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1# This file is in the public domain, so clarified as of
2# 2009-05-17 by Arthur David Olson.
984263bc 3
48afb8ac 4# This file is by no means authoritative; if you think you know better,
984263bc 5# go ahead and edit the file (and please send any changes to
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6# tz@iana.org for general use in the future). For more, please see
7# the file CONTRIBUTING in the tz distribution.
984263bc 8
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9# From Paul Eggert (2014-10-31):
10#
11# Unless otherwise specified, the source for data through 1990 is:
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12# Thomas G. Shanks and Rique Pottenger, The International Atlas (6th edition),
13# San Diego: ACS Publications, Inc. (2003).
03b0b587 14# Unfortunately this book contains many errors and cites no sources.
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15#
16# Gwillim Law writes that a good source
17# for recent time zone data is the International Air Transport
18# Association's Standard Schedules Information Manual (IATA SSIM),
19# published semiannually. Law sent in several helpful summaries
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20# of the IATA's data after 1990. Except where otherwise noted,
21# IATA SSIM is the source for entries after 1990.
984263bc 22#
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23# A reliable and entertaining source about time zones is
24# Derek Howse, Greenwich time and longitude, Philip Wilson Publishers (1997).
25#
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26# Except where otherwise noted, Shanks & Pottenger is the source for
27# entries through 1991, and IATA SSIM is the source for entries afterwards.
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28#
29# Other sources occasionally used include:
30#
31# Edward W. Whitman, World Time Differences,
32# Whitman Publishing Co, 2 Niagara Av, Ealing, London (undated),
33# which I found in the UCLA library.
34#
ba5ba9da 35# William Willett, The Waste of Daylight, 19th edition
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36# <http://cs.ucla.edu/~eggert/The-Waste-of-Daylight-19th.pdf>
37# [PDF] (1914-03)
ba5ba9da 38#
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39# Milne J. Civil time. Geogr J. 1899 Feb;13(2):173-94
40# <http://www.jstor.org/stable/1774359>. He writes:
41# "It is requested that corrections and additions to these tables
42# may be sent to Mr. John Milne, Royal Geographical Society,
43# Savile Row, London." Nowadays please email them to tz@iana.org.
44#
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45# Byalokoz EL. New Counting of Time in Russia since July 1, 1919.
46# This Russian-language source was consulted by Vladimir Karpinsky; see
47# http://mm.icann.org/pipermail/tz/2014-August/021320.html
48# The full Russian citation is:
49# Бялокоз, Евгений Людвигович. Новый счет времени в течении суток
50# введенный декретом Совета народных комиссаров для всей России с 1-го
51# июля 1919 г. / Изд. 2-е Междуведомственной комиссии. - Петроград:
52# Десятая гос. тип., 1919.
53# http://resolver.gpntb.ru/purl?docushare/dsweb/Get/Resource-2011/Byalokoz__E.L.__Novyy__schet__vremeni__v__techenie__sutok__izd__2(1).pdf
54#
55# Brazil's Divisão Serviço da Hora (DSHO),
984263bc 56# History of Summer Time
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57# <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HISTHV.htm>
58# (1998-09-21, in Portuguese)
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59
60#
d1bcb6be 61# I invented the abbreviations marked '*' in the following table;
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62# the rest are from earlier versions of this file, or from other sources.
63# Corrections are welcome!
64# std dst 2dst
65# LMT Local Mean Time
66# -4:00 AST ADT Atlantic
67# -3:00 WGT WGST Western Greenland*
68# -1:00 EGT EGST Eastern Greenland*
69# 0:00 GMT BST BDST Greenwich, British Summer
70# 0:00 GMT IST Greenwich, Irish Summer
71# 0:00 WET WEST WEMT Western Europe
72# 0:19:32.13 AMT NST Amsterdam, Netherlands Summer (1835-1937)*
73# 0:20 NET NEST Netherlands (1937-1940)*
48afb8ac 74# 1:00 BST British Standard (1968-1971)
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75# 1:00 CET CEST CEMT Central Europe
76# 1:00:14 SET Swedish (1879-1899)*
77# 2:00 EET EEST Eastern Europe
f6ca936c 78# 3:00 FET Further-eastern Europe (2011-2014)*
1780da0f 79# 3:00 MSK MSD MSM* Moscow
984263bc 80
9ffe4b14 81# From Peter Ilieve (1994-12-04),
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82# The original six [EU members]: Belgium, France, (West) Germany, Italy,
83# Luxembourg, the Netherlands.
84# Plus, from 1 Jan 73: Denmark, Ireland, United Kingdom.
85# Plus, from 1 Jan 81: Greece.
86# Plus, from 1 Jan 86: Spain, Portugal.
87# Plus, from 1 Jan 95: Austria, Finland, Sweden. (Norway negotiated terms for
88# entry but in a referendum on 28 Nov 94 the people voted No by 52.2% to 47.8%
89# on a turnout of 88.6%. This was almost the same result as Norway's previous
90# referendum in 1972, they are the only country to have said No twice.
91# Referendums in the other three countries voted Yes.)
92# ...
93# Estonia ... uses EU dates but not at 01:00 GMT, they use midnight GMT.
94# I don't think they know yet what they will do from 1996 onwards.
95# ...
96# There shouldn't be any [current members who are not using EU rules].
97# A Directive has the force of law, member states are obliged to enact
98# national law to implement it. The only contentious issue was the
99# different end date for the UK and Ireland, and this was always allowed
100# in the Directive.
101
102
103###############################################################################
104
105# Britain (United Kingdom) and Ireland (Eire)
106
9ffe4b14 107# From Peter Ilieve (1994-07-06):
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108#
109# On 17 Jan 1994 the Independent, a UK quality newspaper, had a piece about
110# historical vistas along the Thames in west London. There was a photo
111# and a sketch map showing some of the sightlines involved. One paragraph
112# of the text said:
113#
d1bcb6be 114# 'An old stone obelisk marking a forgotten terrestrial meridian stands
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115# beside the river at Kew. In the 18th century, before time and longitude
116# was standardised by the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, scholars observed
117# this stone and the movement of stars from Kew Observatory nearby. They
118# made their calculations and set the time for the Horse Guards and Parliament,
119# but now the stone is obscured by scrubwood and can only be seen by walking
120# along the towpath within a few yards of it.'
121#
122# I have a one inch to one mile map of London and my estimate of the stone's
48afb8ac 123# position is 51 degrees 28' 30" N, 0 degrees 18' 45" W. The longitude should
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124# be within about +-2". The Ordnance Survey grid reference is TQ172761.
125#
126# [This yields GMTOFF = -0:01:15 for London LMT in the 18th century.]
127
9ffe4b14 128# From Paul Eggert (1993-11-18):
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129#
130# Howse writes that Britain was the first country to use standard time.
131# The railways cared most about the inconsistencies of local mean time,
132# and it was they who forced a uniform time on the country.
133# The original idea was credited to Dr. William Hyde Wollaston (1766-1828)
134# and was popularized by Abraham Follett Osler (1808-1903).
135# The first railway to adopt London time was the Great Western Railway
136# in November 1840; other railways followed suit, and by 1847 most
137# (though not all) railways used London time. On 1847-09-22 the
138# Railway Clearing House, an industry standards body, recommended that GMT be
139# adopted at all stations as soon as the General Post Office permitted it.
140# The transition occurred on 12-01 for the L&NW, the Caledonian,
141# and presumably other railways; the January 1848 Bradshaw's lists many
142# railways as using GMT. By 1855 the vast majority of public
143# clocks in Britain were set to GMT (though some, like the great clock
144# on Tom Tower at Christ Church, Oxford, were fitted with two minute hands,
145# one for local time and one for GMT). The last major holdout was the legal
146# system, which stubbornly stuck to local time for many years, leading
147# to oddities like polls opening at 08:13 and closing at 16:13.
148# The legal system finally switched to GMT when the Statutes (Definition
149# of Time) Act took effect; it received the Royal Assent on 1880-08-02.
150#
151# In the tables below, we condense this complicated story into a single
152# transition date for London, namely 1847-12-01. We don't know as much
153# about Dublin, so we use 1880-08-02, the legal transition time.
154
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155# From Paul Eggert (2014-07-19):
156# The ancients had no need for daylight saving, as they kept time
157# informally or via hours whose length depended on the time of year.
158# Daylight saving time in its modern sense was invented by the
159# New Zealand entomologist George Vernon Hudson (1867-1946),
160# whose day job as a postal clerk led him to value
161# after-hours daylight in which to pursue his research.
162# In 1895 he presented a paper to the Wellington Philosophical Society
163# that proposed a two-hour daylight-saving shift. See:
164# Hudson GV. On seasonal time-adjustment in countries south of lat. 30 deg.
165# Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute. 1895;28:734
166# http://rsnz.natlib.govt.nz/volume/rsnz_28/rsnz_28_00_006110.html
167# Although some interest was expressed in New Zealand, his proposal
168# did not find its way into law and eventually it was almost forgotten.
169#
170# In England, DST was independently reinvented by William Willett (1857-1915),
984263bc 171# a London builder and member of the Royal Astronomical Society
d1bcb6be 172# who circulated a pamphlet "The Waste of Daylight" (1907)
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173# that proposed advancing clocks 20 minutes on each of four Sundays in April,
174# and retarding them by the same amount on four Sundays in September.
175# A bill was drafted in 1909 and introduced in Parliament several times,
176# but it met with ridicule and opposition, especially from farming interests.
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177# Later editions of the pamphlet proposed one-hour summer time, and
178# it was eventually adopted as a wartime measure in 1916.
179# See: Summer Time Arrives Early, The Times (2000-05-18).
180# A monument to Willett was unveiled on 1927-05-21, in an open space in
181# a 45-acre wood near Chislehurst, Kent that was purchased by popular
182# subscription and open to the public. On the south face of the monolith,
48afb8ac 183# designed by G. W. Miller, is the William Willett Memorial Sundial,
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184# which is permanently set to Summer Time.
185
186# From Winston Churchill (1934-04-28):
187# It is one of the paradoxes of history that we should owe the boon of
188# summer time, which gives every year to the people of this country
189# between 160 and 170 hours more daylight leisure, to a war which
190# plunged Europe into darkness for four years, and shook the
191# foundations of civilization throughout the world.
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192# -- "A Silent Toast to William Willett", Pictorial Weekly;
193# republished in Finest Hour (Spring 2002) 1(114):26
194# http://www.winstonchurchill.org/images/finesthour/Vol.01%20No.114.pdf
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195
196# From Paul Eggert (1996-09-03):
d1bcb6be 197# The OED Supplement says that the English originally said "Daylight Saving"
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198# when they were debating the adoption of DST in 1908; but by 1916 this
199# term appears only in quotes taken from DST's opponents, whereas the
d1bcb6be 200# proponents (who eventually won the argument) are quoted as using "Summer".
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201
202# From Arthur David Olson (1989-01-19):
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203# A source at the British Information Office in New York avers that it's
204# known as "British" Summer Time in all parts of the United Kingdom.
205
206# Date: 4 Jan 89 08:57:25 GMT (Wed)
9ffe4b14 207# From: Jonathan Leffler
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208# [British Summer Time] is fixed annually by Act of Parliament.
209# If you can predict what Parliament will do, you should be in
210# politics making a fortune, not computing.
211
9ffe4b14 212# From Chris Carrier (1996-06-14):
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213# I remember reading in various wartime issues of the London Times the
214# acronym BDST for British Double Summer Time. Look for the published
215# time of sunrise and sunset in The Times, when BDST was in effect, and
216# if you find a zone reference it will say, "All times B.D.S.T."
217
218# From Joseph S. Myers (1999-09-02):
219# ... some military cables (WO 219/4100 - this is a copy from the
220# main SHAEF archives held in the US National Archives, SHAEF/5252/8/516)
221# agree that the usage is BDST (this appears in a message dated 17 Feb 1945).
222
223# From Joseph S. Myers (2000-10-03):
224# On 18th April 1941, Sir Stephen Tallents of the BBC wrote to Sir
225# Alexander Maxwell of the Home Office asking whether there was any
226# official designation; the reply of the 21st was that there wasn't
227# but he couldn't think of anything better than the "Double British
228# Summer Time" that the BBC had been using informally.
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229# http://www.polyomino.org.uk/british-time/bbc-19410418.png
230# http://www.polyomino.org.uk/british-time/ho-19410421.png
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231
232# From Sir Alexander Maxwell in the above-mentioned letter (1941-04-21):
233# [N]o official designation has as far as I know been adopted for the time
234# which is to be introduced in May....
235# I cannot think of anything better than "Double British Summer Time"
236# which could not be said to run counter to any official description.
237
238# From Paul Eggert (2000-10-02):
d1bcb6be 239# Howse writes (p 157) 'DBST' too, but 'BDST' seems to have been common
984263bc 240# and follows the more usual convention of putting the location name first,
d1bcb6be 241# so we use 'BDST'.
984263bc 242
9ffe4b14 243# Peter Ilieve (1998-04-19) described at length
984263bc 244# the history of summer time legislation in the United Kingdom.
