to standard time was on a
1221# Saturday night from midnight daylight savings time to 11 p.m. standard
1222# time. 1996 is an exception to this rule where the change back to standard
1223# time took place on Sunday night instead of Saturday night to avoid
1224# conflicts with the Jewish New Year. In 1999, the change to
1225# daylight savings time was still on a Friday morning but from
1226# 2 a.m. IST to 3 a.m. IDT; furthermore, the change back to standard time
1227# was also on a Friday morning from 2 a.m. IDT to 1 a.m. IST for
1228# 1999 only. In the year 2000, the change to daylight savings time was
1229# similar to 1999, but although the change back will be on a Friday, it
1230# will take place from 1 a.m. IDT to midnight IST. Starting in 2001, all
1231# changes to/from will take place at 1 a.m. old time, but now there is no
1232# rule as to what day of the week it will take place in as the start date
1233# (except in 2003) is the night after the Passover Seder (i.e. the eve
1234# of the 16th of Nisan in the lunar Hebrew calendar) and the end date
1235# (except in 2002) is three nights before Yom Kippur [Day of Atonement]
1236# (the eve of the 7th of Tishrei in the lunar Hebrew calendar).
1237
1238# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
1239Rule Zion 1989 only - Apr 30 0:00 1:00 D
1240Rule Zion 1989 only - Sep 3 0:00 0 S
1241Rule Zion 1990 only - Mar 25 0:00 1:00 D
1242Rule Zion 1990 only - Aug 26 0:00 0 S
1243Rule Zion 1991 only - Mar 24 0:00 1:00 D
1244Rule Zion 1991 only - Sep 1 0:00 0 S
1245Rule Zion 1992 only - Mar 29 0:00 1:00 D
1246Rule Zion 1992 only - Sep 6 0:00 0 S
1247Rule Zion 1993 only - Apr 2 0:00 1:00 D
1248Rule Zion 1993 only - Sep 5 0:00 0 S
1249
1250# The dates for 1994-1995 were obtained from Office of the Spokeswoman for the
1251# Ministry of Interior, Jerusalem, Israel. The spokeswoman can be reached by
1252# calling the office directly at 972-2-6701447 or 972-2-6701448.
1253
1254# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
1255Rule Zion 1994 only - Apr 1 0:00 1:00 D
1256Rule Zion 1994 only - Aug 28 0:00 0 S
1257Rule Zion 1995 only - Mar 31 0:00 1:00 D
1258Rule Zion 1995 only - Sep 3 0:00 0 S
1259
1260# The dates for 1996 were determined by the Minister of Interior of the
1261# time, Haim Ramon. The official announcement regarding 1996-1998
1262# (with the dates for 1997-1998 no longer being relevant) can be viewed at:
1263#
bc95ec93 1264# ftp://ftp.cs.huji.ac.il/pub/tz/announcements/1996-1998.ramon.ps.gz
984263bc
MD
1265#
1266# The dates for 1997-1998 were altered by his successor, Rabbi Eli Suissa.
1267#
1268# The official announcements for the years 1997-1999 can be viewed at:
1269#
bc95ec93 1270# ftp://ftp.cs.huji.ac.il/pub/tz/announcements/YYYY.ps.gz
984263bc
MD
1271#
1272# where YYYY is the relevant year.
1273
1274# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
1275Rule Zion 1996 only - Mar 15 0:00 1:00 D
1276Rule Zion 1996 only - Sep 16 0:00 0 S
1277Rule Zion 1997 only - Mar 21 0:00 1:00 D
1278Rule Zion 1997 only - Sep 14 0:00 0 S
1279Rule Zion 1998 only - Mar 20 0:00 1:00 D
1280Rule Zion 1998 only - Sep 6 0:00 0 S
1281Rule Zion 1999 only - Apr 2 2:00 1:00 D
1282Rule Zion 1999 only - Sep 3 2:00 0 S
1283
1284# The Knesset Interior Committee has changed the dates for 2000 for
1285# the third time in just over a year and have set new dates for the
1286# years 2001-2004 as well.
1287#
1288# The official announcement for the start date of 2000 can be viewed at:
1289#
bc95ec93 1290# ftp://ftp.cs.huji.ac.il/pub/tz/announcements/2000-start.ps.gz
984263bc
MD
1291#
1292# The official announcement for the end date of 2000 and the dates
1293# for the years 2001-2004 can be viewed at:
1294#
bc95ec93 1295# ftp://ftp.cs.huji.ac.il/pub/tz/announcements/2000-2004.ps.gz
984263bc
MD
1296
1297# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
1298Rule Zion 2000 only - Apr 14 2:00 1:00 D
1299Rule Zion 2000 only - Oct 6 1:00 0 S
1300Rule Zion 2001 only - Apr 9 1:00 1:00 D
1301Rule Zion 2001 only - Sep 24 1:00 0 S
1302Rule Zion 2002 only - Mar 29 1:00 1:00 D
1303Rule Zion 2002 only - Oct 7 1:00 0 S
1304Rule Zion 2003 only - Mar 28 1:00 1:00 D
1305Rule Zion 2003 only - Oct 3 1:00 0 S
1306Rule Zion 2004 only - Apr 7 1:00 1:00 D
1307Rule Zion 2004 only - Sep 22 1:00 0 S
1308
bc95ec93
SW
1309# The proposed law agreed upon by the Knesset Interior Committee on
1310# 2005-02-14 is that, for 2005 and beyond, DST starts at 02:00 the
1311# last Friday before April 2nd (i.e. the last Friday in March or April
1312# 1st itself if it falls on a Friday) and ends at 02:00 on the Saturday
1313# night _before_ the fast of Yom Kippur.
1314#
1315# Those who can read Hebrew can view the announcement at:
1316#
1317# ftp://ftp.cs.huji.ac.il/pub/tz/announcements/2005+beyond.ps
1318
f21b88be 1319# From Paul Eggert (2012-10-26):
bc95ec93
SW
1320# I used Ephraim Silverberg's dst-israel.el program
1321# <ftp://ftp.cs.huji.ac.il/pub/tz/software/dst-israel.el> (2005-02-20)
1322# along with Ed Reingold's cal-hebrew in GNU Emacs 21.4,
f21b88be 1323# to generate the transitions from 2005 through 2012.
bc95ec93 1324# (I replaced "lastFri" with "Fri>=26" by hand.)
f21b88be 1325# The spring transitions all correspond to the following Rule:
bc95ec93 1326#
f21b88be 1327# Rule Zion 2005 2012 - Mar Fri>=26 2:00 1:00 D
bc95ec93
SW
1328#
1329# but older zic implementations (e.g., Solaris 8) do not support
1330# "Fri>=26" to mean April 1 in years like 2005, so for now we list the
1331# springtime transitions explicitly.
1332
1333# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
1334Rule Zion 2005 only - Apr 1 2:00 1:00 D
1335Rule Zion 2005 only - Oct 9 2:00 0 S
1336Rule Zion 2006 2010 - Mar Fri>=26 2:00 1:00 D
1337Rule Zion 2006 only - Oct 1 2:00 0 S
1338Rule Zion 2007 only - Sep 16 2:00 0 S
1339Rule Zion 2008 only - Oct 5 2:00 0 S
1340Rule Zion 2009 only - Sep 27 2:00 0 S
1341Rule Zion 2010 only - Sep 12 2:00 0 S
1342Rule Zion 2011 only - Apr 1 2:00 1:00 D
1343Rule Zion 2011 only - Oct 2 2:00 0 S
f21b88be 1344Rule Zion 2012 only - Mar Fri>=26 2:00 1:00 D
bc95ec93 1345Rule Zion 2012 only - Sep 23 2:00 0 S
f21b88be 1346
96e83414
SW
1347# From Ephraim Silverberg (2013-06-27):
1348# On June 23, 2013, the Israeli government approved changes to the
1349# Time Decree Law. The next day, the changes passed the First Reading
1350# in the Knesset. The law is expected to pass the Second and Third
1351# (final) Readings by the beginning of September 2013.
1352#
1353# As of 2013, DST starts at 02:00 on the Friday before the last Sunday
1354# in March. DST ends at 02:00 on the last Sunday of October.
933b0a8d 1355
f21b88be
SW
1356# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
1357Rule Zion 2013 max - Mar Fri>=23 2:00 1:00 D
96e83414 1358Rule Zion 2013 max - Oct lastSun 2:00 0 S
984263bc
MD
1359
1360# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
96e83414 1361Zone Asia/Jerusalem 2:20:54 - LMT 1880
48afb8ac 1362 2:20:40 - JMT 1918 # Jerusalem Mean Time?
984263bc
MD
1363 2:00 Zion I%sT
1364
984263bc
MD
1365
1366
1367###############################################################################
1368
1369# Japan
1370
48afb8ac 1371# '9:00' and 'JST' is from Guy Harris.
984263bc 1372
9ffe4b14 1373# From Paul Eggert (1995-03-06):
984263bc 1374# Today's _Asahi Evening News_ (page 4) reports that Japan had
48afb8ac
SW
1375# daylight saving between 1948 and 1951, but "the system was discontinued
1376# because the public believed it would lead to longer working hours."
9ffe4b14 1377
48afb8ac
SW
1378# From Mayumi Negishi in the 2005-08-10 Japan Times:
1379# http://www.japantimes.co.jp/cgi-bin/getarticle.pl5?nn20050810f2.htm
9ffe4b14
SW
1380# Occupation authorities imposed daylight-saving time on Japan on
1381# [1948-05-01].... But lack of prior debate and the execution of
1382# daylight-saving time just three days after the bill was passed generated
1383# deep hatred of the concept.... The Diet unceremoniously passed a bill to
1384# dump the unpopular system in October 1951, less than a month after the San
1385# Francisco Peace Treaty was signed. (A government poll in 1951 showed 53%
1386# of the Japanese wanted to scrap daylight-saving time, as opposed to 30% who
1387# wanted to keep it.)
1388
bd7414aa
SW
1389# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
1390# Shanks & Pottenger write that DST in Japan during those years was as follows:
984263bc 1391# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
9ffe4b14
SW
1392Rule Japan 1948 only - May Sun>=1 2:00 1:00 D
1393Rule Japan 1948 1951 - Sep Sat>=8 2:00 0 S
1394Rule Japan 1949 only - Apr Sun>=1 2:00 1:00 D
1395Rule Japan 1950 1951 - May Sun>=1 2:00 1:00 D
1396# but the only locations using it (for birth certificates, presumably, since
bd7414aa 1397# their audience is astrologers) were US military bases. For now, assume
9ffe4b14
SW
1398# that for most purposes daylight-saving time was observed; otherwise, what
1399# would have been the point of the 1951 poll?
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MD
1400
1401# From Hideyuki Suzuki (1998-11-09):
1402# 'Tokyo' usually stands for the former location of Tokyo Astronomical
48afb8ac
SW
1403# Observatory: 139 degrees 44' 40.90" E (9h 18m 58.727s),
1404# 35 degrees 39' 16.0" N.
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MD
1405# This data is from 'Rika Nenpyou (Chronological Scientific Tables) 1996'
1406# edited by National Astronomical Observatory of Japan....
1407# JST (Japan Standard Time) has been used since 1888-01-01 00:00 (JST).
1408# The law is enacted on 1886-07-07.
1409
1410# From Hideyuki Suzuki (1998-11-16):
1411# The ordinance No. 51 (1886) established "standard time" in Japan,
48afb8ac 1412# which stands for the time on 135 degrees E.
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MD
1413# In the ordinance No. 167 (1895), "standard time" was renamed to "central
1414# standard time". And the same ordinance also established "western standard
48afb8ac 1415# time", which stands for the time on 120 degrees E.... But "western standard
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MD
1416# time" was abolished in the ordinance No. 529 (1937). In the ordinance No.
1417# 167, there is no mention regarding for what place western standard time is
1418# standard....
1419#
1420# I wrote "ordinance" above, but I don't know how to translate.
1421# In Japanese it's "chokurei", which means ordinance from emperor.