9ffe4b14 245# Since 1998 Joseph S. Myers has been updating
984263bc 246# and extending this list, which can be found in
bca44125 247# http://www.polyomino.org.uk/british-time/
984263bc 248
9ffe4b14 249# From Joseph S. Myers (1998-01-06):
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250#
251# The legal time in the UK outside of summer time is definitely GMT, not UTC;
252# see Lord Tanlaw's speech
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253# http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/ld199798/ldhansrd/vo970611/text/70611-10.htm#70611-10_head0
254# (Lords Hansard 11 June 1997 columns 964 to 976).
984263bc 255
bd7414aa 256# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
984263bc 257#
bd7414aa 258# For lack of other data, follow Shanks & Pottenger for Eire in 1940-1948.
984263bc 259#
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260# Given Ilieve and Myers's data, the following claims by Shanks & Pottenger
261# are incorrect:
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262# * Wales did not switch from GMT to daylight saving time until
263# 1921 Apr 3, when they began to conform with the rest of Great Britain.
264# Actually, Wales was identical after 1880.
265# * Eire had two transitions on 1916 Oct 1.
266# It actually just had one transition.
267# * Northern Ireland used single daylight saving time throughout WW II.
268# Actually, it conformed to Britain.
269# * GB-Eire changed standard time to 1 hour ahead of GMT on 1968-02-18.
270# Actually, that date saw the usual switch to summer time.
271# Standard time was not changed until 1968-10-27 (the clocks didn't change).
272#
bd7414aa 273# Here is another incorrect claim by Shanks & Pottenger:
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274# * Jersey, Guernsey, and the Isle of Man did not switch from GMT
275# to daylight saving time until 1921 Apr 3, when they began to
276# conform with Great Britain.
277# S.R.&O. 1916, No. 382 and HO 45/10811/312364 (quoted above) say otherwise.
278#
bd7414aa 279# The following claim by Shanks & Pottenger is possible though doubtful;
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280# we'll ignore it for now.
281# * Dublin's 1971-10-31 switch was at 02:00, even though London's was 03:00.
282#
283#
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284# Whitman says Dublin Mean Time was -0:25:21, which is more precise than
285# Shanks & Pottenger.
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286# Perhaps this was Dunsink Observatory Time, as Dunsink Observatory
287# (8 km NW of Dublin's center) seemingly was to Dublin as Greenwich was
288# to London. For example:
289#
290# "Timeball on the ballast office is down. Dunsink time."
291# -- James Joyce, Ulysses
292
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293# "Countess Markievicz ... claimed that the [1916] abolition of Dublin Mean Time
294# was among various actions undertaken by the 'English' government that
295# would 'put the whole country into the SF (Sinn Féin) camp'. She claimed
296# Irish 'public feeling (was) outraged by forcing of English time on us'."
297# -- Parsons M. Dublin lost its time zone - and 25 minutes - after 1916 Rising.
298# Irish Times 2014-10-27.
299# http://www.irishtimes.com/news/politics/dublin-lost-its-time-zone-and-25-minutes-after-1916-rising-1.1977411
300
bc95ec93 301# From Joseph S. Myers (2005-01-26):
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302# Irish laws are available online at <http://www.irishstatutebook.ie>.
303# These include various relating to legal time, for example:
8393cd87 304#
bc95ec93 305# ZZA13Y1923.html ZZA12Y1924.html ZZA8Y1925.html ZZSIV20PG1267.html
8393cd87 306#
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307# ZZSI71Y1947.html ZZSI128Y1948.html ZZSI23Y1949.html ZZSI41Y1950.html
308# ZZSI27Y1951.html ZZSI73Y1952.html
8393cd87 309#
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310# ZZSI11Y1961.html ZZSI232Y1961.html ZZSI182Y1962.html
311# ZZSI167Y1963.html ZZSI257Y1964.html ZZSI198Y1967.html
312# ZZA23Y1968.html ZZA17Y1971.html
8393cd87 313#
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314# ZZSI67Y1981.html ZZSI212Y1982.html ZZSI45Y1986.html
315# ZZSI264Y1988.html ZZSI52Y1990.html ZZSI371Y1992.html
316# ZZSI395Y1994.html ZZSI484Y1997.html ZZSI506Y2001.html
317#
318# [These are all relative to the root, e.g., the first is
319# <http://www.irishstatutebook.ie/ZZA13Y1923.html>.]
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320#
321# (These are those I found, but there could be more. In any case these
322# should allow various updates to the comments in the europe file to cover
bc95ec93 323# the laws applicable in Ireland.)
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324#
325# (Note that the time in the Republic of Ireland since 1968 has been defined
326# in terms of standard time being GMT+1 with a period of winter time when it
327# is GMT, rather than standard time being GMT with a period of summer time
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328# being GMT+1.)
329
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330# From Paul Eggert (1999-03-28):
331# Clive Feather (<news:859845706.26043.0@office.demon.net>, 1997-03-31)
332# reports that Folkestone (Cheriton) Shuttle Terminal uses Concession Time
333# (CT), equivalent to French civil time.
334# Julian Hill (<news:36118128.5A14@virgin.net>, 1998-09-30) reports that
335# trains between Dollands Moor (the freight facility next door)
336# and Frethun run in CT.
337# My admittedly uninformed guess is that the terminal has two authorities,
338# the French concession operators and the British civil authorities,
339# and that the time depends on who you're talking to.
340# If, say, the British police were called to the station for some reason,
341# I would expect the official police report to use GMT/BST and not CET/CEST.
342# This is a borderline case, but for now let's stick to GMT/BST.
343
344# From an anonymous contributor (1996-06-02):
345# The law governing time in Ireland is under Statutory Instrument SI 395/94,
346# which gives force to European Union 7th Council Directive # 94/21/EC.
347# Under this directive, the Minister for Justice in Ireland makes appropriate
348# regulations. I spoke this morning with the Secretary of the Department of
349# Justice (tel +353 1 678 9711) who confirmed to me that the correct name is
350# "Irish Summer Time", abbreviated to "IST".
351
352# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
353# Summer Time Act, 1916
354Rule GB-Eire 1916 only - May 21 2:00s 1:00 BST
355Rule GB-Eire 1916 only - Oct 1 2:00s 0 GMT
356# S.R.&O. 1917, No. 358
357Rule GB-Eire 1917 only - Apr 8 2:00s 1:00 BST
358Rule GB-Eire 1917 only - Sep 17 2:00s 0 GMT
359# S.R.&O. 1918, No. 274
360Rule GB-Eire 1918 only - Mar 24 2:00s 1:00 BST
361Rule GB-Eire 1918 only - Sep 30 2:00s 0 GMT
362# S.R.&O. 1919, No. 297
363Rule GB-Eire 1919 only - Mar 30 2:00s 1:00 BST
364Rule GB-Eire 1919 only - Sep 29 2:00s 0 GMT
365# S.R.&O. 1920, No. 458
366Rule GB-Eire 1920 only - Mar 28 2:00s 1:00 BST
367# S.R.&O. 1920, No. 1844
368Rule GB-Eire 1920 only - Oct 25 2:00s 0 GMT
369# S.R.&O. 1921, No. 363
370Rule GB-Eire 1921 only - Apr 3 2:00s 1:00 BST
371Rule GB-Eire 1921 only - Oct 3 2:00s 0 GMT
372# S.R.&O. 1922, No. 264
373Rule GB-Eire 1922 only - Mar 26 2:00s 1:00 BST
374Rule GB-Eire 1922 only - Oct 8 2:00s 0 GMT
375# The Summer Time Act, 1922
376Rule GB-Eire 1923 only - Apr Sun>=16 2:00s 1:00 BST
377Rule GB-Eire 1923 1924 - Sep Sun>=16 2:00s 0 GMT
378Rule GB-Eire 1924 only - Apr Sun>=9 2:00s 1:00 BST
379Rule GB-Eire 1925 1926 - Apr Sun>=16 2:00s 1:00 BST
380# The Summer Time Act, 1925
381Rule GB-Eire 1925 1938 - Oct Sun>=2 2:00s 0 GMT
382Rule GB-Eire 1927 only - Apr Sun>=9 2:00s 1:00 BST
383Rule GB-Eire 1928 1929 - Apr Sun>=16 2:00s 1:00 BST
384Rule GB-Eire 1930 only - Apr Sun>=9 2:00s 1:00 BST
385Rule GB-Eire 1931 1932 - Apr Sun>=16 2:00s 1:00 BST
386Rule GB-Eire 1933 only - Apr Sun>=9 2:00s 1:00 BST
387Rule GB-Eire 1934 only - Apr Sun>=16 2:00s 1:00 BST
388Rule GB-Eire 1935 only - Apr Sun>=9 2:00s 1:00 BST
389Rule GB-Eire 1936 1937 - Apr Sun>=16 2:00s 1:00 BST
390Rule GB-Eire 1938 only - Apr Sun>=9 2:00s 1:00 BST
391Rule GB-Eire 1939 only - Apr Sun>=16 2:00s 1:00 BST
392# S.R.&O. 1939, No. 1379
393Rule GB-Eire 1939 only - Nov Sun>=16 2:00s 0 GMT
394# S.R.&O. 1940, No. 172 and No. 1883
395Rule GB-Eire 1940 only - Feb Sun>=23 2:00s 1:00 BST
396# S.R.&O. 1941, No. 476
397Rule GB-Eire 1941 only - May Sun>=2 1:00s 2:00 BDST
398Rule GB-Eire 1941 1943 - Aug Sun>=9 1:00s 1:00 BST
399# S.R.&O. 1942, No. 506
400Rule GB-Eire 1942 1944 - Apr Sun>=2 1:00s 2:00 BDST
401# S.R.&O. 1944, No. 932
402Rule GB-Eire 1944 only - Sep Sun>=16 1:00s 1:00 BST
403# S.R.&O. 1945, No. 312
404Rule GB-Eire 1945 only - Apr Mon>=2 1:00s 2:00 BDST
405Rule GB-Eire 1945 only - Jul Sun>=9 1:00s 1:00 BST
406# S.R.&O. 1945, No. 1208
407Rule GB-Eire 1945 1946 - Oct Sun>=2 2:00s 0 GMT
408Rule GB-Eire 1946 only - Apr Sun>=9 2:00s 1:00 BST
409# The Summer Time Act, 1947
410Rule GB-Eire 1947 only - Mar 16 2:00s 1:00 BST
411Rule GB-Eire 1947 only - Apr 13 1:00s 2:00 BDST
412Rule GB-Eire 1947 only - Aug 10 1:00s 1:00 BST
413Rule GB-Eire 1947 only - Nov 2 2:00s 0 GMT
414# Summer Time Order, 1948 (S.I. 1948/495)
415Rule GB-Eire 1948 only - Mar 14 2:00s 1:00 BST
416Rule GB-Eire 1948 only - Oct 31 2:00s 0 GMT
417# Summer Time Order, 1949 (S.I. 1949/373)
418Rule GB-Eire 1949 only - Apr 3 2:00s 1:00 BST
419Rule GB-Eire 1949 only - Oct 30 2:00s 0 GMT
420# Summer Time Order, 1950 (S.I. 1950/518)
421# Summer Time Order, 1951 (S.I. 1951/430)
422# Summer Time Order, 1952 (S.I. 1952/451)
423Rule GB-Eire 1950 1952 - Apr Sun>=14 2:00s 1:00 BST
424Rule GB-Eire 1950 1952 - Oct Sun>=21 2:00s 0 GMT
425# revert to the rules of the Summer Time Act, 1925
426Rule GB-Eire 1953 only - Apr Sun>=16 2:00s 1:00 BST
427Rule GB-Eire 1953 1960 - Oct Sun>=2 2:00s 0 GMT
428Rule GB-Eire 1954 only - Apr Sun>=9 2:00s 1:00 BST
429Rule GB-Eire 1955 1956 - Apr Sun>=16 2:00s 1:00 BST
430Rule GB-Eire 1957 only - Apr Sun>=9 2:00s 1:00 BST
431Rule GB-Eire 1958 1959 - Apr Sun>=16 2:00s 1:00 BST
432Rule GB-Eire 1960 only - Apr Sun>=9 2:00s 1:00 BST
433# Summer Time Order, 1961 (S.I. 1961/71)
434# Summer Time (1962) Order, 1961 (S.I. 1961/2465)
435# Summer Time Order, 1963 (S.I. 1963/81)
436Rule GB-Eire 1961 1963 - Mar lastSun 2:00s 1:00 BST
437Rule GB-Eire 1961 1968 - Oct Sun>=23 2:00s 0 GMT
438# Summer Time (1964) Order, 1963 (S.I. 1963/2101)
439# Summer Time Order, 1964 (S.I. 1964/1201)
440# Summer Time Order, 1967 (S.I. 1967/1148)
441Rule GB-Eire 1964 1967 - Mar Sun>=19 2:00s 1:00 BST
442# Summer Time Order, 1968 (S.I. 1968/117)
443Rule GB-Eire 1968 only - Feb 18 2:00s 1:00 BST
444# The British Standard Time Act, 1968
445# (no summer time)
446# The Summer Time Act, 1972
447Rule GB-Eire 1972 1980 - Mar Sun>=16 2:00s 1:00 BST
448Rule GB-Eire 1972 1980 - Oct Sun>=23 2:00s 0 GMT
449# Summer Time Order, 1980 (S.I. 1980/1089)
450# Summer Time Order, 1982 (S.I. 1982/1673)
451# Summer Time Order, 1986 (S.I. 1986/223)
452# Summer Time Order, 1988 (S.I. 1988/931)
453Rule GB-Eire 1981 1995 - Mar lastSun 1:00u 1:00 BST
454Rule GB-Eire 1981 1989 - Oct Sun>=23 1:00u 0 GMT
455# Summer Time Order, 1989 (S.I. 1989/985)
456# Summer Time Order, 1992 (S.I. 1992/1729)
457# Summer Time Order 1994 (S.I. 1994/2798)
458Rule GB-Eire 1990 1995 - Oct Sun>=22 1:00u 0 GMT
459# Summer Time Order 1997 (S.I. 1997/2982)
460# See EU for rules starting in 1996.