1422
48afb8ac
SW
1423# From Yu-Cheng Chuang (2013-07-12):
1424# ...the Meiji Emperor announced Ordinance No. 167 of Meiji Year 28 "The clause
1425# about standard time" ... The adoption began from Jan 1, 1896.
1426# http://ja.wikisource.org/wiki/標準時ニ關スル件_(公布時)
1427#
1428# ...the Showa Emperor announced Ordinance No. 529 of Showa Year 12 ... which
1429# means the whole Japan territory, including later occupations, adopt Japan
1430# Central Time (UTC+9). The adoption began on Oct 1, 1937.
1431# http://ja.wikisource.org/wiki/明治二十八年勅令第百六十七號標準時ニ關スル件中改正ノ件
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MD
1432
1433# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
1434Zone Asia/Tokyo 9:18:59 - LMT 1887 Dec 31 15:00u
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SW
1435 9:00 - JST 1896 Jan 1
1436 9:00 - JCST 1937 Oct 1
9ffe4b14 1437 9:00 Japan J%sT
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MD
1438# Since 1938, all Japanese possessions have been like Asia/Tokyo.
1439
1440# Jordan
1441#
48afb8ac
SW
1442# From <http://star.arabia.com/990701/JO9.html>
1443# Jordan Week (1999-07-01) via Steffen Thorsen (1999-09-09):
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MD
1444# Clocks in Jordan were forwarded one hour on Wednesday at midnight,
1445# in accordance with the government's decision to implement summer time
1446# all year round.
1447#
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SW
1448# From <http://star.arabia.com/990930/JO9.html>
1449# Jordan Week (1999-09-30) via Steffen Thorsen (1999-11-09):
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MD
1450# Winter time starts today Thursday, 30 September. Clocks will be turned back
1451# by one hour. This is the latest government decision and it's final!
1452# The decision was taken because of the increase in working hours in
1453# government's departments from six to seven hours.
1454#
aa65d21a
SW
1455# From Paul Eggert (2005-11-22):
1456# Starting 2003 transitions are from Steffen Thorsen's web site timeanddate.com.
1457#
bd7414aa
SW
1458# From Steffen Thorsen (2005-11-23):
1459# For Jordan I have received multiple independent user reports every year
1460# about DST end dates, as the end-rule is different every year.
1461#
17f48456
SW
1462# From Steffen Thorsen (2006-10-01), after a heads-up from Hilal Malawi:
1463# http://www.petranews.gov.jo/nepras/2006/Sep/05/4000.htm
1464# "Jordan will switch to winter time on Friday, October 27".
1465#
aedcd57b 1466
aedcd57b
SW
1467# From Steffen Thorsen (2009-04-02):
1468# This single one might be good enough, (2009-03-24, Arabic):
aedcd57b 1469# http://petra.gov.jo/Artical.aspx?Lng=2&Section=8&Artical=95279
aedcd57b
SW
1470#
1471# Google's translation:
1472#
1473# > The Council of Ministers decided in 2002 to adopt the principle of timely
1474# > submission of the summer at 60 minutes as of midnight on the last Thursday
1475# > of the month of March of each year.
1476#
1477# So - this means the midnight between Thursday and Friday since 2002.
1478
1479# From Arthur David Olson (2009-04-06):
1480# We still have Jordan switching to DST on Thursdays in 2000 and 2001.
1481
f21b88be
SW
1482# From Steffen Thorsen (2012-10-25):
1483# Yesterday the government in Jordan announced that they will not
1484# switch back to standard time this winter, so the will stay on DST
1485# until about the same time next year (at least).
1486# http://www.petra.gov.jo/Public_News/Nws_NewsDetails.aspx?NewsID=88950
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SW
1487
1488# From Steffen Thorsen (2013-12-11):
1489# Jordan Times and other sources say that Jordan is going back to
1490# UTC+2 on 2013-12-19 at midnight:
1491# http://jordantimes.com/govt-decides-to-switch-back-to-wintertime
1492# Official, in Arabic:
1493# http://www.petra.gov.jo/public_news/Nws_NewsDetails.aspx?Menu_ID=&Site_Id=2&lang=1&NewsID=133230&CatID=14
1494# ... Our background/permalink about it
1495# http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/jordan-reverses-dst-decision.html
1496# ...
1497# http://www.petra.gov.jo/Public_News/Nws_NewsDetails.aspx?lang=2&site_id=1&NewsID=133313&Type=P
1498# ... says midnight for the coming one and 1:00 for the ones in the future
1499# (and they will use DST again next year, using the normal schedule).
1500
1501# From Paul Eggert (2013-12-11):
1502# As Steffen suggested, consider the past 21-month experiment to be DST.
f21b88be 1503
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MD
1504# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
1505Rule Jordan 1973 only - Jun 6 0:00 1:00 S
1506Rule Jordan 1973 1975 - Oct 1 0:00 0 -
1507Rule Jordan 1974 1977 - May 1 0:00 1:00 S
1508Rule Jordan 1976 only - Nov 1 0:00 0 -
1509Rule Jordan 1977 only - Oct 1 0:00 0 -
1510Rule Jordan 1978 only - Apr 30 0:00 1:00 S
1511Rule Jordan 1978 only - Sep 30 0:00 0 -
1512Rule Jordan 1985 only - Apr 1 0:00 1:00 S
1513Rule Jordan 1985 only - Oct 1 0:00 0 -
1514Rule Jordan 1986 1988 - Apr Fri>=1 0:00 1:00 S
1515Rule Jordan 1986 1990 - Oct Fri>=1 0:00 0 -
1516Rule Jordan 1989 only - May 8 0:00 1:00 S
1517Rule Jordan 1990 only - Apr 27 0:00 1:00 S
1518Rule Jordan 1991 only - Apr 17 0:00 1:00 S
1519Rule Jordan 1991 only - Sep 27 0:00 0 -
1520Rule Jordan 1992 only - Apr 10 0:00 1:00 S
1521Rule Jordan 1992 1993 - Oct Fri>=1 0:00 0 -
1522Rule Jordan 1993 1998 - Apr Fri>=1 0:00 1:00 S
1523Rule Jordan 1994 only - Sep Fri>=15 0:00 0 -
1524Rule Jordan 1995 1998 - Sep Fri>=15 0:00s 0 -
1525Rule Jordan 1999 only - Jul 1 0:00s 1:00 S
aedcd57b
SW
1526Rule Jordan 1999 2002 - Sep lastFri 0:00s 0 -
1527Rule Jordan 2000 2001 - Mar lastThu 0:00s 1:00 S
d1bcb6be 1528Rule Jordan 2002 2012 - Mar lastThu 24:00 1:00 S
aa65d21a
SW
1529Rule Jordan 2003 only - Oct 24 0:00s 0 -
1530Rule Jordan 2004 only - Oct 15 0:00s 0 -
17f48456 1531Rule Jordan 2005 only - Sep lastFri 0:00s 0 -
f21b88be 1532Rule Jordan 2006 2011 - Oct lastFri 0:00s 0 -
d1bcb6be
SW
1533Rule Jordan 2013 only - Dec 20 0:00 0 -
1534Rule Jordan 2014 max - Mar lastThu 24:00 1:00 S
1535Rule Jordan 2014 max - Oct lastFri 0:00s 0 -
984263bc
MD
1536# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
1537Zone Asia/Amman 2:23:44 - LMT 1931
1538 2:00 Jordan EE%sT
1539
9ffe4b14 1540
984263bc 1541# Kazakhstan
9ffe4b14 1542
984263bc 1543# From Paul Eggert (1996-11-22):
9ffe4b14 1544# Andrew Evtichov (1996-04-13) writes that Kazakhstan
984263bc
MD
1545# stayed in sync with Moscow after 1990, and that Aqtobe (formerly Aktyubinsk)
1546# and Aqtau (formerly Shevchenko) are the largest cities in their zones.
1547# Guess that Aqtau and Aqtobe diverged in 1995, since that's the first time
1548# IATA SSIM mentions a third time zone in Kazakhstan.
9ffe4b14 1549
bd7414aa 1550# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
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MD
1551# German Iofis, ELSI, Almaty (2001-10-09) reports that Kazakhstan uses
1552# RussiaAsia rules, instead of switching at 00:00 as the IATA has it.
bd7414aa
SW
1553# Go with Shanks & Pottenger, who have them always using RussiaAsia rules.
1554# Also go with the following claims of Shanks & Pottenger:
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MD
1555#
1556# - Kazakhstan did not observe DST in 1991.
1557# - Qyzylorda switched from +5:00 to +6:00 on 1992-01-19 02:00.
1558# - Oral switched from +5:00 to +4:00 in spring 1989.
9ffe4b14 1559
48afb8ac
SW
1560# From Kazakhstan Embassy's News Bulletin #11
1561# <http://www.kazsociety.org.uk/news/2005/03/30.htm> (2005-03-21):
bc95ec93
SW
1562# The Government of Kazakhstan passed a resolution March 15 abolishing
1563# daylight saving time citing lack of economic benefits and health
1564# complications coupled with a decrease in productivity.
1565#
9ffe4b14
SW
1566# From Branislav Kojic (in Astana) via Gwillim Law (2005-06-28):
1567# ... what happened was that the former Kazakhstan Eastern time zone
1568# was "blended" with the Central zone. Therefore, Kazakhstan now has
1569# two time zones, and difference between them is one hour. The zone
1570# closer to UTC is the former Western zone (probably still called the
1571# same), encompassing four provinces in the west: Aqtobe, Atyrau,
1572# Mangghystau, and West Kazakhstan. The other zone encompasses
1573# everything else.... I guess that would make Kazakhstan time zones
1574# de jure UTC+5 and UTC+6 respectively.
1575
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MD
1576#
1577# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
1578#
1579# Almaty (formerly Alma-Ata), representing most locations in Kazakhstan
1580Zone Asia/Almaty 5:07:48 - LMT 1924 May 2 # or Alma-Ata
1581 5:00 - ALMT 1930 Jun 21 # Alma-Ata Time
1582 6:00 RussiaAsia ALM%sT 1991
1583 6:00 - ALMT 1992
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SW
1584 6:00 RussiaAsia ALM%sT 2005 Mar 15
1585 6:00 - ALMT
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MD
1586# Qyzylorda (aka Kyzylorda, Kizilorda, Kzyl-Orda, etc.)
1587Zone Asia/Qyzylorda 4:21:52 - LMT 1924 May 2
1588 4:00 - KIZT 1930 Jun 21 # Kizilorda Time
1589 5:00 - KIZT 1981 Apr 1
1590 5:00 1:00 KIZST 1981 Oct 1
1591 6:00 - KIZT 1982 Apr 1
1592 5:00 RussiaAsia KIZ%sT 1991
1593 5:00 - KIZT 1991 Dec 16 # independence
48afb8ac 1594 5:00 - QYZT 1992 Jan 19 2:00
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SW
1595 6:00 RussiaAsia QYZ%sT 2005 Mar 15
1596 6:00 - QYZT
48afb8ac 1597# Aqtobe (aka Aktobe, formerly Aktyubinsk)
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MD
1598Zone Asia/Aqtobe 3:48:40 - LMT 1924 May 2
1599 4:00 - AKTT 1930 Jun 21 # Aktyubinsk Time
1600 5:00 - AKTT 1981 Apr 1
1601 5:00 1:00 AKTST 1981 Oct 1
1602 6:00 - AKTT 1982 Apr 1
1603 5:00 RussiaAsia AKT%sT 1991
1604 5:00 - AKTT 1991 Dec 16 # independence
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SW
1605 5:00 RussiaAsia AQT%sT 2005 Mar 15 # Aqtobe Time
1606 5:00 - AQTT
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MD
1607# Mangghystau
1608# Aqtau was not founded until 1963, but it represents an inhabited region,
1609# so include time stamps before 1963.
1610Zone Asia/Aqtau 3:21:04 - LMT 1924 May 2
1611 4:00 - FORT 1930 Jun 21 # Fort Shevchenko T
1612 5:00 - FORT 1963
1613 5:00 - SHET 1981 Oct 1 # Shevchenko Time
1614 6:00 - SHET 1982 Apr 1
1615 5:00 RussiaAsia SHE%sT 1991
1616 5:00 - SHET 1991 Dec 16 # independence
48afb8ac 1617 5:00 RussiaAsia AQT%sT 1995 Mar lastSun 2:00 # Aqtau Time
bc95ec93 1618 4:00 RussiaAsia AQT%sT 2005 Mar 15
9ffe4b14 1619 5:00 - AQTT
984263bc
MD
1620# West Kazakhstan
1621Zone Asia/Oral 3:25:24 - LMT 1924 May 2 # or Ural'sk
1622 4:00 - URAT 1930 Jun 21 # Ural'sk time
1623 5:00 - URAT 1981 Apr 1
1624 5:00 1:00 URAST 1981 Oct 1
1625 6:00 - URAT 1982 Apr 1
48afb8ac 1626 5:00 RussiaAsia URA%sT 1989 Mar 26 2:00
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MD
1627 4:00 RussiaAsia URA%sT 1991
1628 4:00 - URAT 1991 Dec 16 # independence
bc95ec93 1629 4:00 RussiaAsia ORA%sT 2005 Mar 15 # Oral Time
9ffe4b14 1630 5:00 - ORAT
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MD
1631
1632# Kyrgyzstan (Kirgizstan)
bd7414aa 1633# Transitions through 1991 are from Shanks & Pottenger.
9ffe4b14
SW
1634
1635# From Paul Eggert (2005-08-15):
1636# According to an article dated today in the Kyrgyzstan Development Gateway
48afb8ac 1637# http://eng.gateway.kg/cgi-bin/page.pl?id=1&story_name=doc9979.shtml
9ffe4b14
SW
1638# Kyrgyzstan is canceling the daylight saving time system. I take the article
1639# to mean that they will leave their clocks at 6 hours ahead of UTC.
e1e23b59
SW
1640# From Malik Abdugaliev (2005-09-21):
1641# Our government cancels daylight saving time 6th of August 2005.
1642# From 2005-08-12 our GMT-offset is +6, w/o any daylight saving.
9ffe4b14 1643
984263bc 1644# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
e1e23b59
SW
1645Rule Kyrgyz 1992 1996 - Apr Sun>=7 0:00s 1:00 S
1646Rule Kyrgyz 1992 1996 - Sep lastSun 0:00 0 -
1647Rule Kyrgyz 1997 2005 - Mar lastSun 2:30 1:00 S
1648Rule Kyrgyz 1997 2004 - Oct lastSun 2:30 0 -
984263bc
MD
1649# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
1650Zone Asia/Bishkek 4:58:24 - LMT 1924 May 2
1651 5:00 - FRUT 1930 Jun 21 # Frunze Time
48afb8ac
SW
1652 6:00 RussiaAsia FRU%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
1653 5:00 1:00 FRUST 1991 Aug 31 2:00 # independence
1654 5:00 Kyrgyz KG%sT 2005 Aug 12 # Kyrgyzstan Time
e1e23b59 1655 6:00 - KGT
984263bc
MD
1656
1657###############################################################################
1658
1659# Korea (North and South)
1660
48afb8ac 1661# From Annie I. Bang (2006-07-10):
03b0b587
SW
1662# http://www.koreaherald.com/view.php?ud=200607100012
1663# Korea ran a daylight saving program from 1949-61 but stopped it
1664# during the 1950-53 Korean War. The system was temporarily enforced
1665# between 1987 and 1988 ...
1666
1667# From Sanghyuk Jung (2014-10-29):
1668# http://mm.icann.org/pipermail/tz/2014-October/021830.html
1669# According to the Korean Wikipedia
1670# http://ko.wikipedia.org/wiki/한국_표준시
1671# [oldid=12896437 2014-09-04 08:03 UTC]
1672# DST in Republic of Korea was as follows.... And I checked old
1673# newspapers in Korean, all articles correspond with data in Wikipedia.
1674# For example, the article in 1948 (Korean Language) proved that DST
1675# started at June 1 in that year. For another example, the article in
1676# 1988 said that DST started at 2:00 AM in that year.
984263bc 1677
984263bc 1678# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
03b0b587
SW
1679Rule ROK 1948 only - Jun 1 0:00 1:00 D
1680Rule ROK 1948 only - Sep 13 0:00 0 S
1681Rule ROK 1949 only - Apr 3 0:00 1:00 D
1682Rule ROK 1949 1951 - Sep Sun>=8 0:00 0 S
1683Rule ROK 1950 only - Apr 1 0:00 1:00 D
1684Rule ROK 1951 only - May 6 0:00 1:00 D
1685Rule ROK 1955 only - May 5 0:00 1:00 D
1686Rule ROK 1955 only - Sep 9 0:00 0 S
1687Rule ROK 1956 only - May 20 0:00 1:00 D
1688Rule ROK 1956 only - Sep 30 0:00 0 S
1689Rule ROK 1957 1960 - May Sun>=1 0:00 1:00 D
1690Rule ROK 1957 1960 - Sep Sun>=18 0:00 0 S
1691Rule ROK 1987 1988 - May Sun>=8 2:00 1:00 D
1692Rule ROK 1987 1988 - Oct Sun>=8 3:00 0 S
1693
1694# From Paul Eggert (2014-10-30):
1695# The Korean Wikipedia entry gives the following sources for UT offsets:
1696#
1697# 1908: Official Journal Article No. 3994 (Edict No. 5)
1698# 1912: Governor-General of Korea Official Gazette Issue No. 367
1699# (Announcement No. 338)
1700# 1954: Presidential Decree No. 876 (1954-03-17)
1701# 1961: Law No. 676 (1961-08-07)
1702# 1987: Law No. 3919 (1986-12-31)
1703#
1704# The Wikipedia entry also has confusing information about a change
1705# to UT+9 in April 1910, but then what would be the point of the later change
1706# to UT+9 on 1912-01-01? Omit the 1910 change for now.
1707#
1708# I guessed that time zone abbreviations through 1945 followed the same
48afb8ac
SW
1709# rules as discussed under Taiwan, with nominal switches from JST to KST
1710# when the respective cities were taken over by the Allies after WWII.
03b0b587
SW
1711#
1712# For Pyongyang we have no information; guess no changes since World War II.
48afb8ac 1713
984263bc 1714# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
03b0b587
SW
1715Zone Asia/Seoul 8:27:52 - LMT 1908 Apr 1
1716 8:30 - KST 1912 Jan 1
48afb8ac
SW
1717 9:00 - JCST 1937 Oct 1
1718 9:00 - JST 1945 Sep 8
984263bc 1719 9:00 - KST 1954 Mar 21
03b0b587 1720 8:30 ROK K%sT 1961 Aug 10
984263bc 1721 9:00 ROK K%sT
03b0b587
SW
1722Zone Asia/Pyongyang 8:23:00 - LMT 1908 Apr 1
1723 8:30 - KST 1912 Jan 1
48afb8ac
SW
1724 9:00 - JCST 1937 Oct 1
1725 9:00 - JST 1945 Aug 24
984263bc
MD
1726 9:00 - KST
1727
1728###############################################################################
1729
1730# Kuwait
30d1d955 1731# See Asia/Riyadh.
984263bc
MD
1732
1733# Laos
f6ca936c
SW
1734# See Asia/Bangkok.
1735
984263bc
MD
1736
1737# Lebanon
1738# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
1739Rule Lebanon 1920 only - Mar 28 0:00 1:00 S
1740Rule Lebanon 1920 only - Oct 25 0:00 0 -
1741Rule Lebanon 1921 only - Apr 3 0:00 1:00 S
1742Rule Lebanon 1921 only - Oct 3 0:00 0 -
1743Rule Lebanon 1922 only - Mar 26 0:00 1:00 S
1744Rule Lebanon 1922 only - Oct 8 0:00 0 -
1745Rule Lebanon 1923 only - Apr 22 0:00 1:00 S
1746Rule Lebanon 1923 only - Sep 16 0:00 0 -
1747Rule Lebanon 1957 1961 - May 1 0:00 1:00 S
1748Rule Lebanon 1957 1961 - Oct 1 0:00 0 -
1749Rule Lebanon 1972 only - Jun 22 0:00 1:00 S
1750Rule Lebanon 1972 1977 - Oct 1 0:00 0 -
1751Rule Lebanon 1973 1977 - May 1 0:00 1:00 S
1752Rule Lebanon 1978 only - Apr 30 0:00 1:00 S
1753Rule Lebanon 1978 only - Sep 30 0:00 0 -
1754Rule Lebanon 1984 1987 - May 1 0:00 1:00 S
1755Rule Lebanon 1984 1991 - Oct 16 0:00 0 -
1756Rule Lebanon 1988 only - Jun 1 0:00 1:00 S
1757Rule Lebanon 1989 only - May 10 0:00 1:00 S
1758Rule Lebanon 1990 1992 - May 1 0:00 1:00 S
1759Rule Lebanon 1992 only - Oct 4 0:00 0 -
1760Rule Lebanon 1993 max - Mar lastSun 0:00 1:00 S
1761Rule Lebanon 1993 1998 - Sep lastSun 0:00 0 -
1762Rule Lebanon 1999 max - Oct lastSun 0:00 0 -
1763# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
1764Zone Asia/Beirut 2:22:00 - LMT 1880
1765 2:00 Lebanon EE%sT
1766
1767# Malaysia
1768# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
1769Rule NBorneo 1935 1941 - Sep 14 0:00 0:20 TS # one-Third Summer
1770Rule NBorneo 1935 1941 - Dec 14 0:00 0 -
1771#
984263bc 1772# peninsular Malaysia
48afb8ac
SW
1773# taken from Mok Ly Yng (2003-10-30)
1774# http://www.math.nus.edu.sg/aslaksen/teaching/timezone.html
ba5ba9da
JR
1775# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
1776Zone Asia/Kuala_Lumpur 6:46:46 - LMT 1901 Jan 1
1777 6:55:25 - SMT 1905 Jun 1 # Singapore M.T.
1778 7:00 - MALT 1933 Jan 1 # Malaya Time
1779 7:00 0:20 MALST 1936 Jan 1
1780 7:20 - MALT 1941 Sep 1
1781 7:30 - MALT 1942 Feb 16
1782 9:00 - JST 1945 Sep 12
1783 7:30 - MALT 1982 Jan 1
984263bc
MD
1784 8:00 - MYT # Malaysia Time
1785# Sabah & Sarawak
48afb8ac
SW
1786# From Paul Eggert (2014-08-12):
1787# The data entries here are mostly from Shanks & Pottenger, but the 1942, 1945
1788# and 1982 transition dates are from Mok Ly Yng.
ba5ba9da 1789# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
984263bc 1790Zone Asia/Kuching 7:21:20 - LMT 1926 Mar
48afb8ac 1791 7:30 - BORT 1933 # Borneo Time
ba5ba9da
JR
1792 8:00 NBorneo BOR%sT 1942 Feb 16
1793 9:00 - JST 1945 Sep 12
1794 8:00 - BORT 1982 Jan 1
984263bc
MD
1795 8:00 - MYT
1796
1797# Maldives
1798# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
48afb8ac
SW
1799Zone Indian/Maldives 4:54:00 - LMT 1880 # Male
1800 4:54:00 - MMT 1960 # Male Mean Time
1801 5:00 - MVT # Maldives Time
984263bc
MD
1802
1803# Mongolia
1804
bd7414aa 1805# Shanks & Pottenger say that Mongolia has three time zones, but
48afb8ac
SW
1806# The USNO (1995-12-21) and the CIA map Standard Time Zones of the World
1807# (2005-03) both say that it has just one.
984263bc
MD
1808
1809# From Oscar van Vlijmen (1999-12-11):
984263bc 1810# General Information Mongolia
48afb8ac 1811# <http://www.mongoliatourism.gov.mn/general.htm> (1999-09)
984263bc 1812# "Time: Mongolia has two time zones. Three westernmost provinces of
48afb8ac 1813# Bayan-Ölgii, Uvs, and Hovd are one hour earlier than the capital city, and
984263bc
MD
1814# the rest of the country follows the Ulaanbaatar time, which is UTC/GMT plus
1815# eight hours."