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461#
462# Use Europe/London for Jersey, Guernsey, and the Isle of Man.
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463
464# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
48afb8ac 465Zone Europe/London -0:01:15 - LMT 1847 Dec 1 0:00s
984263bc 466 0:00 GB-Eire %s 1968 Oct 27
48afb8ac 467 1:00 - BST 1971 Oct 31 2:00u
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468 0:00 GB-Eire %s 1996
469 0:00 EU GMT/BST
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470Link Europe/London Europe/Jersey
471Link Europe/London Europe/Guernsey
472Link Europe/London Europe/Isle_of_Man
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473
474# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
984263bc 475Zone Europe/Dublin -0:25:00 - LMT 1880 Aug 2
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476 -0:25:21 - DMT 1916 May 21 2:00
477 -0:25:21 1:00 IST 1916 Oct 1 2:00s
984263bc 478 0:00 GB-Eire %s 1921 Dec 6 # independence
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479 0:00 GB-Eire GMT/IST 1940 Feb 25 2:00
480 0:00 1:00 IST 1946 Oct 6 2:00
481 0:00 - GMT 1947 Mar 16 2:00
482 0:00 1:00 IST 1947 Nov 2 2:00
483 0:00 - GMT 1948 Apr 18 2:00
984263bc 484 0:00 GB-Eire GMT/IST 1968 Oct 27
48afb8ac 485 1:00 - IST 1971 Oct 31 2:00u
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486 0:00 GB-Eire GMT/IST 1996
487 0:00 EU GMT/IST
488
489###############################################################################
490
0e49ec84 491# Europe
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492
493# EU rules are for the European Union, previously known as the EC, EEC,
494# Common Market, etc.
495
496# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
497Rule EU 1977 1980 - Apr Sun>=1 1:00u 1:00 S
498Rule EU 1977 only - Sep lastSun 1:00u 0 -
499Rule EU 1978 only - Oct 1 1:00u 0 -
500Rule EU 1979 1995 - Sep lastSun 1:00u 0 -
501Rule EU 1981 max - Mar lastSun 1:00u 1:00 S
502Rule EU 1996 max - Oct lastSun 1:00u 0 -
503# The most recent directive covers the years starting in 2002. See:
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504# Directive 2000/84/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council
505# of 19 January 2001 on summer-time arrangements.
48afb8ac 506# http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:32000L0084:EN:NOT
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507
508# W-Eur differs from EU only in that W-Eur uses standard time.
509Rule W-Eur 1977 1980 - Apr Sun>=1 1:00s 1:00 S
510Rule W-Eur 1977 only - Sep lastSun 1:00s 0 -
511Rule W-Eur 1978 only - Oct 1 1:00s 0 -
512Rule W-Eur 1979 1995 - Sep lastSun 1:00s 0 -
513Rule W-Eur 1981 max - Mar lastSun 1:00s 1:00 S
514Rule W-Eur 1996 max - Oct lastSun 1:00s 0 -
515
516# Older C-Eur rules are for convenience in the tables.
517# From 1977 on, C-Eur differs from EU only in that C-Eur uses standard time.
518Rule C-Eur 1916 only - Apr 30 23:00 1:00 S
519Rule C-Eur 1916 only - Oct 1 1:00 0 -
520Rule C-Eur 1917 1918 - Apr Mon>=15 2:00s 1:00 S
521Rule C-Eur 1917 1918 - Sep Mon>=15 2:00s 0 -
522Rule C-Eur 1940 only - Apr 1 2:00s 1:00 S
523Rule C-Eur 1942 only - Nov 2 2:00s 0 -
524Rule C-Eur 1943 only - Mar 29 2:00s 1:00 S
525Rule C-Eur 1943 only - Oct 4 2:00s 0 -
a36b983e 526Rule C-Eur 1944 1945 - Apr Mon>=1 2:00s 1:00 S
bd7414aa 527# Whitman gives 1944 Oct 7; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
984263bc 528Rule C-Eur 1944 only - Oct 2 2:00s 0 -
48afb8ac 529# From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2008-07-13):
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530#
531# I found what is probably a typo of 2:00 which should perhaps be 2:00s
532# in the C-Eur rule from tz database version 2008d (this part was
48afb8ac 533# corrected in version 2008d). The circumstantial evidence is simply the
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534# tz database itself, as seen below:
535#
536# Zone Europe/Paris 0:09:21 - LMT 1891 Mar 15 0:01
537# 0:00 France WE%sT 1945 Sep 16 3:00
538#
539# Zone Europe/Monaco 0:29:32 - LMT 1891 Mar 15
48afb8ac 540# 0:00 France WE%sT 1945 Sep 16 3:00
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541#
542# Zone Europe/Belgrade 1:22:00 - LMT 1884
543# 1:00 1:00 CEST 1945 Sep 16 2:00s
544#
545# Rule France 1945 only - Sep 16 3:00 0 -
546# Rule Belgium 1945 only - Sep 16 2:00s 0 -
547# Rule Neth 1945 only - Sep 16 2:00s 0 -
548#
549# The rule line to be changed is:
550#
551# Rule C-Eur 1945 only - Sep 16 2:00 0 -
552#
553# It seems that Paris, Monaco, Rule France, Rule Belgium all agree on
554# 2:00 standard time, e.g. 3:00 local time. However there are no
555# countries that use C-Eur rules in September 1945, so the only items
96e83414 556# affected are apparently these fictitious zones that translate acronyms
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557# CET and MET:
558#
559# Zone CET 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT
560# Zone MET 1:00 C-Eur ME%sT
561#
562# It this is right then the corrected version would look like:
563#
564# Rule C-Eur 1945 only - Sep 16 2:00s 0 -
565#
566# A small step for mankind though 8-)
567Rule C-Eur 1945 only - Sep 16 2:00s 0 -
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568Rule C-Eur 1977 1980 - Apr Sun>=1 2:00s 1:00 S
569Rule C-Eur 1977 only - Sep lastSun 2:00s 0 -
570Rule C-Eur 1978 only - Oct 1 2:00s 0 -
571Rule C-Eur 1979 1995 - Sep lastSun 2:00s 0 -
572Rule C-Eur 1981 max - Mar lastSun 2:00s 1:00 S
573Rule C-Eur 1996 max - Oct lastSun 2:00s 0 -
574
575# E-Eur differs from EU only in that E-Eur switches at midnight local time.
576Rule E-Eur 1977 1980 - Apr Sun>=1 0:00 1:00 S
577Rule E-Eur 1977 only - Sep lastSun 0:00 0 -
578Rule E-Eur 1978 only - Oct 1 0:00 0 -
579Rule E-Eur 1979 1995 - Sep lastSun 0:00 0 -
580Rule E-Eur 1981 max - Mar lastSun 0:00 1:00 S
581Rule E-Eur 1996 max - Oct lastSun 0:00 0 -
582
583# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
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584Rule Russia 1917 only - Jul 1 23:00 1:00 MST # Moscow Summer Time
585Rule Russia 1917 only - Dec 28 0:00 0 MMT # Moscow Mean Time
586Rule Russia 1918 only - May 31 22:00 2:00 MDST # Moscow Double Summer Time
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587Rule Russia 1918 only - Sep 16 1:00 1:00 MST
588Rule Russia 1919 only - May 31 23:00 2:00 MDST
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589Rule Russia 1919 only - Jul 1 2:00 1:00 MSD
590Rule Russia 1919 only - Aug 16 0:00 0 MSK
591Rule Russia 1921 only - Feb 14 23:00 1:00 MSD
48afb8ac 592Rule Russia 1921 only - Mar 20 23:00 2:00 MSM # Midsummer
1780da0f 593Rule Russia 1921 only - Sep 1 0:00 1:00 MSD
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594Rule Russia 1921 only - Oct 1 0:00 0 -
595# Act No.925 of the Council of Ministers of the USSR (1980-10-24):
596Rule Russia 1981 1984 - Apr 1 0:00 1:00 S
597Rule Russia 1981 1983 - Oct 1 0:00 0 -
598# Act No.967 of the Council of Ministers of the USSR (1984-09-13), repeated in
599# Act No.227 of the Council of Ministers of the USSR (1989-03-14):
600Rule Russia 1984 1991 - Sep lastSun 2:00s 0 -
601Rule Russia 1985 1991 - Mar lastSun 2:00s 1:00 S
602#
603Rule Russia 1992 only - Mar lastSat 23:00 1:00 S
604Rule Russia 1992 only - Sep lastSat 23:00 0 -
8e329db9 605Rule Russia 1993 2010 - Mar lastSun 2:00s 1:00 S
984263bc 606Rule Russia 1993 1995 - Sep lastSun 2:00s 0 -
8e329db9 607Rule Russia 1996 2010 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 0 -
03b0b587 608# As described below, Russia's 2014 change affects Zone data, not Rule data.
984263bc 609
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610# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2011-06-14):
611# According to Kremlin press service, Russian President Dmitry Medvedev
612# signed a federal law "On calculation of time" on June 9, 2011.
613# According to the law Russia is abolishing daylight saving time.
614#
615# Medvedev signed a law "On the Calculation of Time" (in russian):
ffa9a577 616# http://bmockbe.ru/events/?ID=7583
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617#
618# Medvedev signed a law on the calculation of the time (in russian):
ffa9a577 619# http://www.regnum.ru/news/polit/1413906.html
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620
621# From Arthur David Olson (2011-06-15):
622# Take "abolishing daylight saving time" to mean that time is now considered
623# to be standard.
ffa9a577 624
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625# These are for backward compatibility with older versions.
626
627# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
628Zone WET 0:00 EU WE%sT
629Zone CET 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT
630Zone MET 1:00 C-Eur ME%sT
631Zone EET 2:00 EU EE%sT
632
633# Previous editions of this database used abbreviations like MET DST
634# for Central European Summer Time, but this didn't agree with common usage.
635
9ffe4b14 636# From Markus Kuhn (1996-07-12):
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637# The official German names ... are
638#
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639# Mitteleuropäische Zeit (MEZ) = UTC+01:00
640# Mitteleuropäische Sommerzeit (MESZ) = UTC+02:00
984263bc 641#
48afb8ac 642# as defined in the German Time Act (Gesetz über die Zeitbestimmung (ZeitG),
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643# 1978-07-25, Bundesgesetzblatt, Jahrgang 1978, Teil I, S. 1110-1111)....
644# I wrote ... to the German Federal Physical-Technical Institution
645#
646# Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB)
647# Laboratorium 4.41 "Zeiteinheit"
648# Postfach 3345
649# D-38023 Braunschweig
650# phone: +49 531 592-0
651#
652# ... I received today an answer letter from Dr. Peter Hetzel, head of the PTB
653# department for time and frequency transmission. He explained that the
654# PTB translates MEZ and MESZ into English as
655#
656# Central European Time (CET) = UTC+01:00
657# Central European Summer Time (CEST) = UTC+02:00
658
659
660# Albania
661# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
662Rule Albania 1940 only - Jun 16 0:00 1:00 S
663Rule Albania 1942 only - Nov 2 3:00 0 -
664Rule Albania 1943 only - Mar 29 2:00 1:00 S
665Rule Albania 1943 only - Apr 10 3:00 0 -
666Rule Albania 1974 only - May 4 0:00 1:00 S
667Rule Albania 1974 only - Oct 2 0:00 0 -
668Rule Albania 1975 only - May 1 0:00 1:00 S
669Rule Albania 1975 only - Oct 2 0:00 0 -
670Rule Albania 1976 only - May 2 0:00 1:00 S
671Rule Albania 1976 only - Oct 3 0:00 0 -
672Rule Albania 1977 only - May 8 0:00 1:00 S
673Rule Albania 1977 only - Oct 2 0:00 0 -
674Rule Albania 1978 only - May 6 0:00 1:00 S
675Rule Albania 1978 only - Oct 1 0:00 0 -
676Rule Albania 1979 only - May 5 0:00 1:00 S
677Rule Albania 1979 only - Sep 30 0:00 0 -
678Rule Albania 1980 only - May 3 0:00 1:00 S
679Rule Albania 1980 only - Oct 4 0:00 0 -
680Rule Albania 1981 only - Apr 26 0:00 1:00 S
681Rule Albania 1981 only - Sep 27 0:00 0 -
682Rule Albania 1982 only - May 2 0:00 1:00 S
683Rule Albania 1982 only - Oct 3 0:00 0 -
684Rule Albania 1983 only - Apr 18 0:00 1:00 S
685Rule Albania 1983 only - Oct 1 0:00 0 -
686Rule Albania 1984 only - Apr 1 0:00 1:00 S
687# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
688Zone Europe/Tirane 1:19:20 - LMT 1914
689 1:00 - CET 1940 Jun 16
690 1:00 Albania CE%sT 1984 Jul
691 1:00 EU CE%sT
692
693# Andorra
694# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
695Zone Europe/Andorra 0:06:04 - LMT 1901
696 0:00 - WET 1946 Sep 30
48afb8ac 697 1:00 - CET 1985 Mar 31 2:00
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698 1:00 EU CE%sT
699
700# Austria
701
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702# Milne says Vienna time was 1:05:21.