1816
1817# From Rives McDow (1999-12-13):
1818# Mongolia discontinued the use of daylight savings time in 1999; 1998
1819# being the last year it was implemented. The dates of implementation I am
1820# unsure of, but most probably it was similar to Russia, except for the time
1821# of implementation may have been different....
1822# Some maps in the past have indicated that there was an additional time
1823# zone in the eastern part of Mongolia, including the provinces of Dornod,
48afb8ac 1824# Sükhbaatar, and possibly Khentii.
984263bc
MD
1825
1826# From Paul Eggert (1999-12-15):
1827# Naming and spelling is tricky in Mongolia.
1828# We'll use Hovd (also spelled Chovd and Khovd) to represent the west zone;
1829# the capital of the Hovd province is sometimes called Hovd, sometimes Dund-Us,
1830# and sometimes Jirgalanta (with variant spellings), but the name Hovd
1831# is good enough for our purposes.
1832
1833# From Rives McDow (2001-05-13):
1834# In addition to Mongolia starting daylight savings as reported earlier
1835# (adopted DST on 2001-04-27 02:00 local time, ending 2001-09-28),
1836# there are three time zones.
1837#
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1838# Provinces [at 7:00]: Bayan-Ölgii, Uvs, Khovd, Zavkhan, Govi-Altai
1839# Provinces [at 8:00]: Khövsgöl, Bulgan, Arkhangai, Khentii, Töv,
1840# Bayankhongor, Övörkhangai, Dundgovi, Dornogovi, Ömnögovi
1841# Provinces [at 9:00]: Dornod, Sükhbaatar
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1842#
1843# [The province of Selenge is omitted from the above lists.]
1844
9ffe4b14 1845# From Ganbold Ts., Ulaanbaatar (2004-04-17):
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1846# Daylight saving occurs at 02:00 local time last Saturday of March.
1847# It will change back to normal at 02:00 local time last Saturday of
1848# September.... As I remember this rule was changed in 2001.
1849#
1850# From Paul Eggert (2004-04-17):
1851# For now, assume Rives McDow's informant got confused about Friday vs
1852# Saturday, and that his 2001 dates should have 1 added to them.
1853
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1854# From Paul Eggert (2005-07-26):
1855# We have wildly conflicting information about Mongolia's time zones.
1856# Bill Bonnet (2005-05-19) reports that the US Embassy in Ulaanbaatar says
1857# there is only one time zone and that DST is observed, citing Microsoft
48afb8ac 1858# Windows XP as the source. Risto Nykänen (2005-05-16) reports that
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1859# travelmongolia.org says there are two time zones (UTC+7, UTC+8) with no DST.
1860# Oscar van Vlijmen (2005-05-20) reports that the Mongolian Embassy in
1861# Washington, DC says there are two time zones, with DST observed.
1862# He also found
48afb8ac 1863# http://ubpost.mongolnews.mn/index.php?subaction=showcomments&id=1111634894&archive=&start_from=&ucat=1&
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1864# which also says that there is DST, and which has a comment by "Toddius"
1865# (2005-03-31 06:05 +0700) saying "Mongolia actually has 3.5 time zones.
1866# The West (OLGII) is +7 GMT, most of the country is ULAT is +8 GMT
48afb8ac 1867# and some Eastern provinces are +9 GMT but Sükhbaatar Aimag is SUHK +8.5 GMT.
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1868# The SUKH timezone is new this year, it is one of the few things the
1869# parliament passed during the tumultuous winter session."
1870# For now, let's ignore this information, until we have more confirmation.
1871
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1872# From Ganbold Ts. (2007-02-26):
1873# Parliament of Mongolia has just changed the daylight-saving rule in February.
1874# They decided not to adopt daylight-saving time....
1875# http://www.mongolnews.mn/index.php?module=unuudur&sec=view&id=15742
1876
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1877# From Deborah Goldsmith (2008-03-30):
1878# We received a bug report claiming that the tz database UTC offset for
1879# Asia/Choibalsan (GMT+09:00) is incorrect, and that it should be GMT
1880# +08:00 instead. Different sources appear to disagree with the tz
1881# database on this, e.g.:
1882#
fcf6e80e 1883# http://www.timeanddate.com/worldclock/city.html?n=1026
fcf6e80e 1884# http://www.worldtimeserver.com/current_time_in_MN.aspx
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1885#
1886# both say GMT+08:00.
1887
1888# From Steffen Thorsen (2008-03-31):
1889# eznis airways, which operates several domestic flights, has a flight
1890# schedule here:
fcf6e80e 1891# http://www.eznis.com/Container.jsp?id=112
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1892# (click the English flag for English)
1893#
48afb8ac 1894# There it appears that flights between Choibalsan and Ulaanbaatar arrive
fcf6e80e 1895# about 1:35 - 1:50 hours later in local clock time, no matter the
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1896# direction, while Ulaanbaatar-Khovd takes 2 hours in the Eastern
1897# direction and 3:35 back, which indicates that Ulaanbaatar and Khovd are
fcf6e80e 1898# in different time zones (like we know about), while Choibalsan and
48afb8ac 1899# Ulaanbaatar are in the same time zone (correction needed).
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1900
1901# From Arthur David Olson (2008-05-19):
1902# Assume that Choibalsan is indeed offset by 8:00.
1903# XXX--in the absence of better information, assume that transition
1904# was at the start of 2008-03-31 (the day of Steffen Thorsen's report);
1905# this is almost surely wrong.
1906
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1907# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
1908Rule Mongol 1983 1984 - Apr 1 0:00 1:00 S
1909Rule Mongol 1983 only - Oct 1 0:00 0 -
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1910# Shanks & Pottenger and IATA SSIM say 1990s switches occurred at 00:00,
1911# but McDow says the 2001 switches occurred at 02:00. Also, IATA SSIM
1912# (1996-09) says 1996-10-25. Go with Shanks & Pottenger through 1998.
1913#
1914# Shanks & Pottenger say that the Sept. 1984 through Sept. 1990 switches
48afb8ac 1915# in Choibalsan (more precisely, in Dornod and Sükhbaatar) took place
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1916# at 02:00 standard time, not at 00:00 local time as in the rest of
1917# the country. That would be odd, and possibly is a result of their
1918# correction of 02:00 (in the previous edition) not being done correctly
1919# in the latest edition; so ignore it for now.
1920
1921Rule Mongol 1985 1998 - Mar lastSun 0:00 1:00 S
1922Rule Mongol 1984 1998 - Sep lastSun 0:00 0 -
984263bc 1923# IATA SSIM (1999-09) says Mongolia no longer observes DST.
ba5ba9da 1924Rule Mongol 2001 only - Apr lastSat 2:00 1:00 S
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1925Rule Mongol 2001 2006 - Sep lastSat 2:00 0 -
1926Rule Mongol 2002 2006 - Mar lastSat 2:00 1:00 S
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1927
1928# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
1929# Hovd, a.k.a. Chovd, Dund-Us, Dzhargalant, Khovd, Jirgalanta
1930Zone Asia/Hovd 6:06:36 - LMT 1905 Aug
48afb8ac 1931 6:00 - HOVT 1978 # Hovd Time
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1932 7:00 Mongol HOV%sT
1933# Ulaanbaatar, a.k.a. Ulan Bataar, Ulan Bator, Urga
1934Zone Asia/Ulaanbaatar 7:07:32 - LMT 1905 Aug
48afb8ac 1935 7:00 - ULAT 1978 # Ulaanbaatar Time
984263bc 1936 8:00 Mongol ULA%sT
48afb8ac 1937# Choibalsan, a.k.a. Bajan Tümen, Bajan Tumen, Chojbalsan,
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1938# Choybalsan, Sanbejse, Tchoibalsan
1939Zone Asia/Choibalsan 7:38:00 - LMT 1905 Aug
1940 7:00 - ULAT 1978
1941 8:00 - ULAT 1983 Apr
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1942 9:00 Mongol CHO%sT 2008 Mar 31 # Choibalsan Time
1943 8:00 Mongol CHO%sT
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1944
1945# Nepal
1946# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
09695390 1947Zone Asia/Kathmandu 5:41:16 - LMT 1920
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1948 5:30 - IST 1986
1949 5:45 - NPT # Nepal Time
1950
1951# Oman
30d1d955 1952# See Asia/Dubai.
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1953
1954# Pakistan
1955
1956# From Rives McDow (2002-03-13):
1957# I have been advised that Pakistan has decided to adopt dst on a
1958# TRIAL basis for one year, starting 00:01 local time on April 7, 2002
1959# and ending at 00:01 local time October 6, 2002. This is what I was
1960# told, but I believe that the actual time of change may be 00:00; the
1961# 00:01 was to make it clear which day it was on.
1962
1963# From Paul Eggert (2002-03-15):
48afb8ac 1964# Jesper Nørgaard found this URL:
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1965# http://www.pak.gov.pk/public/news/app/app06_dec.htm
1966# (dated 2001-12-06) which says that the Cabinet adopted a scheme "to
1967# advance the clocks by one hour on the night between the first
1968# Saturday and Sunday of April and revert to the original position on
1969# 15th October each year". This agrees with McDow's 04-07 at 00:00,
1970# but disagrees about the October transition, and makes it sound like
1971# it's not on a trial basis. Also, the "between the first Saturday
1972# and Sunday of April" phrase, if taken literally, means that the
1973# transition takes place at 00:00 on the first Sunday on or after 04-02.
1974
1975# From Paul Eggert (2003-02-09):
1976# DAWN <http://www.dawn.com/2002/10/06/top13.htm> reported on 2002-10-05
1977# that 2002 DST ended that day at midnight. Go with McDow for now.
1978
1979# From Steffen Thorsen (2003-03-14):
1980# According to http://www.dawn.com/2003/03/07/top15.htm
1981# there will be no DST in Pakistan this year:
1982#
1983# ISLAMABAD, March 6: Information and Media Development Minister Sheikh
1984# Rashid Ahmed on Thursday said the cabinet had reversed a previous
1985# decision to advance clocks by one hour in summer and put them back by
1986# one hour in winter with the aim of saving light hours and energy.
1987#
1988# The minister told a news conference that the experiment had rather
1989# shown 8 per cent higher consumption of electricity.
1990
fcf6e80e 1991# From Alex Krivenyshev (2008-05-15):
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1992#
1993# Here is an article that Pakistan plan to introduce Daylight Saving Time
fcf6e80e 1994# on June 1, 2008 for 3 months.
ef5158c8 1995#
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1996# "... The federal cabinet on Wednesday announced a new conservation plan to
1997# help reduce load shedding by approving the closure of commercial centres at
1998# 9pm and moving clocks forward by one hour for the next three months. ...."
ef5158c8 1999#
fcf6e80e 2000# http://www.worldtimezone.net/dst_news/dst_news_pakistan01.html
fcf6e80e 2001# http://www.dailytimes.com.pk/default.asp?page=2008%5C05%5C15%5Cstory_15-5-2008_pg1_4
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2002
2003# From Arthur David Olson (2008-05-19):
2004# XXX--midnight transitions is a guess; 2008 only is a guess.
984263bc 2005
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2006# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2008-08-28):
2007# Pakistan government has decided to keep the watches one-hour advanced
48afb8ac 2008# for another 2 months - plan to return to Standard Time on October 31
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2009# instead of August 31.