703
bd7414aa 704# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22): Shanks & Pottenger give 1918-06-16 and
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705# 1945-11-18, but the Austrian Federal Office of Metrology and
706# Surveying (BEV) gives 1918-09-16 and for Vienna gives the "alleged"
707# date of 1945-04-12 with no time. For the 1980-04-06 transition
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708# Shanks & Pottenger give 02:00, the BEV 00:00. Go with the BEV,
709# and guess 02:00 for 1945-04-12.
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710
711# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
712Rule Austria 1920 only - Apr 5 2:00s 1:00 S
713Rule Austria 1920 only - Sep 13 2:00s 0 -
714Rule Austria 1946 only - Apr 14 2:00s 1:00 S
715Rule Austria 1946 1948 - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
716Rule Austria 1947 only - Apr 6 2:00s 1:00 S
717Rule Austria 1948 only - Apr 18 2:00s 1:00 S
718Rule Austria 1980 only - Apr 6 0:00 1:00 S
719Rule Austria 1980 only - Sep 28 0:00 0 -
720# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
80e7e01d 721Zone Europe/Vienna 1:05:21 - LMT 1893 Apr
984263bc 722 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1920
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723 1:00 Austria CE%sT 1940 Apr 1 2:00s
724 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945 Apr 2 2:00s
725 1:00 1:00 CEST 1945 Apr 12 2:00s
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726 1:00 - CET 1946
727 1:00 Austria CE%sT 1981
728 1:00 EU CE%sT
729
730# Belarus
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731# From Yauhen Kharuzhy (2011-09-16):
732# By latest Belarus government act Europe/Minsk timezone was changed to
733# GMT+3 without DST (was GMT+2 with DST).
734#
735# Sources (Russian language):
8e329db9 736# http://www.belta.by/ru/all_news/society/V-Belarusi-otmenjaetsja-perexod-na-sezonnoe-vremja_i_572952.html
8e329db9 737# http://naviny.by/rubrics/society/2011/09/16/ic_articles_116_175144/
8e329db9 738# http://news.tut.by/society/250578.html
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739#
740# From Alexander Bokovoy (2014-10-09):
741# Belarussian government decided against changing to winter time....
742# http://eng.belta.by/all_news/society/Belarus-decides-against-adjusting-time-in-Russias-wake_i_76335.html
743# From Paul Eggert (2014-10-08):
744# Hence Belarus can share time zone abbreviations with Moscow again.
745#
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746# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
747Zone Europe/Minsk 1:50:16 - LMT 1880
48afb8ac 748 1:50 - MMT 1924 May 2 # Minsk Mean Time
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749 2:00 - EET 1930 Jun 21
750 3:00 - MSK 1941 Jun 28
751 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Jul 3
752 3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1990
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753 3:00 - MSK 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
754 2:00 1:00 EEST 1991 Sep 29 2:00s
755 2:00 - EET 1992 Mar 29 0:00s
756 2:00 1:00 EEST 1992 Sep 27 0:00s
757 2:00 Russia EE%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s
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758 3:00 - FET 2014 Oct 26 1:00s
759 3:00 - MSK
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760
761# Belgium
762#
763# From Paul Eggert (1997-07-02):
764# Entries from 1918 through 1991 are taken from:
765# Annuaire de L'Observatoire Royal de Belgique,
48afb8ac 766# Avenue Circulaire, 3, B-1180 BRUXELLES, CLVIIe année, 1991
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767# (Imprimerie HAYEZ, s.p.r.l., Rue Fin, 4, 1080 BRUXELLES, MCMXC),
768# pp 8-9.
769# LMT before 1892 was 0:17:30, according to the official journal of Belgium:
770# Moniteur Belge, Samedi 30 Avril 1892, N.121.
9ffe4b14 771# Thanks to Pascal Delmoitie for these references.
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772# The 1918 rules are listed for completeness; they apply to unoccupied Belgium.
773# Assume Brussels switched to WET in 1918 when the armistice took effect.
774#
775# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
776Rule Belgium 1918 only - Mar 9 0:00s 1:00 S
777Rule Belgium 1918 1919 - Oct Sat>=1 23:00s 0 -
778Rule Belgium 1919 only - Mar 1 23:00s 1:00 S
779Rule Belgium 1920 only - Feb 14 23:00s 1:00 S
780Rule Belgium 1920 only - Oct 23 23:00s 0 -
781Rule Belgium 1921 only - Mar 14 23:00s 1:00 S
782Rule Belgium 1921 only - Oct 25 23:00s 0 -
783Rule Belgium 1922 only - Mar 25 23:00s 1:00 S
784Rule Belgium 1922 1927 - Oct Sat>=1 23:00s 0 -
785Rule Belgium 1923 only - Apr 21 23:00s 1:00 S
786Rule Belgium 1924 only - Mar 29 23:00s 1:00 S
787Rule Belgium 1925 only - Apr 4 23:00s 1:00 S
788# DSH writes that a royal decree of 1926-02-22 specified the Sun following 3rd
789# Sat in Apr (except if it's Easter, in which case it's one Sunday earlier),
790# to Sun following 1st Sat in Oct, and that a royal decree of 1928-09-15
791# changed the transition times to 02:00 GMT.
792Rule Belgium 1926 only - Apr 17 23:00s 1:00 S
793Rule Belgium 1927 only - Apr 9 23:00s 1:00 S
794Rule Belgium 1928 only - Apr 14 23:00s 1:00 S
795Rule Belgium 1928 1938 - Oct Sun>=2 2:00s 0 -
796Rule Belgium 1929 only - Apr 21 2:00s 1:00 S
797Rule Belgium 1930 only - Apr 13 2:00s 1:00 S
798Rule Belgium 1931 only - Apr 19 2:00s 1:00 S
799Rule Belgium 1932 only - Apr 3 2:00s 1:00 S
800Rule Belgium 1933 only - Mar 26 2:00s 1:00 S
801Rule Belgium 1934 only - Apr 8 2:00s 1:00 S
802Rule Belgium 1935 only - Mar 31 2:00s 1:00 S
803Rule Belgium 1936 only - Apr 19 2:00s 1:00 S
804Rule Belgium 1937 only - Apr 4 2:00s 1:00 S
805Rule Belgium 1938 only - Mar 27 2:00s 1:00 S
806Rule Belgium 1939 only - Apr 16 2:00s 1:00 S
807Rule Belgium 1939 only - Nov 19 2:00s 0 -
808Rule Belgium 1940 only - Feb 25 2:00s 1:00 S
809Rule Belgium 1944 only - Sep 17 2:00s 0 -
810Rule Belgium 1945 only - Apr 2 2:00s 1:00 S
811Rule Belgium 1945 only - Sep 16 2:00s 0 -
812Rule Belgium 1946 only - May 19 2:00s 1:00 S
813Rule Belgium 1946 only - Oct 7 2:00s 0 -
814# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
815Zone Europe/Brussels 0:17:30 - LMT 1880
48afb8ac 816 0:17:30 - BMT 1892 May 1 12:00 # Brussels MT
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817 0:00 - WET 1914 Nov 8
818 1:00 - CET 1916 May 1 0:00
819 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1918 Nov 11 11:00u
820 0:00 Belgium WE%sT 1940 May 20 2:00s
821 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Sep 3
822 1:00 Belgium CE%sT 1977
823 1:00 EU CE%sT
824
825# Bosnia and Herzegovina
d1bcb6be 826# See Europe/Belgrade.
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827
828# Bulgaria
829#
9ffe4b14 830# From Plamen Simenov via Steffen Thorsen (1999-09-09):
984263bc 831# A document of Government of Bulgaria (No.94/1997) says:
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832# EET -> EETDST is in 03:00 Local time in last Sunday of March ...
833# EETDST -> EET is in 04:00 Local time in last Sunday of October
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834#
835# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
836Rule Bulg 1979 only - Mar 31 23:00 1:00 S
837Rule Bulg 1979 only - Oct 1 1:00 0 -
bd7414aa 838Rule Bulg 1980 1982 - Apr Sat>=1 23:00 1:00 S
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839Rule Bulg 1980 only - Sep 29 1:00 0 -
840Rule Bulg 1981 only - Sep 27 2:00 0 -
841# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
842Zone Europe/Sofia 1:33:16 - LMT 1880
843 1:56:56 - IMT 1894 Nov 30 # Istanbul MT?
844 2:00 - EET 1942 Nov 2 3:00
3f249718 845 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945
48afb8ac 846 1:00 - CET 1945 Apr 2 3:00
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847 2:00 - EET 1979 Mar 31 23:00
848 2:00 Bulg EE%sT 1982 Sep 26 2:00
849 2:00 C-Eur EE%sT 1991
850 2:00 E-Eur EE%sT 1997
851 2:00 EU EE%sT
852
853# Croatia
d1bcb6be 854# See Europe/Belgrade.
984263bc 855
ba5ba9da 856# Cyprus
d1bcb6be 857# Please see the 'asia' file for Asia/Nicosia.
ba5ba9da 858
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859# Czech Republic
860# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
861Rule Czech 1945 only - Apr 8 2:00s 1:00 S
862Rule Czech 1945 only - Nov 18 2:00s 0 -
863Rule Czech 1946 only - May 6 2:00s 1:00 S
864Rule Czech 1946 1949 - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
865Rule Czech 1947 only - Apr 20 2:00s 1:00 S
866Rule Czech 1948 only - Apr 18 2:00s 1:00 S
867Rule Czech 1949 only - Apr 9 2:00s 1:00 S
868# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
869Zone Europe/Prague 0:57:44 - LMT 1850
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870 0:57:44 - PMT 1891 Oct # Prague Mean Time
871 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Sep 17 2:00s
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872 1:00 Czech CE%sT 1979
873 1:00 EU CE%sT
d1bcb6be 874# Use Europe/Prague also for Slovakia.
984263bc 875
880368e2 876# Denmark, Faroe Islands, and Greenland
9ffe4b14 877
48afb8ac 878# From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2005-04-26):
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879# http://www.hum.aau.dk/~poe/tid/tine/DanskTid.htm says that the law
880# [introducing standard time] was in effect from 1894-01-01....
881# The page http://www.retsinfo.dk/_GETDOCI_/ACCN/A18930008330-REGL
882# confirms this, and states that the law was put forth 1893-03-29.
883#
884# The EU treaty with effect from 1973:
885# http://www.retsinfo.dk/_GETDOCI_/ACCN/A19722110030-REGL
886#
887# This provoked a new law from 1974 to make possible summer time changes
48afb8ac 888# in subsequent decrees with the law
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889# http://www.retsinfo.dk/_GETDOCI_/ACCN/A19740022330-REGL
890#
891# It seems however that no decree was set forward until 1980. I have
892# not found any decree, but in another related law, the effecting DST
893# changes are stated explicitly to be from 1980-04-06 at 02:00 to
894# 1980-09-28 at 02:00. If this is true, this differs slightly from
895# the EU rule in that DST runs to 02:00, not 03:00. We don't know
896# when Denmark began using the EU rule correctly, but we have only
897# confirmation of the 1980-time, so I presume it was correct in 1981:
898# The law is about the management of the extra hour, concerning
899# working hours reported and effect on obligatory-rest rules (which
900# was suspended on that night):
901# http://www.retsinfo.dk/_GETDOCI_/ACCN/C19801120554-REGL
902
48afb8ac 903# From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2005-06-11):
9ffe4b14
SW
904# The Herning Folkeblad (1980-09-26) reported that the night between
905# Saturday and Sunday the clock is set back from three to two.
906
907# From Paul Eggert (2005-06-11):
908# Hence the "02:00" of the 1980 law refers to standard time, not
909# wall-clock time, and so the EU rules were in effect in 1980.