2010#
234dfcd0 2011# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_pakistan02.html
234dfcd0 2012# http://dailymailnews.com/200808/28/news/dmbrn03.html
234dfcd0 2013
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2014# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-04-08):
2015# Based on previous media reports that "... proposed plan to
2016# advance clocks by one hour from May 1 will cause disturbance
2017# to the working schedules rather than bringing discipline in
2018# official working."
da2a65f2 2019# http://www.thenews.com.pk/daily_detail.asp?id=171280
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2020#
2021# recent news that instead of May 2009 - Pakistan plan to
2022# introduce DST from April 15, 2009
2023#
2024# FYI: Associated Press Of Pakistan
2025# April 08, 2009
2026# Cabinet okays proposal to advance clocks by one hour from April 15
da2a65f2 2027# http://www.app.com.pk/en_/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=73043&Itemid=1
da2a65f2 2028# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_pakistan05.html
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2029#
2030# ....
2031# The Federal Cabinet on Wednesday approved the proposal to
2032# advance clocks in the country by one hour from April 15 to
2033# conserve energy"
2034
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2035# From Steffen Thorsen (2009-09-17):
2036# "The News International," Pakistan reports that: "The Federal
2037# Government has decided to restore the previous time by moving the
2038# clocks backward by one hour from October 1. A formal announcement to
2039# this effect will be made after the Prime Minister grants approval in
2040# this regard."
0d01c093 2041# http://www.thenews.com.pk/updates.asp?id=87168
da2a65f2 2042
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2043# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-09-28):
2044# According to Associated Press Of Pakistan, it is confirmed that
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2045# Pakistan clocks across the country would be turned back by an hour from
2046# October 1, 2009.
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2047#
2048# "Clocks to go back one hour from 1 Oct"
83c88d65 2049# http://www.app.com.pk/en_/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=86715&Itemid=2
83c88d65 2050# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_pakistan07.htm
83c88d65 2051#
48afb8ac 2052# From Steffen Thorsen (2009-09-29):
83c88d65 2053# Now they seem to have changed their mind, November 1 is the new date:
83c88d65 2054# http://www.thenews.com.pk/top_story_detail.asp?Id=24742
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2055# "The country's clocks will be reversed by one hour on November 1.
2056# Officials of Federal Ministry for Interior told this to Geo News on
2057# Monday."
2058#
2059# And more importantly, it seems that these dates will be kept every year:
2060# "It has now been decided that clocks will be wound forward by one hour
2061# on April 15 and reversed by an hour on November 1 every year without
2062# obtaining prior approval, the officials added."
2063#
2064# We have confirmed this year's end date with both with the Ministry of
2065# Water and Power and the Pakistan Electric Power Company:
83c88d65 2066# http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/pakistan-ends-dst09.html
83c88d65 2067
48afb8ac 2068# From Christoph Göhre (2009-10-01):
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2069# [T]he German Consulate General in Karachi reported me today that Pakistan
2070# will go back to standard time on 1st of November.
2071
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2072# From Steffen Thorsen (2010-03-26):
2073# Steffen Thorsen wrote:
2074# > On Thursday (2010-03-25) it was announced that DST would start in
2075# > Pakistan on 2010-04-01.
2076# >
2077# > Then today, the president said that they might have to revert the
2078# > decision if it is not supported by the parliament. So at the time
2079# > being, it seems unclear if DST will be actually observed or not - but
2080# > April 1 could be a more likely date than April 15.
2081# Now, it seems that the decision to not observe DST in final:
2082#
2083# "Govt Withdraws Plan To Advance Clocks"
faff2363 2084# http://www.apakistannews.com/govt-withdraws-plan-to-advance-clocks-172041
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2085#
2086# "People laud PM's announcement to end DST"
faff2363 2087# http://www.app.com.pk/en_/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=99374&Itemid=2
faff2363 2088
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2089# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
2090Rule Pakistan 2002 only - Apr Sun>=2 0:01 1:00 S
2091Rule Pakistan 2002 only - Oct Sun>=2 0:01 0 -
fcf6e80e 2092Rule Pakistan 2008 only - Jun 1 0:00 1:00 S
48afb8ac 2093Rule Pakistan 2008 2009 - Nov 1 0:00 0 -
faff2363 2094Rule Pakistan 2009 only - Apr 15 0:00 1:00 S
faff2363 2095
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2096# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
2097Zone Asia/Karachi 4:28:12 - LMT 1907
2098 5:30 - IST 1942 Sep
2099 5:30 1:00 IST 1945 Oct 15
2100 5:30 - IST 1951 Sep 30
2101 5:00 - KART 1971 Mar 26 # Karachi Time
2102 5:00 Pakistan PK%sT # Pakistan Time
2103
2104# Palestine
2105
9ffe4b14 2106# From Amos Shapir (1998-02-15):
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2107#
2108# From 1917 until 1948-05-15, all of Palestine, including the parts now
2109# known as the Gaza Strip and the West Bank, was under British rule.
2110# Therefore the rules given for Israel for that period, apply there too...
2111#
2112# The Gaza Strip was under Egyptian rule between 1948-05-15 until 1967-06-05
2113# (except a short occupation by Israel from 1956-11 till 1957-03, but no
2114# time zone was affected then). It was never formally annexed to Egypt,
2115# though.
2116#
2117# The rest of Palestine was under Jordanian rule at that time, formally
2118# annexed in 1950 as the West Bank (and the word "Trans" was dropped from
2119# the country's previous name of "the Hashemite Kingdom of the
2120# Trans-Jordan"). So the rules for Jordan for that time apply. Major
2121# towns in that area are Nablus (Shchem), El-Halil (Hebron), Ramallah, and
2122# East Jerusalem.
2123#
2124# Both areas were occupied by Israel in June 1967, but not annexed (except
2125# for East Jerusalem). They were on Israel time since then; there might
2126# have been a Military Governor's order about time zones, but I'm not aware
2127# of any (such orders may have been issued semi-annually whenever summer
2128# time was in effect, but maybe the legal aspect of time was just neglected).
2129#
2130# The Palestinian Authority was established in 1993, and got hold of most
2131# towns in the West Bank and Gaza by 1995. I know that in order to
2132# demonstrate...independence, they have been switching to
2133# summer time and back on a different schedule than Israel's, but I don't
2134# know when this was started, or what algorithm is used (most likely the
2135# Jordanian one).
2136#
2137# To summarize, the table should probably look something like that:
2138#
2139# Area \ when | 1918-1947 | 1948-1967 | 1967-1995 | 1996-
2140# ------------+-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------
2141# Israel | Zion | Zion | Zion | Zion
2142# West bank | Zion | Jordan | Zion | Jordan
2143# Gaza | Zion | Egypt | Zion | Jordan
2144#
2145# I guess more info may be available from the PA's web page (if/when they
2146# have one).
2147
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2148# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
2149# Shanks & Pottenger write that Gaza did not observe DST until 1957, but go
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2150# with Shapir and assume that it observed DST from 1940 through 1947,
2151# and that it used Jordanian rules starting in 1996.
2152# We don't yet need a separate entry for the West Bank, since
2153# the only differences between it and Gaza that we know about
2154# occurred before our cutoff date of 1970.
2155# However, as we get more information, we may need to add entries
2156# for parts of the West Bank as they transitioned from Israel's rules
933b0a8d 2157# to Palestine's rules.
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2158
2159# From IINS News Service - Israel - 1998-03-23 10:38:07 Israel time,
2160# forwarded by Ephraim Silverberg:
2161#
2162# Despite the fact that Israel changed over to daylight savings time
2163# last week, the PLO Authority (PA) has decided not to turn its clocks
2164# one-hour forward at this time. As a sign of independence from Israeli rule,
2165# the PA has decided to implement DST in April.
2166
2167# From Paul Eggert (1999-09-20):
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2168# Daoud Kuttab writes in Holiday havoc
2169# http://www.jpost.com/com/Archive/22.Apr.1999/Opinion/Article-2.html
2170# (Jerusalem Post, 1999-04-22) that
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2171# the Palestinian National Authority changed to DST on 1999-04-15.
2172# I vaguely recall that they switch back in October (sorry, forgot the source).
2173# For now, let's assume that the spring switch was at 24:00,
2174# and that they switch at 0:00 on the 3rd Fridays of April and October.
2175
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2176# From Paul Eggert (2005-11-22):
2177# Starting 2004 transitions are from Steffen Thorsen's web site timeanddate.com.
2178
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2179# From Steffen Thorsen (2005-11-23):
2180# A user from Gaza reported that Gaza made the change early because of
2181# the Ramadan. Next year Ramadan will be even earlier, so I think
2182# there is a good chance next year's end date will be around two weeks
48afb8ac 2183# earlier - the same goes for Jordan.
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2184
2185# From Steffen Thorsen (2006-08-17):
2186# I was informed by a user in Bethlehem that in Bethlehem it started the
2187# same day as Israel, and after checking with other users in the area, I
2188# was informed that they started DST one day after Israel. I was not
2189# able to find any authoritative sources at the time, nor details if
2190# Gaza changed as well, but presumed Gaza to follow the same rules as
2191# the West Bank.
2192
2193# From Steffen Thorsen (2006-09-26):
2194# according to the Palestine News Network (2006-09-19):
2195# http://english.pnn.ps/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=596&Itemid=5
2196# > The Council of Ministers announced that this year its winter schedule
2197# > will begin early, as of midnight Thursday. It is also time to turn
2198# > back the clocks for winter. Friday will begin an hour late this week.
2199# I guess it is likely that next year's date will be moved as well,
2200# because of the Ramadan.
2201
48afb8ac 2202# From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2007-09-18):
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2203# According to Steffen Thorsen's web site the Gaza Strip and the rest of the
2204# Palestinian territories left DST early on 13.th. of September at 2:00.
2205
2206# From Paul Eggert (2007-09-20):
2207# My understanding is that Gaza and the West Bank disagree even over when
2208# the weekend is (Thursday+Friday versus Friday+Saturday), so I'd be a bit
2209# surprised if they agreed about DST. But for now, assume they agree.
2210# For lack of better information, predict that future changes will be
2211# the 2nd Thursday of September at 02:00.
2212
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2213# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2008-08-28):
2214# Here is an article, that Mideast running on different clocks at Ramadan.
2215#
2216# Gaza Strip (as Egypt) ended DST at midnight Thursday (Aug 28, 2008), while
2217# the West Bank will end Daylight Saving Time at midnight Sunday (Aug 31, 2008).
2218#
234dfcd0 2219# http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/feedarticle/7759001
234dfcd0 2220# http://www.abcnews.go.com/International/wireStory?id=5676087
234dfcd0 2221# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_gazastrip01.html
234dfcd0 2222
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2223# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-03-26):
2224# According to the Palestine News Network (arabic.pnn.ps), Palestinian
2225# government decided to start Daylight Time on Thursday night March
2226# 26 and continue until the night of 27 September 2009.
2227#
2228# (in Arabic)
aedcd57b 2229# http://arabic.pnn.ps/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=50850
aedcd57b 2230#
aedcd57b 2231# (English translation)
aedcd57b 2232# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_westbank01.html
aedcd57b 2233
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2234# From Steffen Thorsen (2009-08-31):
2235# Palestine's Council of Ministers announced that they will revert back to
2236# winter time on Friday, 2009-09-04.
2237#
2238# One news source:
ae8fda8f 2239# http://www.safa.ps/ara/?action=showdetail&seid=4158
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2240# (Palestinian press agency, Arabic),
2241# Google translate: "Decided that the Palestinian government in Ramallah
2242# headed by Salam Fayyad, the start of work in time for the winter of
2243# 2009, starting on Friday approved the fourth delay Sept. clock sixty
2244# minutes per hour as of Friday morning."
2245#
2246# We are not sure if Gaza will do the same, last year they had a different
2247# end date, we will keep this page updated:
ae8fda8f 2248# http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/westbank-gaza-dst-2009.html
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2249
2250# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-09-02):
2251# Seems that Gaza Strip will go back to Winter Time same date as West Bank.
2252#
2253# According to Palestinian Ministry Of Interior, West Bank and Gaza Strip plan
2254# to change time back to Standard time on September 4, 2009.
2255#
2256# "Winter time unite the West Bank and Gaza"
2257# (from Palestinian National Authority):
ae8fda8f 2258# http://www.moi.gov.ps/en/?page=633167343250594025&nid=11505
ae8fda8f 2259# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_gazastrip02.html
ae8fda8f 2260
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2261# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2010-03-19):
2262# According to Voice of Palestine DST will last for 191 days, from March
2263# 26, 2010 till "the last Sunday before the tenth day of Tishri
2264# (October), each year" (October 03, 2010?)
2265#
63c2ac5e 2266# http://palvoice.org/forums/showthread.php?t=245697
63c2ac5e 2267# (in Arabic)
63c2ac5e 2268# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_westbank03.html
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2269
2270# From Steffen Thorsen (2010-03-24):
2271# ...Ma'an News Agency reports that Hamas cabinet has decided it will
2272# start one day later, at 12:01am. Not sure if they really mean 12:01am or
2273# noon though:
2274#
63c2ac5e 2275# http://www.maannews.net/eng/ViewDetails.aspx?ID=271178
63c2ac5e
SW
2276# (Ma'an News Agency)
2277# "At 12:01am Friday, clocks in Israel and the West Bank will change to
2278# 1:01am, while Gaza clocks will change at 12:01am Saturday morning."
2279
b61525e2
SW
2280# From Steffen Thorsen (2010-08-11):
2281# According to several sources, including
b61525e2 2282# http://www.maannews.net/eng/ViewDetails.aspx?ID=306795
b61525e2
SW
2283# the clocks were set back one hour at 2010-08-11 00:00:00 local time in
2284# Gaza and the West Bank.
2285# Some more background info:
b61525e2 2286# http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/westbank-gaza-end-dst-2010.html
b61525e2 2287
8e329db9
SW
2288# From Steffen Thorsen (2011-08-26):
2289# Gaza and the West Bank did go back to standard time in the beginning of
2290# August, and will now enter daylight saving time again on 2011-08-30
2291# 00:00 (so two periods of DST in 2011). The pause was because of
2292# Ramadan.
2293#
8e329db9 2294# http://www.maannews.net/eng/ViewDetails.aspx?ID=416217
8e329db9 2295# Additional info:
8e329db9 2296# http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/palestine-dst-2011.html
8e329db9
SW
2297
2298# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2011-08-27):
2299# According to the article in The Jerusalem Post:
2300# "...Earlier this month, the Palestinian government in the West Bank decided to
2301# move to standard time for 30 days, during Ramadan. The Palestinians in the
2302# Gaza Strip accepted the change and also moved their clocks one hour back.
2303# The Hamas government said on Saturday that it won't observe summertime after
2304# the Muslim feast of Id al-Fitr, which begins on Tuesday..."
2305# ...
8e329db9 2306# http://www.jpost.com/MiddleEast/Article.aspx?id=235650
8e329db9 2307# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_gazastrip05.html
48afb8ac 2308# The rules for Egypt are stolen from the 'africa' file.
8e329db9 2309
7f2a8808
SW
2310# From Steffen Thorsen (2011-09-30):
2311# West Bank did end Daylight Saving Time this morning/midnight (2011-09-30
2312# 00:00).
2313# So West Bank and Gaza now have the same time again.
2314#
2315# Many sources, including:
7f2a8808 2316# http://www.maannews.net/eng/ViewDetails.aspx?ID=424808
7f2a8808 2317
20aca2bf
SW
2318# From Steffen Thorsen (2012-03-26):
2319# Palestinian news sources tell that both Gaza and West Bank will start DST
2320# on Friday (Thursday midnight, 2012-03-29 24:00).
2321# Some of many sources in Arabic:
20aca2bf 2322# http://www.samanews.com/index.php?act=Show&id=122638
20aca2bf 2323#
20aca2bf 2324# http://safa.ps/details/news/74352/%D8%A8%D8%AF%D8%A1-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%AA%D9%88%D9%82%D9%8A%D8%AA-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B5%D9%8A%D9%81%D9%8A-%D8%A8%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B6%D9%81%D8%A9-%D9%88%D8%BA%D8%B2%D8%A9-%D9%84%D9%8A%D9%84%D8%A9-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%AC%D9%85%D8%B9%D8%A9.html
20aca2bf
SW
2325#
2326# Our brief summary:
20aca2bf 2327# http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/gaza-west-bank-dst-2012.html
20aca2bf 2328
aee0b81b
SW
2329# From Steffen Thorsen (2013-03-26):
2330# The following news sources tells that Palestine will "start daylight saving
2331# time from midnight on Friday, March 29, 2013" (translated).
2332# [These are in Arabic and are for Gaza and for Ramallah, respectively.]
2333# http://www.samanews.com/index.php?act=Show&id=154120
2334# http://safa.ps/details/news/99844/%D8%B1%D8%A7%D9%85-%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%84%D9%87-%D8%A8%D8%AF%D8%A1-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%AA%D9%88%D9%82%D9%8A%D8%AA-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B5%D9%8A%D9%81%D9%8A-29-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%AC%D8%A7%D8%B1%D9%8A.html
2335
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SW
2336# From Steffen Thorsen (2013-09-24):
2337# The Gaza and West Bank are ending DST Thursday at midnight
2338# (2013-09-27 00:00:00) (one hour earlier than last year...).
2339# This source in English, says "that winter time will go into effect
2340# at midnight on Thursday in the West Bank and Gaza Strip":
2341# http://english.wafa.ps/index.php?action=detail&id=23246
2342# official source...:
2343# http://www.palestinecabinet.gov.ps/ar/Views/ViewDetails.aspx?pid=1252
2344
2345# From Paul Eggert (2013-09-24):
aee0b81b 2346# For future dates, guess the last Thursday in March at 24:00 through
d1bcb6be 2347# the first Friday on or after September 21 at 00:00. This is consistent with
aee0b81b
SW
2348# the predictions in today's editions of the following URLs,
2349# which are for Gaza and Hebron respectively:
2350# http://www.timeanddate.com/worldclock/timezone.html?n=702
2351# http://www.timeanddate.com/worldclock/timezone.html?n=2364
20aca2bf 2352
984263bc
MD
2353# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
2354Rule EgyptAsia 1957 only - May 10 0:00 1:00 S
2355Rule EgyptAsia 1957 1958 - Oct 1 0:00 0 -
2356Rule EgyptAsia 1958 only - May 1 0:00 1:00 S
2357Rule EgyptAsia 1959 1967 - May 1 1:00 1:00 S
2358Rule EgyptAsia 1959 1965 - Sep 30 3:00 0 -
2359Rule EgyptAsia 1966 only - Oct 1 3:00 0 -
2360
bd7414aa 2361Rule Palestine 1999 2005 - Apr Fri>=15 0:00 1:00 S
aa65d21a
SW
2362Rule Palestine 1999 2003 - Oct Fri>=15 0:00 0 -
2363Rule Palestine 2004 only - Oct 1 1:00 0 -
bd7414aa 2364Rule Palestine 2005 only - Oct 4 2:00 0 -
aee0b81b 2365Rule Palestine 2006 2007 - Apr 1 0:00 1:00 S
bd7414aa 2366Rule Palestine 2006 only - Sep 22 0:00 0 -
234dfcd0 2367Rule Palestine 2007 only - Sep Thu>=8 2:00 0 -
aee0b81b
SW
2368Rule Palestine 2008 2009 - Mar lastFri 0:00 1:00 S
2369Rule Palestine 2008 only - Sep 1 0:00 0 -
2370Rule Palestine 2009 only - Sep Fri>=1 1:00 0 -
2371Rule Palestine 2010 only - Mar 26 0:00 1:00 S
b61525e2 2372Rule Palestine 2010 only - Aug 11 0:00 0 -
aee0b81b
SW
2373Rule Palestine 2011 only - Apr 1 0:01 1:00 S
2374Rule Palestine 2011 only - Aug 1 0:00 0 -
2375Rule Palestine 2011 only - Aug 30 0:00 1:00 S
2376Rule Palestine 2011 only - Sep 30 0:00 0 -
2377Rule Palestine 2012 max - Mar lastThu 24:00 1:00 S
d1bcb6be
SW
2378Rule Palestine 2012 only - Sep 21 1:00 0 -
2379Rule Palestine 2013 max - Sep Fri>=21 0:00 0 -
8e329db9 2380
984263bc
MD
2381# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
2382Zone Asia/Gaza 2:17:52 - LMT 1900 Oct
2383 2:00 Zion EET 1948 May 15
2384 2:00 EgyptAsia EE%sT 1967 Jun 5
2385 2:00 Zion I%sT 1996
2386 2:00 Jordan EE%sT 1999
48afb8ac 2387 2:00 Palestine EE%sT 2008 Aug 29 0:00
aee0b81b
SW
2388 2:00 - EET 2008 Sep
2389 2:00 Palestine EE%sT 2010
48afb8ac 2390 2:00 - EET 2010 Mar 27 0:01
aee0b81b
SW
2391 2:00 Palestine EE%sT 2011 Aug 1
2392 2:00 - EET 2012
2393 2:00 Palestine EE%sT
8e329db9
SW
2394
2395Zone Asia/Hebron 2:20:23 - LMT 1900 Oct
2396 2:00 Zion EET 1948 May 15
2397 2:00 EgyptAsia EE%sT 1967 Jun 5
2398 2:00 Zion I%sT 1996
2399 2:00 Jordan EE%sT 1999
aee0b81b 2400 2:00 Palestine EE%sT
984263bc
MD
2401
2402# Paracel Is
2403# no information
2404
2405# Philippines
48afb8ac 2406# On 1844-08-16, Narciso Clavería, governor-general of the
984263bc 2407# Philippines, issued a proclamation announcing that 1844-12-30 was to
48afb8ac
SW
2408# be immediately followed by 1845-01-01; see R.H. van Gent's
2409# History of the International Date Line
2410# http://www.staff.science.uu.nl/~gent0113/idl/idl_philippines.htm
2411# The rest of the data entries are from Shanks & Pottenger.
bd7414aa 2412
48afb8ac 2413# From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2006-04-26):
bd7414aa
SW
2414# ... claims that Philippines had DST last time in 1990:
2415# http://story.philippinetimes.com/p.x/ct/9/id/145be20cc6b121c0/cid/3e5bbccc730d258c/
2416# [a story dated 2006-04-25 by Cris Larano of Dow Jones Newswires,
2417# but no details]
2418
48afb8ac
SW
2419# From Paul Eggert (2014-08-14):
2420# The following source says DST may be instituted November-January and again
2421# March-June, but this is not definite. It also says DST was last proclaimed
2422# during the Ramos administration (1992-1998); but again, no details.
2423# Carcamo D. PNoy urged to declare use of daylight saving time.
2424# Philippine Star 2014-08-05
2425# http://www.philstar.com/headlines/2014/08/05/1354152/pnoy-urged-declare-use-daylight-saving-time
2426
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MD
2427# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
2428Rule Phil 1936 only - Nov 1 0:00 1:00 S
2429Rule Phil 1937 only - Feb 1 0:00 0 -
2430Rule Phil 1954 only - Apr 12 0:00 1:00 S
2431Rule Phil 1954 only - Jul 1 0:00 0 -
2432Rule Phil 1978 only - Mar 22 0:00 1:00 S
2433Rule Phil 1978 only - Sep 21 0:00 0 -
2434# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
2435Zone Asia/Manila -15:56:00 - LMT 1844 Dec 31
2436 8:04:00 - LMT 1899 May 11
2437 8:00 Phil PH%sT 1942 May
2438 9:00 - JST 1944 Nov
2439 8:00 Phil PH%sT
2440
2441# Qatar
2442# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
48afb8ac 2443Zone Asia/Qatar 3:26:08 - LMT 1920 # Al Dawhah / Doha
984263bc
MD
2444 4:00 - GST 1972 Jun
2445 3:00 - AST
30d1d955 2446Link Asia/Qatar Asia/Bahrain
984263bc
MD
2447
2448# Saudi Arabia
48afb8ac
SW
2449#
2450# From Paul Eggert (2014-07-15):
2451# Time in Saudi Arabia and other countries in the Arabian peninsula was not
2452# standardized until relatively recently; we don't know when, and possibly it
2453# has never been made official. Richard P Hunt, in "Islam city yielding to
2454# modern times", New York Times (1961-04-09), p 20, wrote that only airlines
2455# observed standard time, and that people in Jeddah mostly observed quasi-solar
2456# time, doing so by setting their watches at sunrise to 6 o'clock (or to 12
2457# o'clock for "Arab" time).