910
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MD
911# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
912Rule Denmark 1916 only - May 14 23:00 1:00 S
913Rule Denmark 1916 only - Sep 30 23:00 0 -
914Rule Denmark 1940 only - May 15 0:00 1:00 S
915Rule Denmark 1945 only - Apr 2 2:00s 1:00 S
916Rule Denmark 1945 only - Aug 15 2:00s 0 -
917Rule Denmark 1946 only - May 1 2:00s 1:00 S
918Rule Denmark 1946 only - Sep 1 2:00s 0 -
919Rule Denmark 1947 only - May 4 2:00s 1:00 S
920Rule Denmark 1947 only - Aug 10 2:00s 0 -
921Rule Denmark 1948 only - May 9 2:00s 1:00 S
922Rule Denmark 1948 only - Aug 8 2:00s 0 -
984263bc 923#
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924# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
925Zone Europe/Copenhagen 0:50:20 - LMT 1890
9ffe4b14 926 0:50:20 - CMT 1894 Jan 1 # Copenhagen MT
48afb8ac
SW
927 1:00 Denmark CE%sT 1942 Nov 2 2:00s
928 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945 Apr 2 2:00
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MD
929 1:00 Denmark CE%sT 1980
930 1:00 EU CE%sT
48afb8ac 931Zone Atlantic/Faroe -0:27:04 - LMT 1908 Jan 11 # Tórshavn
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MD
932 0:00 - WET 1981
933 0:00 EU WE%sT
934#
bc95ec93
SW
935# From Paul Eggert (2004-10-31):
936# During World War II, Germany maintained secret manned weather stations in
937# East Greenland and Franz Josef Land, but we don't know their time zones.
938# My source for this is Wilhelm Dege's book mentioned under Svalbard.
939#
bd7414aa 940# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
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MD
941# Greenland joined the EU as part of Denmark, obtained home rule on 1979-05-01,
942# and left the EU on 1985-02-01. It therefore should have been using EU
48afb8ac 943# rules at least through 1984. Shanks & Pottenger say Scoresbysund and Godthåb
984263bc
MD
944# used C-Eur rules after 1980, but IATA SSIM (1991/1996) says they use EU
945# rules since at least 1991. Assume EU rules since 1980.
946
48afb8ac 947# From Gwillim Law (2001-06-06), citing
984263bc
MD
948# <http://www.statkart.no/efs/efshefter/2001/efs5-2001.pdf> (2001-03-15),
949# and with translations corrected by Steffen Thorsen:
950#
951# Greenland has four local times, and the relation to UTC
952# is according to the following time line:
953#
954# The military zone near Thule UTC-4
955# Standard Greenland time UTC-3
956# Scoresbysund UTC-1
957# Danmarkshavn UTC
958#
959# In the military area near Thule and in Danmarkshavn DST will not be
960# introduced.
961
962# From Rives McDow (2001-11-01):
963#
964# I correspond regularly with the Dansk Polarcenter, and wrote them at
965# the time to clarify the situation in Thule. Unfortunately, I have
966# not heard back from them regarding my recent letter. [But I have
967# info from earlier correspondence.]
968#
969# According to the center, a very small local time zone around Thule
970# Air Base keeps the time according to UTC-4, implementing daylight
971# savings using North America rules, changing the time at 02:00 local time....
972#
973# The east coast of Greenland north of the community of Scoresbysund
974# uses UTC in the same way as in Iceland, year round, with no dst.
975# There are just a few stations on this coast, including the
976# Danmarkshavn ICAO weather station mentioned in your September 29th
977# email. The other stations are two sledge patrol stations in
978# Mestersvig and Daneborg, the air force base at Station Nord, and the
979# DPC research station at Zackenberg.
980#
981# Scoresbysund and two small villages nearby keep time UTC-1 and use
48afb8ac 982# the same daylight savings time period as in West Greenland (Godthåb).
984263bc 983#
48afb8ac 984# The rest of Greenland, including Godthåb (this area, although it
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MD
985# includes central Greenland, is known as west Greenland), keeps time
986# UTC-3, with daylight savings methods according to European rules.
987#
988# It is common procedure to use UTC 0 in the wilderness of East and
989# North Greenland, because it is mainly Icelandic aircraft operators
990# maintaining traffic in these areas. However, the official status of
48afb8ac 991# this area is that it sticks with Godthåb time. This area might be
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MD
992# considered a dual time zone in some respects because of this.
993
994# From Rives McDow (2001-11-19):
995# I heard back from someone stationed at Thule; the time change took place
996# there at 2:00 AM.
997
bd7414aa
SW
998# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
999# From 1997 on the CIA map shows Danmarkshavn on GMT;
48afb8ac
SW
1000# the 1995 map as like Godthåb.
1001# For lack of better info, assume they were like Godthåb before 1996.
984263bc 1002# startkart.no says Thule does not observe DST, but this is clearly an error,
bd7414aa
SW
1003# so go with Shanks & Pottenger for Thule transitions until this year.
1004# For 2007 on assume Thule will stay in sync with US DST rules.
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MD
1005#
1006# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
1007Rule Thule 1991 1992 - Mar lastSun 2:00 1:00 D
1008Rule Thule 1991 1992 - Sep lastSun 2:00 0 S
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SW
1009Rule Thule 1993 2006 - Apr Sun>=1 2:00 1:00 D
1010Rule Thule 1993 2006 - Oct lastSun 2:00 0 S
1011Rule Thule 2007 max - Mar Sun>=8 2:00 1:00 D
1012Rule Thule 2007 max - Nov Sun>=1 2:00 0 S
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1013#
1014# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
1015Zone America/Danmarkshavn -1:14:40 - LMT 1916 Jul 28
48afb8ac 1016 -3:00 - WGT 1980 Apr 6 2:00
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MD
1017 -3:00 EU WG%sT 1996
1018 0:00 - GMT
bd7414aa 1019Zone America/Scoresbysund -1:27:52 - LMT 1916 Jul 28 # Ittoqqortoormiit
48afb8ac 1020 -2:00 - CGT 1980 Apr 6 2:00
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MD
1021 -2:00 C-Eur CG%sT 1981 Mar 29
1022 -1:00 EU EG%sT
1023Zone America/Godthab -3:26:56 - LMT 1916 Jul 28 # Nuuk
48afb8ac 1024 -3:00 - WGT 1980 Apr 6 2:00
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MD
1025 -3:00 EU WG%sT
1026Zone America/Thule -4:35:08 - LMT 1916 Jul 28 # Pituffik air base
1027 -4:00 Thule A%sT
1028
1029# Estonia
9ffe4b14 1030# From Peter Ilieve (1994-10-15):
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MD
1031# A relative in Tallinn confirms the accuracy of the data for 1989 onwards
1032# [through 1994] and gives the legal authority for it,
1033# a regulation of the Government of Estonia, No. 111 of 1989....
1034#
9ffe4b14 1035# From Peter Ilieve (1996-10-28):
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MD
1036# [IATA SSIM (1992/1996) claims that the Baltic republics switch at 01:00s,
1037# but a relative confirms that Estonia still switches at 02:00s, writing:]
d1bcb6be 1038# "I do not [know] exactly but there are some little different
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MD
1039# (confusing) rules for International Air and Railway Transport Schedules
1040# conversion in Sunday connected with end of summer time in Estonia....
1041# A discussion is running about the summer time efficiency and effect on
1042# human physiology. It seems that Estonia maybe will not change to
d1bcb6be 1043# summer time next spring."
984263bc 1044
9ffe4b14 1045# From Peter Ilieve (1998-11-04), heavily edited:
984263bc 1046# The 1998-09-22 Estonian time law
48afb8ac 1047# http://trip.rk.ee/cgi-bin/thw?${BASE}=akt&${OOHTML}=rtd&TA=1998&TO=1&AN=1390
984263bc 1048# refers to the Eighth Directive and cites the association agreement between
48afb8ac 1049# the EU and Estonia, ratified by the Estonian law (RT II 1995, 22-27, 120).
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MD
1050#
1051# I also asked [my relative] whether they use any standard abbreviation
1052# for their standard and summer times. He says no, they use "suveaeg"
1053# (summer time) and "talveaeg" (winter time).
1054
48afb8ac 1055# From The Baltic Times <http://www.baltictimes.com/> (1999-09-09)
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MD
1056# via Steffen Thorsen:
1057# This year will mark the last time Estonia shifts to summer time,
1058# a council of the ruling coalition announced Sept. 6....
1059# But what this could mean for Estonia's chances of joining the European
1060# Union are still unclear. In 1994, the EU declared summer time compulsory
1061# for all member states until 2001. Brussels has yet to decide what to do
1062# after that.
1063
1064# From Mart Oruaas (2000-01-29):
1065# Regulation no. 301 (1999-10-12) obsoletes previous regulation
1066# no. 206 (1998-09-22) and thus sticks Estonia to +02:00 GMT for all
1067# the year round. The regulation is effective 1999-11-01.
1068
1069# From Toomas Soome (2002-02-21):
1070# The Estonian government has changed once again timezone politics.
1071# Now we are using again EU rules.
1072#
48afb8ac 1073# From Urmet Jänes (2002-03-28):
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MD
1074# The legislative reference is Government decree No. 84 on 2002-02-21.
1075
1076# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
1077Zone Europe/Tallinn 1:39:00 - LMT 1880
48afb8ac 1078 1:39:00 - TMT 1918 Feb # Tallinn Mean Time
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MD
1079 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1919 Jul
1080 1:39:00 - TMT 1921 May
1081 2:00 - EET 1940 Aug 6
1082 3:00 - MSK 1941 Sep 15
1083 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Sep 22
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SW
1084 3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1989 Mar 26 2:00s
1085 2:00 1:00 EEST 1989 Sep 24 2:00s
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MD
1086 2:00 C-Eur EE%sT 1998 Sep 22
1087 2:00 EU EE%sT 1999 Nov 1
1088 2:00 - EET 2002 Feb 21
1089 2:00 EU EE%sT
1090
1091# Finland
25d38d10 1092
bd7414aa 1093# From Hannu Strang (1994-09-25 06:03:37 UTC):
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MD
1094# Well, here in Helsinki we're just changing from summer time to regular one,
1095# and it's supposed to change at 4am...
25d38d10 1096
d1bcb6be 1097# From Janne Snabb (2010-07-15):
984263bc 1098#
25d38d10
SW
1099# I noticed that the Finland data is not accurate for years 1981 and 1982.
1100# During these two first trial years the DST adjustment was made one hour
1101# earlier than in forthcoming years. Starting 1983 the adjustment was made
1102# according to the central European standards.
1103#
1104# This is documented in Heikki Oja: Aikakirja 2007, published by The Almanac
1105# Office of University of Helsinki, ISBN 952-10-3221-9, available online (in
1106# Finnish) at
25d38d10 1107# http://almanakka.helsinki.fi/aikakirja/Aikakirja2007kokonaan.pdf
25d38d10
SW
1108#
1109# Page 105 (56 in PDF version) has a handy table of all past daylight savings
1110# transitions. It is easy enough to interpret without Finnish skills.
1111#
1112# This is also confirmed by Finnish Broadcasting Company's archive at:
25d38d10 1113# http://www.yle.fi/elavaarkisto/?s=s&g=1&ag=5&t=&a=3401
25d38d10
SW
1114#
1115# The news clip from 1981 says that "the time between 2 and 3 o'clock does not
1116# exist tonight."
1117
48afb8ac
SW
1118# From Konstantin Hyppönen (2014-06-13):
1119# [Heikki Oja's book Aikakirja 2013]
1120# http://almanakka.helsinki.fi/images/aikakirja/Aikakirja2013kokonaan.pdf
1121# pages 104-105, including a scan from a newspaper published on Apr 2 1942
1122# say that ... [o]n Apr 2 1942, 24 o'clock (which means Apr 3 1942,
1123# 00:00), clocks were moved one hour forward. The newspaper
1124# mentions "on the night from Thursday to Friday"....
1125# On Oct 4 1942, clocks were moved at 1:00 one hour backwards.
1126#
1127# From Paul Eggert (2014-06-14):
1128# Go with Oja over Shanks.
1129
984263bc 1130# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
48afb8ac
SW
1131Rule Finland 1942 only - Apr 2 24:00 1:00 S
1132Rule Finland 1942 only - Oct 4 1:00 0 -
25d38d10
SW
1133Rule Finland 1981 1982 - Mar lastSun 2:00 1:00 S
1134Rule Finland 1981 1982 - Sep lastSun 3:00 0 -
48afb8ac
SW
1135
1136# Milne says Helsinki (Helsingfors) time was 1:39:49.2 (official document);
1137# round to nearest.
1138
984263bc 1139# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
48afb8ac
SW
1140Zone Europe/Helsinki 1:39:49 - LMT 1878 May 31
1141 1:39:49 - HMT 1921 May # Helsinki Mean Time
25d38d10 1142 2:00 Finland EE%sT 1983
984263bc
MD
1143 2:00 EU EE%sT
1144
48afb8ac 1145# Åland Is
ba5ba9da
JR
1146Link Europe/Helsinki Europe/Mariehamn
1147
1148
984263bc
MD
1149# France
1150
1151# From Ciro Discepolo (2000-12-20):
1152#
48afb8ac 1153# Henri Le Corre, Régimes horaires pour le monde entier, Éditions
984263bc
MD
1154# Traditionnelles - Paris 2 books, 1993
1155#
48afb8ac 1156# Gabriel, Traité de l'heure dans le monde, Guy Trédaniel,
984263bc
MD
1157# Paris, 1991
1158#
48afb8ac
SW
1159# Françoise Gauquelin, Problèmes de l'heure résolus en astrologie,
1160# Guy Trédaniel, Paris 1987
984263bc
MD
1161
1162
1163#
d1bcb6be 1164# Shank & Pottenger seem to use '24:00' ambiguously; resolve it with Whitman.