2458#
2459# The TZ database cannot represent quasi-solar time; airline time is the best
2460# we can do. The 1946 foreign air news digest of the U.S. Civil Aeronautics
2461# Board (OCLC 42299995) reported that the "... Arabian Government, inaugurated
2462# a weekly Dhahran-Cairo service, via the Saudi Arabian cities of Riyadh and
2463# Jidda, on March 14, 1947". Shanks & Pottenger guessed 1950; go with the
2464# earlier date.
2465#
2466# Shanks & Pottenger also state that until 1968-05-01 Saudi Arabia had two
2467# time zones; the other zone, at UTC+4, was in the far eastern part of
2468# the country. Ignore this, as it's before our 1970 cutoff.
2469#
984263bc 2470# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
48afb8ac 2471Zone Asia/Riyadh 3:06:52 - LMT 1947 Mar 14
984263bc 2472 3:00 - AST
30d1d955
SW
2473Link Asia/Riyadh Asia/Aden # Yemen
2474Link Asia/Riyadh Asia/Kuwait
984263bc
MD
2475
2476# Singapore
48afb8ac
SW
2477# taken from Mok Ly Yng (2003-10-30)
2478# http://www.math.nus.edu.sg/aslaksen/teaching/timezone.html
984263bc 2479# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
ba5ba9da
JR
2480Zone Asia/Singapore 6:55:25 - LMT 1901 Jan 1
2481 6:55:25 - SMT 1905 Jun 1 # Singapore M.T.
2482 7:00 - MALT 1933 Jan 1 # Malaya Time
2483 7:00 0:20 MALST 1936 Jan 1
2484 7:20 - MALT 1941 Sep 1
2485 7:30 - MALT 1942 Feb 16
2486 9:00 - JST 1945 Sep 12
984263bc 2487 7:30 - MALT 1965 Aug 9 # independence
ba5ba9da 2488 7:30 - SGT 1982 Jan 1 # Singapore Time
984263bc
MD
2489 8:00 - SGT
2490
2491# Spratly Is
2492# no information
2493
2494# Sri Lanka
80e7e01d
SW
2495
2496# From Paul Eggert (2013-02-21):
2497# Milne says "Madras mean time use from May 1, 1898. Prior to this Colombo
2498# mean time, 5h. 4m. 21.9s. F., was used." But 5:04:21.9 differs considerably
2499# from Colombo's meridian 5:19:24, so for now ignore Milne and stick with
2500# Shanks and Pottenger.
2501
984263bc
MD
2502# From Paul Eggert (1996-09-03):
2503# "Sri Lanka advances clock by an hour to avoid blackout"
48afb8ac 2504# (<http://www.virtual-pc.com/lankaweb/news/items/240596-2.html>, 1996-05-24,
984263bc 2505# no longer available as of 1999-08-17)
48afb8ac
SW
2506# reported "the country's standard time will be put forward by one hour at
2507# midnight Friday (1830 GMT) 'in the light of the present power crisis'."
984263bc
MD
2508#
2509# From Dharmasiri Senanayake, Sri Lanka Media Minister (1996-10-24), as quoted
48afb8ac
SW
2510# by Shamindra in Daily News - Hot News Section
2511# <news:54rka5$m5h@mtinsc01-mgt.ops.worldnet.att.net> (1996-10-26):
984263bc
MD
2512# With effect from 12.30 a.m. on 26th October 1996
2513# Sri Lanka will be six (06) hours ahead of GMT.
2514
48afb8ac 2515# From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2006-04-14), quoting Sri Lanka News Online
bd7414aa
SW
2516# <http://news.sinhalaya.com/wmview.php?ArtID=11002> (2006-04-13):
2517# 0030 hrs on April 15, 2006 (midnight of April 14, 2006 +30 minutes)
2518# at present, become 2400 hours of April 14, 2006 (midnight of April 14, 2006).
2519
2520# From Peter Apps and Ranga Sirila of Reuters (2006-04-12) in:
48afb8ac 2521# http://today.reuters.co.uk/news/newsArticle.aspx?type=scienceNews&storyID=2006-04-12T172228Z_01_COL295762_RTRIDST_0_SCIENCE-SRILANKA-TIME-DC.XML
bd7414aa
SW
2522# [The Tamil Tigers] never accepted the original 1996 time change and simply
2523# kept their clocks set five and a half hours ahead of Greenwich Mean
2524# Time (GMT), in line with neighbor India.
2525# From Paul Eggert (2006-04-18):
e4a74243 2526# People who live in regions under Tamil control can use [TZ='Asia/Kolkata'],
bd7414aa
SW
2527# as that zone has agreed with the Tamil areas since our cutoff date of 1970.
2528
2529# From K Sethu (2006-04-25):
2530# I think the abbreviation LKT originated from the world of computers at
2531# the time of or subsequent to the time zone changes by SL Government
2532# twice in 1996 and probably SL Government or its standardization
2533# agencies never declared an abbreviation as a national standard.
2534#
48afb8ac 2535# I recollect before the recent change the government announcements
bd7414aa
SW
2536# mentioning it as simply changing Sri Lanka Standard Time or Sri Lanka
2537# Time and no mention was made about the abbreviation.
2538#
2539# If we look at Sri Lanka Department of Government's "Official News
2540# Website of Sri Lanka" ... http://www.news.lk/ we can see that they
2541# use SLT as abbreviation in time stamp at the beginning of each news
2542# item....
2543#
2544# Within Sri Lanka I think LKT is well known among computer users and
48afb8ac 2545# administrators. In my opinion SLT may not be a good choice because the
bd7414aa
SW
2546# nation's largest telcom / internet operator Sri Lanka Telcom is well
2547# known by that abbreviation - simply as SLT (there IP domains are
2548# slt.lk and sltnet.lk).
2549#
2550# But if indeed our government has adopted SLT as standard abbreviation
2551# (that we have not known so far) then it is better that it be used for
2552# all computers.
2553
2554# From Paul Eggert (2006-04-25):
2555# One possibility is that we wait for a bit for the dust to settle down
2556# and then see what people actually say in practice.
2557
984263bc
MD
2558# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
2559Zone Asia/Colombo 5:19:24 - LMT 1880
48afb8ac 2560 5:19:32 - MMT 1906 # Moratuwa Mean Time
984263bc
MD
2561 5:30 - IST 1942 Jan 5
2562 5:30 0:30 IHST 1942 Sep
48afb8ac
SW
2563 5:30 1:00 IST 1945 Oct 16 2:00
2564 5:30 - IST 1996 May 25 0:00
2565 6:30 - LKT 1996 Oct 26 0:30
2566 6:00 - LKT 2006 Apr 15 0:30
bd7414aa 2567 5:30 - IST
984263bc
MD
2568
2569# Syria
2570# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
2571Rule Syria 1920 1923 - Apr Sun>=15 2:00 1:00 S
2572Rule Syria 1920 1923 - Oct Sun>=1 2:00 0 -
2573Rule Syria 1962 only - Apr 29 2:00 1:00 S
2574Rule Syria 1962 only - Oct 1 2:00 0 -
2575Rule Syria 1963 1965 - May 1 2:00 1:00 S
2576Rule Syria 1963 only - Sep 30 2:00 0 -
2577Rule Syria 1964 only - Oct 1 2:00 0 -
2578Rule Syria 1965 only - Sep 30 2:00 0 -
2579Rule Syria 1966 only - Apr 24 2:00 1:00 S
2580Rule Syria 1966 1976 - Oct 1 2:00 0 -
2581Rule Syria 1967 1978 - May 1 2:00 1:00 S
2582Rule Syria 1977 1978 - Sep 1 2:00 0 -
2583Rule Syria 1983 1984 - Apr 9 2:00 1:00 S
2584Rule Syria 1983 1984 - Oct 1 2:00 0 -
2585Rule Syria 1986 only - Feb 16 2:00 1:00 S
2586Rule Syria 1986 only - Oct 9 2:00 0 -
2587Rule Syria 1987 only - Mar 1 2:00 1:00 S
2588Rule Syria 1987 1988 - Oct 31 2:00 0 -
2589Rule Syria 1988 only - Mar 15 2:00 1:00 S
2590Rule Syria 1989 only - Mar 31 2:00 1:00 S
2591Rule Syria 1989 only - Oct 1 2:00 0 -
2592Rule Syria 1990 only - Apr 1 2:00 1:00 S
2593Rule Syria 1990 only - Sep 30 2:00 0 -
2594Rule Syria 1991 only - Apr 1 0:00 1:00 S
2595Rule Syria 1991 1992 - Oct 1 0:00 0 -
2596Rule Syria 1992 only - Apr 8 0:00 1:00 S
2597Rule Syria 1993 only - Mar 26 0:00 1:00 S
2598Rule Syria 1993 only - Sep 25 0:00 0 -
2599# IATA SSIM (1998-02) says 1998-04-02;
2600# (1998-09) says 1999-03-29 and 1999-09-29; (1999-02) says 1999-04-02,
2601# 2000-04-02, and 2001-04-02; (1999-09) says 2000-03-31 and 2001-03-31;
bd7414aa
SW
2602# (2006) says 2006-03-31 and 2006-09-22;
2603# for now ignore all these claims and go with Shanks & Pottenger,
2604# except for the 2006-09-22 claim (which seems right for Ramadan).
984263bc 2605Rule Syria 1994 1996 - Apr 1 0:00 1:00 S
bd7414aa 2606Rule Syria 1994 2005 - Oct 1 0:00 0 -
984263bc 2607Rule Syria 1997 1998 - Mar lastMon 0:00 1:00 S
f2892a6d 2608Rule Syria 1999 2006 - Apr 1 0:00 1:00 S
bd7414aa
SW
2609# From Stephen Colebourne (2006-09-18):
2610# According to IATA data, Syria will change DST on 21st September [21:00 UTC]
2611# this year [only].... This is probably related to Ramadan, like Egypt.
2612Rule Syria 2006 only - Sep 22 0:00 0 -
f2892a6d
SW
2613# From Paul Eggert (2007-03-29):
2614# Today the AP reported "Syria will switch to summertime at midnight Thursday."
2615# http://www.iht.com/articles/ap/2007/03/29/africa/ME-GEN-Syria-Time-Change.php
e4a74243 2616Rule Syria 2007 only - Mar lastFri 0:00 1:00 S
48afb8ac 2617# From Jesper Nørgaard (2007-10-27):
1aec505f 2618# The sister center ICARDA of my work CIMMYT is confirming that Syria DST will
96e83414
SW
2619# not take place 1st November at 0:00 o'clock but 1st November at 24:00 or
2620# rather Midnight between Thursday and Friday. This does make more sense than
1aec505f
SW
2621# having it between Wednesday and Thursday (two workdays in Syria) since the
2622# weekend in Syria is not Saturday and Sunday, but Friday and Saturday. So now
2623# it is implemented at midnight of the last workday before weekend...
ef5158c8 2624#
1aec505f 2625# From Steffen Thorsen (2007-10-27):
48afb8ac 2626# Jesper Nørgaard Welen wrote:
ef5158c8 2627#
1aec505f
SW
2628# > "Winter local time in Syria will be observed at midnight of Thursday 1
2629# > November 2007, and the clock will be put back 1 hour."
ef5158c8 2630#
1aec505f
SW
2631# I found confirmation on this in this gov.sy-article (Arabic):
2632# http://wehda.alwehda.gov.sy/_print_veiw.asp?FileName=12521710520070926111247
ef5158c8 2633#
1aec505f 2634# which using Google's translate tools says:
ef5158c8
SW
2635# Council of Ministers also approved the commencement of work on
2636# identifying the winter time as of Friday, 2/11/2007 where the 60th
1aec505f 2637# minute delay at midnight Thursday 1/11/2007.
e4a74243
SW
2638Rule Syria 2007 only - Nov Fri>=1 0:00 0 -
2639
2640# From Stephen Colebourne (2008-03-17):
2641# For everyone's info, I saw an IATA time zone change for [Syria] for
48afb8ac 2642# this month (March 2008) in the last day or so....
e4a74243
SW
2643# Country Time Standard --- DST Start --- --- DST End --- DST
2644# Name Zone Variation Time Date Time Date
2645# Variation
2646# Syrian Arab
2647# Republic SY +0200 2200 03APR08 2100 30SEP08 +0300
2648# 2200 02APR09 2100 30SEP09 +0300
2649# 2200 01APR10 2100 30SEP10 +0300
2650
2651# From Arthur David Olson (2008-03-17):
2652# Here's a link to English-language coverage by the Syrian Arab News
2653# Agency (SANA)...
e4a74243 2654# http://www.sana.sy/eng/21/2008/03/11/165173.htm
48afb8ac 2655# ...which reads (in part) "The Cabinet approved the suggestion of the
e4a74243
SW
2656# Ministry of Electricity to begin daylight savings time on Friday April
2657# 4th, advancing clocks one hour ahead on midnight of Thursday April 3rd."