984263bc
MD
1165# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
1166Rule France 1916 only - Jun 14 23:00s 1:00 S
1167Rule France 1916 1919 - Oct Sun>=1 23:00s 0 -
1168Rule France 1917 only - Mar 24 23:00s 1:00 S
1169Rule France 1918 only - Mar 9 23:00s 1:00 S
1170Rule France 1919 only - Mar 1 23:00s 1:00 S
1171Rule France 1920 only - Feb 14 23:00s 1:00 S
1172Rule France 1920 only - Oct 23 23:00s 0 -
1173Rule France 1921 only - Mar 14 23:00s 1:00 S
1174Rule France 1921 only - Oct 25 23:00s 0 -
1175Rule France 1922 only - Mar 25 23:00s 1:00 S
1176# DSH writes that a law of 1923-05-24 specified 3rd Sat in Apr at 23:00 to 1st
1177# Sat in Oct at 24:00; and that in 1930, because of Easter, the transitions
bd7414aa 1178# were Apr 12 and Oct 5. Go with Shanks & Pottenger.
984263bc
MD
1179Rule France 1922 1938 - Oct Sat>=1 23:00s 0 -
1180Rule France 1923 only - May 26 23:00s 1:00 S
1181Rule France 1924 only - Mar 29 23:00s 1:00 S
1182Rule France 1925 only - Apr 4 23:00s 1:00 S
1183Rule France 1926 only - Apr 17 23:00s 1:00 S
1184Rule France 1927 only - Apr 9 23:00s 1:00 S
1185Rule France 1928 only - Apr 14 23:00s 1:00 S
1186Rule France 1929 only - Apr 20 23:00s 1:00 S
1187Rule France 1930 only - Apr 12 23:00s 1:00 S
1188Rule France 1931 only - Apr 18 23:00s 1:00 S
1189Rule France 1932 only - Apr 2 23:00s 1:00 S
1190Rule France 1933 only - Mar 25 23:00s 1:00 S
1191Rule France 1934 only - Apr 7 23:00s 1:00 S
1192Rule France 1935 only - Mar 30 23:00s 1:00 S
1193Rule France 1936 only - Apr 18 23:00s 1:00 S
1194Rule France 1937 only - Apr 3 23:00s 1:00 S
1195Rule France 1938 only - Mar 26 23:00s 1:00 S
1196Rule France 1939 only - Apr 15 23:00s 1:00 S
1197Rule France 1939 only - Nov 18 23:00s 0 -
1198Rule France 1940 only - Feb 25 2:00 1:00 S
bd7414aa
SW
1199# The French rules for 1941-1944 were not used in Paris, but Shanks & Pottenger
1200# write that they were used in Monaco and in many French locations.
48afb8ac
SW
1201# Le Corre writes that the upper limit of the free zone was Arnéguy, Orthez,
1202# Mont-de-Marsan, Bazas, Langon, Lamothe-Montravel, Marœuil, La
1203# Rochefoucauld, Champagne-Mouton, La Roche-Posay, La Haye-Descartes,
984263bc 1204# Loches, Montrichard, Vierzon, Bourges, Moulins, Digoin,
48afb8ac 1205# Paray-le-Monial, Montceau-les-Mines, Chalon-sur-Saône, Arbois,
bca44125 1206# Dole, Morez, St-Claude, and Collonges (Haute-Savoie).
984263bc 1207Rule France 1941 only - May 5 0:00 2:00 M # Midsummer
bd7414aa 1208# Shanks & Pottenger say this transition occurred at Oct 6 1:00,
9ffe4b14 1209# but go with Denis Excoffier (1997-12-12),
48afb8ac 1210# who quotes the Ephémérides astronomiques for 1998 from Bureau des Longitudes
984263bc
MD
1211# as saying 5/10/41 22hUT.
1212Rule France 1941 only - Oct 6 0:00 1:00 S
1213Rule France 1942 only - Mar 9 0:00 2:00 M
1214Rule France 1942 only - Nov 2 3:00 1:00 S
1215Rule France 1943 only - Mar 29 2:00 2:00 M
1216Rule France 1943 only - Oct 4 3:00 1:00 S
1217Rule France 1944 only - Apr 3 2:00 2:00 M
1218Rule France 1944 only - Oct 8 1:00 1:00 S
1219Rule France 1945 only - Apr 2 2:00 2:00 M
1220Rule France 1945 only - Sep 16 3:00 0 -
bd7414aa 1221# Shanks & Pottenger give Mar 28 2:00 and Sep 26 3:00;
984263bc
MD
1222# go with Excoffier's 28/3/76 0hUT and 25/9/76 23hUT.
1223Rule France 1976 only - Mar 28 1:00 1:00 S
1224Rule France 1976 only - Sep 26 1:00 0 -
bd7414aa 1225# Shanks & Pottenger give 0:09:20 for Paris Mean Time, and Whitman 0:09:05,
984263bc
MD
1226# but Howse quotes the actual French legislation as saying 0:09:21.
1227# Go with Howse. Howse writes that the time in France was officially based
1228# on PMT-0:09:21 until 1978-08-09, when the time base finally switched to UTC.
1229# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
1230Zone Europe/Paris 0:09:21 - LMT 1891 Mar 15 0:01
48afb8ac 1231 0:09:21 - PMT 1911 Mar 11 0:01 # Paris MT
bd7414aa 1232# Shanks & Pottenger give 1940 Jun 14 0:00; go with Excoffier and Le Corre.
984263bc
MD
1233 0:00 France WE%sT 1940 Jun 14 23:00
1234# Le Corre says Paris stuck with occupied-France time after the liberation;
bd7414aa 1235# go with Shanks & Pottenger.
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MD
1236 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Aug 25
1237 0:00 France WE%sT 1945 Sep 16 3:00
1238 1:00 France CE%sT 1977
1239 1:00 EU CE%sT
1240
1241# Germany
1242
9ffe4b14 1243# From Markus Kuhn (1998-09-29):
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MD
1244# The German time zone web site by the Physikalisch-Technische
1245# Bundesanstalt contains DST information back to 1916.
1246# [See tz-link.htm for the URL.]
1247
48afb8ac 1248# From Jörg Schilling (2002-10-23):
3f249718 1249# In 1945, Berlin was switched to Moscow Summer time (GMT+4) by
48afb8ac
SW
1250# http://www.dhm.de/lemo/html/biografien/BersarinNikolai/
1251# General [Nikolai] Bersarin.
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MD
1252
1253# From Paul Eggert (2003-03-08):
a36b983e 1254# http://www.parlament-berlin.de/pds-fraktion.nsf/727459127c8b66ee8525662300459099/defc77cb784f180ac1256c2b0030274b/$FILE/bersarint.pdf
984263bc
MD
1255# says that Bersarin issued an order to use Moscow time on May 20.
1256# However, Moscow did not observe daylight saving in 1945, so
1257# this was equivalent to CEMT (GMT+3), not GMT+4.
1258
1259
1260# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
984263bc
MD
1261Rule Germany 1946 only - Apr 14 2:00s 1:00 S
1262Rule Germany 1946 only - Oct 7 2:00s 0 -
1263Rule Germany 1947 1949 - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
a36b983e
SW
1264# http://www.ptb.de/de/org/4/44/441/salt.htm says the following transition
1265# occurred at 3:00 MEZ, not the 2:00 MEZ given in Shanks & Pottenger.
1266# Go with the PTB.
1267Rule Germany 1947 only - Apr 6 3:00s 1:00 S
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MD
1268Rule Germany 1947 only - May 11 2:00s 2:00 M
1269Rule Germany 1947 only - Jun 29 3:00 1:00 S
1270Rule Germany 1948 only - Apr 18 2:00s 1:00 S
1271Rule Germany 1949 only - Apr 10 2:00s 1:00 S
a36b983e
SW
1272
1273Rule SovietZone 1945 only - May 24 2:00 2:00 M # Midsummer
1274Rule SovietZone 1945 only - Sep 24 3:00 1:00 S
1275Rule SovietZone 1945 only - Nov 18 2:00s 0 -
1276
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MD
1277# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
1278Zone Europe/Berlin 0:53:28 - LMT 1893 Apr
48afb8ac 1279 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945 May 24 2:00
a36b983e 1280 1:00 SovietZone CE%sT 1946
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MD
1281 1:00 Germany CE%sT 1980
1282 1:00 EU CE%sT
1283
80e7e01d 1284# From Tobias Conradi (2011-09-12):
48afb8ac 1285# Büsingen <http://www.buesingen.de>, surrounded by the Swiss canton
80e7e01d
SW
1286# Schaffhausen, did not start observing DST in 1980 as the rest of DE
1287# (West Germany at that time) and DD (East Germany at that time) did.
1288# DD merged into DE, the area is currently covered by code DE in ISO 3166-1,
1289# which in turn is covered by the zone Europe/Berlin.
1290#
48afb8ac 1291# Source for the time in Büsingen 1980:
80e7e01d
SW
1292# http://www.srf.ch/player/video?id=c012c029-03b7-4c2b-9164-aa5902cd58d3
1293
1294# From Arthur David Olson (2012-03-03):
48afb8ac 1295# Büsingen and Zurich have shared clocks since 1970.
80e7e01d
SW
1296
1297Link Europe/Zurich Europe/Busingen
1298
bc95ec93
SW
1299# Georgia
1300# Please see the "asia" file for Asia/Tbilisi.
1301# Herodotus (Histories, IV.45) says Georgia north of the Phasis (now Rioni)
1302# is in Europe. Our reference location Tbilisi is in the Asian part.
1303
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MD
1304# Gibraltar
1305# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
48afb8ac
SW
1306Zone Europe/Gibraltar -0:21:24 - LMT 1880 Aug 2 0:00s
1307 0:00 GB-Eire %s 1957 Apr 14 2:00
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MD
1308 1:00 - CET 1982
1309 1:00 EU CE%sT
1310
1311# Greece
1312# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
bd7414aa 1313# Whitman gives 1932 Jul 5 - Nov 1; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
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MD
1314Rule Greece 1932 only - Jul 7 0:00 1:00 S
1315Rule Greece 1932 only - Sep 1 0:00 0 -
bd7414aa 1316# Whitman gives 1941 Apr 25 - ?; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
984263bc 1317Rule Greece 1941 only - Apr 7 0:00 1:00 S
bd7414aa 1318# Whitman gives 1942 Feb 2 - ?; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
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MD
1319Rule Greece 1942 only - Nov 2 3:00 0 -
1320Rule Greece 1943 only - Mar 30 0:00 1:00 S
1321Rule Greece 1943 only - Oct 4 0:00 0 -
bd7414aa 1322# Whitman gives 1944 Oct 3 - Oct 31; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
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1323Rule Greece 1952 only - Jul 1 0:00 1:00 S
1324Rule Greece 1952 only - Nov 2 0:00 0 -
1325Rule Greece 1975 only - Apr 12 0:00s 1:00 S
1326Rule Greece 1975 only - Nov 26 0:00s 0 -
1327Rule Greece 1976 only - Apr 11 2:00s 1:00 S
1328Rule Greece 1976 only - Oct 10 2:00s 0 -
1329Rule Greece 1977 1978 - Apr Sun>=1 2:00s 1:00 S
1330Rule Greece 1977 only - Sep 26 2:00s 0 -
1331Rule Greece 1978 only - Sep 24 4:00 0 -
1332Rule Greece 1979 only - Apr 1 9:00 1:00 S
1333Rule Greece 1979 only - Sep 29 2:00 0 -
1334Rule Greece 1980 only - Apr 1 0:00 1:00 S
1335Rule Greece 1980 only - Sep 28 0:00 0 -
1336# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
1337Zone Europe/Athens 1:34:52 - LMT 1895 Sep 14
48afb8ac 1338 1:34:52 - AMT 1916 Jul 28 0:01 # Athens MT
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MD
1339 2:00 Greece EE%sT 1941 Apr 30
1340 1:00 Greece CE%sT 1944 Apr 4
1341 2:00 Greece EE%sT 1981
bd7414aa 1342 # Shanks & Pottenger say it switched to C-Eur in 1981;
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MD
1343 # go with EU instead, since Greece joined it on Jan 1.
1344 2:00 EU EE%sT
1345
1346# Hungary
48afb8ac
SW
1347# From Paul Eggert (2014-07-15):
1348# Dates for 1916-1945 are taken from:
1349# Oross A. Jelen a múlt jövője: a nyári időszámítás Magyarországon 1916-1945.
1350# National Archives of Hungary (2012-10-29).
1351# http://mnl.gov.hu/a_het_dokumentuma/a_nyari_idoszamitas_magyarorszagon_19161945.html
1352# This source does not always give times, which are taken from Shanks
1353# & Pottenger (which disagree about the dates).
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1354# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
1355Rule Hungary 1918 only - Apr 1 3:00 1:00 S
48afb8ac 1356Rule Hungary 1918 only - Sep 16 3:00 0 -
984263bc 1357Rule Hungary 1919 only - Apr 15 3:00 1:00 S
48afb8ac 1358Rule Hungary 1919 only - Nov 24 3:00 0 -
984263bc 1359Rule Hungary 1945 only - May 1 23:00 1:00 S
48afb8ac 1360Rule Hungary 1945 only - Nov 1 0:00 0 -
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1361Rule Hungary 1946 only - Mar 31 2:00s 1:00 S
1362Rule Hungary 1946 1949 - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
1363Rule Hungary 1947 1949 - Apr Sun>=4 2:00s 1:00 S
1364Rule Hungary 1950 only - Apr 17 2:00s 1:00 S
1365Rule Hungary 1950 only - Oct 23 2:00s 0 -
1366Rule Hungary 1954 1955 - May 23 0:00 1:00 S
1367Rule Hungary 1954 1955 - Oct 3 0:00 0 -
1368Rule Hungary 1956 only - Jun Sun>=1 0:00 1:00 S
1369Rule Hungary 1956 only - Sep lastSun 0:00 0 -
1370Rule Hungary 1957 only - Jun Sun>=1 1:00 1:00 S
1371Rule Hungary 1957 only - Sep lastSun 3:00 0 -
1372Rule Hungary 1980 only - Apr 6 1:00 1:00 S
1373# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
1374Zone Europe/Budapest 1:16:20 - LMT 1890 Oct
1375 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1918
48afb8ac 1376 1:00 Hungary CE%sT 1941 Apr 8
3f249718 1377 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945
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MD
1378 1:00 Hungary CE%sT 1980 Sep 28 2:00s
1379 1:00 EU CE%sT
1380
1381# Iceland
1382#
9ffe4b14 1383# From Adam David (1993-11-06):
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1384# The name of the timezone in Iceland for system / mail / news purposes is GMT.
1385#
1386# (1993-12-05):
1387# This material is paraphrased from the 1988 edition of the University of
1388# Iceland Almanak.
1389#
1390# From January 1st, 1908 the whole of Iceland was standardised at 1 hour
1391# behind GMT. Previously, local mean solar time was used in different parts
1392# of Iceland, the almanak had been based on Reykjavik mean solar time which
1393# was 1 hour and 28 minutes behind GMT.
1394#
1395# "first day of winter" referred to [below] means the first day of the 26 weeks
1396# of winter, according to the old icelandic calendar that dates back to the
1397# time the norsemen first settled Iceland. The first day of winter is always
1398# Saturday, but is not dependent on the Julian or Gregorian calendars.
1399#
1400# (1993-12-10):
1401# I have a reference from the Oxford Icelandic-English dictionary for the
1402# beginning of winter, which ties it to the ecclesiastical calendar (and thus
1403# to the julian/gregorian calendar) over the period in question.
1404# the winter begins on the Saturday next before St. Luke's day
1405# (old style), or on St. Luke's day, if a Saturday.
1406# St. Luke's day ought to be traceable from ecclesiastical sources. "old style"
1407# might be a reference to the Julian calendar as opposed to Gregorian, or it
1408# might mean something else (???).
1409#
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SW
1410# From Paul Eggert (2014-11-22):
1411# The information below is taken from the 1988 Almanak; see
1412# http://www.almanak.hi.is/klukkan.html
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1413#
1414# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
30d1d955 1415Rule Iceland 1917 1919 - Feb 19 23:00 1:00 S
984263bc 1416Rule Iceland 1917 only - Oct 21 1:00 0 -
30d1d955
SW
1417Rule Iceland 1918 1919 - Nov 16 1:00 0 -
1418Rule Iceland 1921 only - Mar 19 23:00 1:00 S
1419Rule Iceland 1921 only - Jun 23 1:00 0 -
984263bc 1420Rule Iceland 1939 only - Apr 29 23:00 1:00 S
30d1d955 1421Rule Iceland 1939 only - Oct 29 2:00 0 -
984263bc 1422Rule Iceland 1940 only - Feb 25 2:00 1:00 S
30d1d955
SW
1423Rule Iceland 1940 1941 - Nov Sun>=2 1:00s 0 -
1424Rule Iceland 1941 1942 - Mar Sun>=2 1:00s 1:00 S
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1425# 1943-1946 - first Sunday in March until first Sunday in winter
1426Rule Iceland 1943 1946 - Mar Sun>=1 1:00s 1:00 S
30d1d955 1427Rule Iceland 1942 1948 - Oct Sun>=22 1:00s 0 -
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1428# 1947-1967 - first Sunday in April until first Sunday in winter
1429Rule Iceland 1947 1967 - Apr Sun>=1 1:00s 1:00 S
30d1d955 1430# 1949 and 1967 Oct transitions delayed by 1 week
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MD
1431Rule Iceland 1949 only - Oct 30 1:00s 0 -
1432Rule Iceland 1950 1966 - Oct Sun>=22 1:00s 0 -
1433Rule Iceland 1967 only - Oct 29 1:00s 0 -
1434# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
30d1d955 1435Zone Atlantic/Reykjavik -1:28 - LMT 1908
48afb8ac 1436 -1:00 Iceland IS%sT 1968 Apr 7 1:00s
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MD
1437 0:00 - GMT
1438
1439# Italy
1440#
1441# From Paul Eggert (2001-03-06):
1442# Sicily and Sardinia each had their own time zones from 1866 to 1893,
1443# called Palermo Time (+00:53:28) and Cagliari Time (+00:36:32).
1444# During World War II, German-controlled Italy used German time.
1445# But these events all occurred before the 1970 cutoff,
1446# so record only the time in Rome.
1447#
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SW
1448# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
1449# For Italian DST we have three sources: Shanks & Pottenger, Whitman, and
1450# F. Pollastri
bd7414aa 1451# Day-light Saving Time in Italy (2006-02-03)
48afb8ac 1452# http://toi.iriti.cnr.it/uk/ienitlt.html
d1bcb6be 1453# ('FP' below), taken from an Italian National Electrotechnical Institute
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MD
1454# publication. When the three sources disagree, guess who's right, as follows:
1455#
bd7414aa 1456# year FP Shanks&P. (S) Whitman (W) Go with:
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MD
1457# 1916 06-03 06-03 24:00 06-03 00:00 FP & W
1458# 09-30 09-30 24:00 09-30 01:00 FP; guess 24:00s
1459# 1917 04-01 03-31 24:00 03-31 00:00 FP & S
1460# 09-30 09-29 24:00 09-30 01:00 FP & W
1461# 1918 03-09 03-09 24:00 03-09 00:00 FP & S
1462# 10-06 10-05 24:00 10-06 01:00 FP & W
1463# 1919 03-01 03-01 24:00 03-01 00:00 FP & S
1464# 10-04 10-04 24:00 10-04 01:00 FP; guess 24:00s
1465# 1920 03-20 03-20 24:00 03-20 00:00 FP & S
1466# 09-18 09-18 24:00 10-01 01:00 FP; guess 24:00s
1467# 1944 04-02 04-03 02:00 S (see C-Eur)
1468# 09-16 10-02 03:00 FP; guess 24:00s
1469# 1945 09-14 09-16 24:00 FP; guess 24:00s
1470# 1970 05-21 05-31 00:00 S
1471# 09-20 09-27 00:00 S
1472#
1473# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
1474Rule Italy 1916 only - Jun 3 0:00s 1:00 S
1475Rule Italy 1916 only - Oct 1 0:00s 0 -
1476Rule Italy 1917 only - Apr 1 0:00s 1:00 S
1477Rule Italy 1917 only - Sep 30 0:00s 0 -
1478Rule Italy 1918 only - Mar 10 0:00s 1:00 S
1479Rule Italy 1918 1919 - Oct Sun>=1 0:00s 0 -
1480Rule Italy 1919 only - Mar 2 0:00s 1:00 S
1481Rule Italy 1920 only - Mar 21 0:00s 1:00 S
1482Rule Italy 1920 only - Sep 19 0:00s 0 -
1483Rule Italy 1940 only - Jun 15 0:00s 1:00 S
1484Rule Italy 1944 only - Sep 17 0:00s 0 -
1485Rule Italy 1945 only - Apr 2 2:00 1:00 S
1486Rule Italy 1945 only - Sep 15 0:00s 0 -
1487Rule Italy 1946 only - Mar 17 2:00s 1:00 S
1488Rule Italy 1946 only - Oct 6 2:00s 0 -
1489Rule Italy 1947 only - Mar 16 0:00s 1:00 S
1490Rule Italy 1947 only - Oct 5 0:00s 0 -
1491Rule Italy 1948 only - Feb 29 2:00s 1:00 S
1492Rule Italy 1948 only - Oct 3 2:00s 0 -
1493Rule Italy 1966 1968 - May Sun>=22 0:00 1:00 S
1494Rule Italy 1966 1969 - Sep Sun>=22 0:00 0 -
1495Rule Italy 1969 only - Jun 1 0:00 1:00 S
1496Rule Italy 1970 only - May 31 0:00 1:00 S
1497Rule Italy 1970 only - Sep lastSun 0:00 0 -
1498Rule Italy 1971 1972 - May Sun>=22 0:00 1:00 S
1499Rule Italy 1971 only - Sep lastSun 1:00 0 -
1500Rule Italy 1972 only - Oct 1 0:00 0 -
1501Rule Italy 1973 only - Jun 3 0:00 1:00 S
1502Rule Italy 1973 1974 - Sep lastSun 0:00 0 -
1503Rule Italy 1974 only - May 26 0:00 1:00 S
1504Rule Italy 1975 only - Jun 1 0:00s 1:00 S
1505Rule Italy 1975 1977 - Sep lastSun 0:00s 0 -
1506Rule Italy 1976 only - May 30 0:00s 1:00 S
1507Rule Italy 1977 1979 - May Sun>=22 0:00s 1:00 S
1508Rule Italy 1978 only - Oct 1 0:00s 0 -
1509Rule Italy 1979 only - Sep 30 0:00s 0 -
1510# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
1511Zone Europe/Rome 0:49:56 - LMT 1866 Sep 22
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SW
1512 0:49:56 - RMT 1893 Nov 1 0:00s # Rome Mean
1513 1:00 Italy CE%sT 1942 Nov 2 2:00s
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MD
1514 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Jul
1515 1:00 Italy CE%sT 1980
1516 1:00 EU CE%sT
1517
1518Link Europe/Rome Europe/Vatican
1519Link Europe/Rome Europe/San_Marino
1520
1521# Latvia
1522
9ffe4b14 1523# From Liene Kanepe (1998-09-17):
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MD
1524
1525# I asked about this matter Scientific Secretary of the Institute of Astronomy
1526# of The University of Latvia Dr. paed Mr. Ilgonis Vilks. I also searched the
1527# correct data in juridical acts and I found some juridical documents about
1528# changes in the counting of time in Latvia from 1981....
1529#
1530# Act No.35 of the Council of Ministers of Latvian SSR of 1981-01-22 ...
1531# according to the Act No.925 of the Council of Ministers of USSR of 1980-10-24
1532# ...: all year round the time of 2nd time zone + 1 hour, in addition turning
1533# the hands of the clock 1 hour forward on 1 April at 00:00 (GMT 31 March 21:00)
1534# and 1 hour backward on the 1 October at 00:00 (GMT 30 September 20:00).
1535#
1536# Act No.592 of the Council of Ministers of Latvian SSR of 1984-09-24 ...
1537# according to the Act No.967 of the Council of Ministers of USSR of 1984-09-13
1538# ...: all year round the time of 2nd time zone + 1 hour, in addition turning
1539# the hands of the clock 1 hour forward on the last Sunday of March at 02:00
1540# (GMT 23:00 on the previous day) and 1 hour backward on the last Sunday of
1541# September at 03:00 (GMT 23:00 on the previous day).
1542#
1543# Act No.81 of the Council of Ministers of Latvian SSR of 1989-03-22 ...
1544# according to the Act No.227 of the Council of Ministers of USSR of 1989-03-14
1545# ...: since the last Sunday of March 1989 in Lithuanian SSR, Latvian SSR,
1546# Estonian SSR and Kaliningrad region of Russian Federation all year round the
1547# time of 2nd time zone (Moscow time minus one hour). On the territory of Latvia
1548# transition to summer time is performed on the last Sunday of March at 02:00
1549# (GMT 00:00), turning the hands of the clock 1 hour forward. The end of
1550# daylight saving time is performed on the last Sunday of September at 03:00
1551# (GMT 00:00), turning the hands of the clock 1 hour backward. Exception is
1552# 1989-03-26, when we must not turn the hands of the clock....
1553#
1554# The Regulations of the Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Latvia of
1555# 1997-01-21 on transition to Summer time ... established the same order of
1556# daylight savings time settings as in the States of the European Union.
1557
1558# From Andrei Ivanov (2000-03-06):
1559# This year Latvia will not switch to Daylight Savings Time (as specified in
984263bc 1560# The Regulations of the Cabinet of Ministers of the Rep. of Latvia of
48afb8ac
SW
1561# 29-Feb-2000 (#79) <http://www.lv-laiks.lv/wwwraksti/2000/071072/vd4.htm>,
1562# in Latvian for subscribers only).