2658# Since Syria is two hours east of UTC, the 2200 and 2100 transition times
2659# shown above match up with midnight in Syria.
2660
2661# From Arthur David Olson (2008-03-18):
48afb8ac 2662# My best guess at a Syrian rule is "the Friday nearest April 1";
e4a74243
SW
2663# coding that involves either using a "Mar Fri>=29" construct that old time zone
2664# compilers can't handle or having multiple Rules (a la Israel).
2665# For now, use "Apr Fri>=1", and go with IATA on a uniform Sep 30 end.
2666
0fbb2fac
SW
2667# From Steffen Thorsen (2008-10-07):
2668# Syria has now officially decided to end DST on 2008-11-01 this year,
2669# according to the following article in the Syrian Arab News Agency (SANA).
2670#
2671# The article is in Arabic, and seems to tell that they will go back to
2672# winter time on 2008-11-01 at 00:00 local daylight time (delaying/setting
2673# clocks back 60 minutes).
2674#
0fbb2fac 2675# http://sana.sy/ara/2/2008/10/07/195459.htm
0fbb2fac 2676
63562808
SW
2677# From Steffen Thorsen (2009-03-19):
2678# Syria will start DST on 2009-03-27 00:00 this year according to many sources,
2679# two examples:
2680#
63562808 2681# http://www.sana.sy/eng/21/2009/03/17/217563.htm
63562808 2682# (English, Syrian Arab News # Agency)
63562808 2683# http://thawra.alwehda.gov.sy/_View_news2.asp?FileName=94459258720090318012209
63562808
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2684# (Arabic, gov-site)
2685#
2686# We have not found any sources saying anything about when DST ends this year.
2687#
2688# Our summary
63562808 2689# http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/syria-dst-starts-march-27-2009.html
63562808 2690
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2691# From Steffen Thorsen (2009-10-27):
2692# The Syrian Arab News Network on 2009-09-29 reported that Syria will
2693# revert back to winter (standard) time on midnight between Thursday
2694# 2009-10-29 and Friday 2009-10-30:
f4d6ca16 2695# http://www.sana.sy/ara/2/2009/09/29/247012.htm (Arabic)
f4d6ca16
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2696
2697# From Arthur David Olson (2009-10-28):
2698# We'll see if future DST switching times turn out to be end of the last
2699# Thursday of the month or the start of the last Friday of the month or
2700# something else. For now, use the start of the last Friday.
2701
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2702# From Steffen Thorsen (2010-03-17):
2703# The "Syrian News Station" reported on 2010-03-16 that the Council of
2704# Ministers has decided that Syria will start DST on midnight Thursday
2705# 2010-04-01: (midnight between Thursday and Friday):
5756332b 2706# http://sns.sy/sns/?path=news/read/11421 (Arabic)
5756332b 2707
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2708# From Steffen Thorsen (2012-03-26):
2709# Today, Syria's government announced that they will start DST early on Friday
2710# (00:00). This is a bit earlier than the past two years.
2711#
2712# From Syrian Arab News Agency, in Arabic:
20aca2bf 2713# http://www.sana.sy/ara/2/2012/03/26/408215.htm
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2714#
2715# Our brief summary:
20aca2bf 2716# http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/syria-dst-2012.html
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2717
2718# From Arthur David Olson (2012-03-27):
2719# Assume last Friday in March going forward XXX.
2720
63562808 2721Rule Syria 2008 only - Apr Fri>=1 0:00 1:00 S
f4d6ca16 2722Rule Syria 2008 only - Nov 1 0:00 0 -
5756332b 2723Rule Syria 2009 only - Mar lastFri 0:00 1:00 S
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2724Rule Syria 2010 2011 - Apr Fri>=1 0:00 1:00 S
2725Rule Syria 2012 max - Mar lastFri 0:00 1:00 S
f4d6ca16 2726Rule Syria 2009 max - Oct lastFri 0:00 0 -
e4a74243 2727
984263bc 2728# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
48afb8ac 2729Zone Asia/Damascus 2:25:12 - LMT 1920 # Dimashq
984263bc
MD
2730 2:00 Syria EE%sT
2731
2732# Tajikistan
bd7414aa 2733# From Shanks & Pottenger.
984263bc
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2734# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
2735Zone Asia/Dushanbe 4:35:12 - LMT 1924 May 2
2736 5:00 - DUST 1930 Jun 21 # Dushanbe Time
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2737 6:00 RussiaAsia DUS%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
2738 5:00 1:00 DUSST 1991 Sep 9 2:00s
2739 5:00 - TJT # Tajikistan Time
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MD
2740
2741# Thailand
2742# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
2743Zone Asia/Bangkok 6:42:04 - LMT 1880
2744 6:42:04 - BMT 1920 Apr # Bangkok Mean Time
2745 7:00 - ICT
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2746Link Asia/Bangkok Asia/Phnom_Penh # Cambodia
2747Link Asia/Bangkok Asia/Vientiane # Laos
984263bc
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2748
2749# Turkmenistan
bd7414aa 2750# From Shanks & Pottenger.
984263bc
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2751# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
2752Zone Asia/Ashgabat 3:53:32 - LMT 1924 May 2 # or Ashkhabad
2753 4:00 - ASHT 1930 Jun 21 # Ashkhabad Time
48afb8ac 2754 5:00 RussiaAsia ASH%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00
984263bc 2755 4:00 RussiaAsia ASH%sT 1991 Oct 27 # independence
48afb8ac 2756 4:00 RussiaAsia TM%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00
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MD
2757 5:00 - TMT
2758
2759# United Arab Emirates
2760# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
2761Zone Asia/Dubai 3:41:12 - LMT 1920
2762 4:00 - GST
30d1d955 2763Link Asia/Dubai Asia/Muscat # Oman
984263bc
MD
2764
2765# Uzbekistan
48afb8ac 2766# Byalokoz 1919 says Uzbekistan was 4:27:53.
984263bc 2767# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
48afb8ac 2768Zone Asia/Samarkand 4:27:53 - LMT 1924 May 2
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MD
2769 4:00 - SAMT 1930 Jun 21 # Samarkand Time
2770 5:00 - SAMT 1981 Apr 1
2771 5:00 1:00 SAMST 1981 Oct 1
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2772 6:00 - TAST 1982 Apr 1 # Tashkent Time
2773 5:00 RussiaAsia SAM%sT 1991 Sep 1 # independence
984263bc 2774 5:00 RussiaAsia UZ%sT 1992
984263bc 2775 5:00 - UZT
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2776# Milne says Tashkent was 4:37:10.8; round to nearest.
2777Zone Asia/Tashkent 4:37:11 - LMT 1924 May 2
984263bc 2778 5:00 - TAST 1930 Jun 21 # Tashkent Time
48afb8ac 2779 6:00 RussiaAsia TAS%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00
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MD
2780 5:00 RussiaAsia TAS%sT 1991 Sep 1 # independence
2781 5:00 RussiaAsia UZ%sT 1992
984263bc
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2782 5:00 - UZT
2783
2784# Vietnam
bd7414aa 2785
f6ca936c 2786# From Paul Eggert (2014-10-04):
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SW
2787# Milne gives 7:16:56 for the meridian of Saigon in 1899, as being
2788# used in Lower Laos, Cambodia, and Annam. But this is quite a ways
2789# from Saigon's location. For now, ignore this and stick with Shanks
f6ca936c 2790# and Pottenger for LMT before 1906.
80e7e01d 2791
e4a74243 2792# From Arthur David Olson (2008-03-18):
48afb8ac
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2793# The English-language name of Vietnam's most populous city is "Ho Chi Minh
2794# City"; use Ho_Chi_Minh below to avoid a name of more than 14 characters.
bd7414aa 2795
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2796# From Paul Eggert (2014-10-21) after a heads-up from Trần Ngọc Quân:
2797# Trần Tiến Bình's authoritative book "Lịch Việt Nam: thế kỷ XX-XXI (1901-2100)"
2798# (Nhà xuất bản Văn Hoá - Thông Tin, Hanoi, 2005), pp 49-50,
2799# is quoted verbatim in:
2800# http://www.thoigian.com.vn/?mPage=P80D01
2801# is translated by Brian Inglis in:
2802# http://mm.icann.org/pipermail/tz/2014-October/021654.html
2803# and is the basis for the information below.
2804#
2805# The 1906 transition was effective July 1 and standardized Indochina to
2806# Phù Liễn Observatory, legally 104 deg. 17'17" east of Paris.
2807# It's unclear whether this meant legal Paris Mean Time (00:09:21) or
2808# the Paris Meridian (2 deg. 20'14.03" E); the former yields 07:06:30.1333...
2809# and the latter 07:06:29.333... so either way it rounds to 07:06:30,
2810# which is used below even though the modern-day Phù Liễn Observatory
2811# is closer to 07:06:31. Abbreviate Phù Liễn Mean Time as PLMT.
2812#
2813# The following transitions occurred in Indochina in general (before 1954)
2814# and in South Vietnam in particular (after 1954):
2815# To 07:00 on 1911-05-01.
2816# To 08:00 on 1942-12-31 at 23:00.
2817# To 09:00 in 1945-03-14 at 23:00.
2818# To 07:00 on 1945-09-02 in Vietnam.
2819# To 08:00 on 1947-04-01 in French-controlled Indochina.
2820# To 07:00 on 1955-07-01 in South Vietnam.
2821# To 08:00 on 1959-12-31 at 23:00 in South Vietnam.
2822# To 07:00 on 1975-06-13 in South Vietnam.
2823#
2824# Trần cites the following sources; it's unclear which supplied the info above.
2825#
2826# Hoàng Xuân Hãn: "Lịch và lịch Việt Nam". Tập san Khoa học Xã hội,
2827# No. 9, Paris, February 1982.
2828#
2829# Lê Thành Lân: "Lịch và niên biểu lịch sử hai mươi thế kỷ (0001-2010)",
2830# NXB Thống kê, Hanoi, 2000.
2831#
2832# Lê Thành Lân: "Lịch hai thế kỷ (1802-2010) và các lịch vĩnh cửu",
2833# NXB Thuận Hoá, Huế, 1995.
2834
984263bc 2835# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
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2836Zone Asia/Ho_Chi_Minh 7:06:40 - LMT 1906 Jul 1
2837 7:06:30 - PLMT 1911 May 1
2838 7:00 - ICT 1942 Dec 31 23:00
2839 8:00 - IDT 1945 Mar 14 23:00
2840 9:00 - JST 1945 Sep 2
2841 7:00 - ICT 1947 Apr 1
2842 8:00 - IDT 1955 Jul 1
2843 7:00 - ICT 1959 Dec 31 23:00
2844 8:00 - IDT 1975 Jun 13
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MD
2845 7:00 - ICT
2846
2847# Yemen
30d1d955 2848# See Asia/Riyadh.