984263bc 1563
48afb8ac
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1564# From RFE/RL Newsline
1565# http://www.rferl.org/newsline/2001/01/3-CEE/cee-030101.html
1566# (2001-01-03), noted after a heads-up by Rives McDow:
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MD
1567# The Latvian government on 2 January decided that the country will
1568# institute daylight-saving time this spring, LETA reported.
1569# Last February the three Baltic states decided not to turn back their
1570# clocks one hour in the spring....
48afb8ac 1571# Minister of Economy Aigars Kalvītis noted that Latvia had too few
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MD
1572# daylight hours and thus decided to comply with a draft European
1573# Commission directive that provides for instituting daylight-saving
1574# time in EU countries between 2002 and 2006. The Latvian government
1575# urged Lithuania and Estonia to adopt a similar time policy, but it
1576# appears that they will not do so....
1577
1578# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
1579Rule Latvia 1989 1996 - Mar lastSun 2:00s 1:00 S
1580Rule Latvia 1989 1996 - Sep lastSun 2:00s 0 -
48afb8ac
SW
1581
1582# Milne 1899 says Riga was 1:36:28 (Polytechnique House time).
1583# Byalokoz 1919 says Latvia was 1:36:34.
1584# Go with Byalokoz.
1585
984263bc 1586# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
48afb8ac
SW
1587Zone Europe/Riga 1:36:34 - LMT 1880
1588 1:36:34 - RMT 1918 Apr 15 2:00 # Riga MT
1589 1:36:34 1:00 LST 1918 Sep 16 3:00 # Latvian ST
1590 1:36:34 - RMT 1919 Apr 1 2:00
1591 1:36:34 1:00 LST 1919 May 22 3:00
1592 1:36:34 - RMT 1926 May 11
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MD
1593 2:00 - EET 1940 Aug 5
1594 3:00 - MSK 1941 Jul
1595 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Oct 13
48afb8ac
SW
1596 3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1989 Mar lastSun 2:00s
1597 2:00 1:00 EEST 1989 Sep lastSun 2:00s
984263bc
MD
1598 2:00 Latvia EE%sT 1997 Jan 21
1599 2:00 EU EE%sT 2000 Feb 29
ba5ba9da 1600 2:00 - EET 2001 Jan 2
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MD
1601 2:00 EU EE%sT
1602
1603# Liechtenstein
d1bcb6be
SW
1604
1605# From Paul Eggert (2013-09-09):
1606# Shanks & Pottenger say Vaduz is like Zurich.
1607
1608# From Alois Treindl (2013-09-18):
1609# http://www.eliechtensteinensia.li/LIJ/1978/1938-1978/1941.pdf
1610# ... confirms on p. 6 that Liechtenstein followed Switzerland in 1941 and 1942.
1611# I ... translate only the last two paragraphs:
1612# ... during second world war, in the years 1941 and 1942, Liechtenstein
1613# introduced daylight saving time, adapting to Switzerland. From 1943 on
1614# central European time was in force throughout the year.
1615# From a report of the duke's government to the high council,
1616# regarding the introduction of a time law, of 31 May 1977.
1617
1618Link Europe/Zurich Europe/Vaduz
1619
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MD
1620
1621# Lithuania
1622
1623# From Paul Eggert (1996-11-22):
1624# IATA SSIM (1992/1996) says Lithuania uses W-Eur rules, but since it is
1625# known to be wrong about Estonia and Latvia, assume it's wrong here too.
1626
9ffe4b14 1627# From Marius Gedminas (1998-08-07):
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MD
1628# I would like to inform that in this year Lithuanian time zone
1629# (Europe/Vilnius) was changed.
1630
48afb8ac 1631# From ELTA No. 972 (2582) (1999-09-29) <http://www.elta.lt/>,
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MD
1632# via Steffen Thorsen:
1633# Lithuania has shifted back to the second time zone (GMT plus two hours)
1634# to be valid here starting from October 31,
1635# as decided by the national government on Wednesday....
1636# The Lithuanian government also announced plans to consider a
1637# motion to give up shifting to summer time in spring, as it was
1638# already done by Estonia.
1639
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SW
1640# From the Fact File, Lithuanian State Department of Tourism
1641# <http://www.tourism.lt/informa/ff.htm> (2000-03-27):
1642# Local time is GMT+2 hours ..., no daylight saving.
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MD
1643
1644# From a user via Klaus Marten (2003-02-07):
1645# As a candidate for membership of the European Union, Lithuania will
1646# observe Summer Time in 2003, changing its clocks at the times laid
1647# down in EU Directive 2000/84 of 19.I.01 (i.e. at the same times as its
1648# neighbour Latvia). The text of the Lithuanian government Order of
1649# 7.XI.02 to this effect can be found at
1650# http://www.lrvk.lt/nut/11/n1749.htm
1651
1652
1653# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
1654Zone Europe/Vilnius 1:41:16 - LMT 1880
48afb8ac 1655 1:24:00 - WMT 1917 # Warsaw Mean Time
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MD
1656 1:35:36 - KMT 1919 Oct 10 # Kaunas Mean Time
1657 1:00 - CET 1920 Jul 12
1658 2:00 - EET 1920 Oct 9
1659 1:00 - CET 1940 Aug 3
1660 3:00 - MSK 1941 Jun 24
1661 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Aug
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SW
1662 3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
1663 2:00 1:00 EEST 1991 Sep 29 2:00s
984263bc 1664 2:00 C-Eur EE%sT 1998
48afb8ac
SW
1665 2:00 - EET 1998 Mar 29 1:00u
1666 1:00 EU CE%sT 1999 Oct 31 1:00u
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MD
1667 2:00 - EET 2003 Jan 1
1668 2:00 EU EE%sT
1669
1670# Luxembourg
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SW
1671# Whitman disagrees with most of these dates in minor ways;
1672# go with Shanks & Pottenger.
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MD
1673# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
1674Rule Lux 1916 only - May 14 23:00 1:00 S
1675Rule Lux 1916 only - Oct 1 1:00 0 -
1676Rule Lux 1917 only - Apr 28 23:00 1:00 S
1677Rule Lux 1917 only - Sep 17 1:00 0 -
1678Rule Lux 1918 only - Apr Mon>=15 2:00s 1:00 S
1679Rule Lux 1918 only - Sep Mon>=15 2:00s 0 -
1680Rule Lux 1919 only - Mar 1 23:00 1:00 S
1681Rule Lux 1919 only - Oct 5 3:00 0 -
1682Rule Lux 1920 only - Feb 14 23:00 1:00 S
1683Rule Lux 1920 only - Oct 24 2:00 0 -
1684Rule Lux 1921 only - Mar 14 23:00 1:00 S
1685Rule Lux 1921 only - Oct 26 2:00 0 -
1686Rule Lux 1922 only - Mar 25 23:00 1:00 S
1687Rule Lux 1922 only - Oct Sun>=2 1:00 0 -
1688Rule Lux 1923 only - Apr 21 23:00 1:00 S
1689Rule Lux 1923 only - Oct Sun>=2 2:00 0 -
1690Rule Lux 1924 only - Mar 29 23:00 1:00 S
1691Rule Lux 1924 1928 - Oct Sun>=2 1:00 0 -
1692Rule Lux 1925 only - Apr 5 23:00 1:00 S
1693Rule Lux 1926 only - Apr 17 23:00 1:00 S
1694Rule Lux 1927 only - Apr 9 23:00 1:00 S
1695Rule Lux 1928 only - Apr 14 23:00 1:00 S
1696Rule Lux 1929 only - Apr 20 23:00 1:00 S
1697# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
1698Zone Europe/Luxembourg 0:24:36 - LMT 1904 Jun
1699 1:00 Lux CE%sT 1918 Nov 25
48afb8ac
SW
1700 0:00 Lux WE%sT 1929 Oct 6 2:00s
1701 0:00 Belgium WE%sT 1940 May 14 3:00
1702 1:00 C-Eur WE%sT 1944 Sep 18 3:00
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MD
1703 1:00 Belgium CE%sT 1977
1704 1:00 EU CE%sT
1705
1706# Macedonia
d1bcb6be 1707# See Europe/Belgrade.
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1708
1709# Malta
1710# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
1711Rule Malta 1973 only - Mar 31 0:00s 1:00 S
1712Rule Malta 1973 only - Sep 29 0:00s 0 -
1713Rule Malta 1974 only - Apr 21 0:00s 1:00 S
1714Rule Malta 1974 only - Sep 16 0:00s 0 -
1715Rule Malta 1975 1979 - Apr Sun>=15 2:00 1:00 S
1716Rule Malta 1975 1980 - Sep Sun>=15 2:00 0 -
1717Rule Malta 1980 only - Mar 31 2:00 1:00 S
1718# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
48afb8ac
SW
1719Zone Europe/Malta 0:58:04 - LMT 1893 Nov 2 0:00s # Valletta
1720 1:00 Italy CE%sT 1942 Nov 2 2:00s
1721 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945 Apr 2 2:00s
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MD
1722 1:00 Italy CE%sT 1973 Mar 31
1723 1:00 Malta CE%sT 1981
1724 1:00 EU CE%sT
1725
1726# Moldova
1727
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SW
1728# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
1729# A previous version of this database followed Shanks & Pottenger, who write
1730# that Tiraspol switched to Moscow time on 1992-01-19 at 02:00.
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MD
1731# However, this is most likely an error, as Moldova declared independence
1732# on 1991-08-27 (the 1992-01-19 date is that of a Russian decree).
1733# In early 1992 there was large-scale interethnic violence in the area
1734# and it's possible that some Russophones continued to observe Moscow time.
9ffe4b14 1735# But [two people] separately reported via
48afb8ac 1736# Jesper Nørgaard that as of 2001-01-24 Tiraspol was like Chisinau.
984263bc 1737# The Tiraspol entry has therefore been removed for now.
e9ad9bde
SW
1738#
1739# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2011-10-17):
1740# Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic (PMR, also known as
1741# "Pridnestrovie") has abolished seasonal clock change (no transition
1742# to the Winter Time).
1743#
1744# News (in Russian):
e9ad9bde 1745# http://www.kyivpost.ua/russia/news/pridnestrove-otkazalos-ot-perehoda-na-zimnee-vremya-30954.html
e9ad9bde 1746# http://www.allmoldova.com/moldova-news/1249064116.html
e9ad9bde
SW
1747#
1748# The substance of this change (reinstatement of the Tiraspol entry)
1749# is from a patch from Petr Machata (2011-10-17)
1750#
1751# From Tim Parenti (2011-10-19)
1752# In addition, being situated at +4651+2938 would give Tiraspol
1753# a pre-1880 LMT offset of 1:58:32.
1754#
1755# (which agrees with the earlier entry that had been removed)
78706f21
SW
1756#
1757# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2011-10-26)
1758# NO need to divide Moldova into two timezones at this point.
1759# As of today, Transnistria (Pridnestrovie)- Tiraspol reversed its own
1760# decision to abolish DST this winter.
1761# Following Moldova and neighboring Ukraine- Transnistria (Pridnestrovie)-
1762# Tiraspol will go back to winter time on October 30, 2011.
1763# News from Moldova (in russian):
78706f21 1764# http://ru.publika.md/link_317061.html
78706f21 1765
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1766
1767# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
1768Zone Europe/Chisinau 1:55:20 - LMT 1880
1769 1:55 - CMT 1918 Feb 15 # Chisinau MT
1770 1:44:24 - BMT 1931 Jul 24 # Bucharest MT
1771 2:00 Romania EE%sT 1940 Aug 15
1772 2:00 1:00 EEST 1941 Jul 17
1773 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Aug 24
1774 3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1990
1775 3:00 - MSK 1990 May 6
1776 2:00 - EET 1991
1777 2:00 Russia EE%sT 1992
1778 2:00 E-Eur EE%sT 1997
1779# See Romania commentary for the guessed 1997 transition to EU rules.
1780 2:00 EU EE%sT
1781
1782# Monaco
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1783# Shanks & Pottenger give 0:09:20 for Paris Mean Time; go with Howse's
1784# more precise 0:09:21.
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1785# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
1786Zone Europe/Monaco 0:29:32 - LMT 1891 Mar 15
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1787 0:09:21 - PMT 1911 Mar 11 # Paris Mean Time
1788 0:00 France WE%sT 1945 Sep 16 3:00
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1789 1:00 France CE%sT 1977
1790 1:00 EU CE%sT
1791
17f48456 1792# Montenegro
d1bcb6be 1793# See Europe/Belgrade.
17f48456 1794
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1795# Netherlands
1796
1797# Howse writes that the Netherlands' railways used GMT between 1892 and 1940,
1798# but for other purposes the Netherlands used Amsterdam mean time.
1799
1800# However, Robert H. van Gent writes (2001-04-01):
1801# Howse's statement is only correct up to 1909. From 1909-05-01 (00:00:00
1802# Amsterdam mean time) onwards, the whole of the Netherlands (including
1803# the Dutch railways) was required by law to observe Amsterdam mean time
1804# (19 minutes 32.13 seconds ahead of GMT). This had already been the
1805# common practice (except for the railways) for many decades but it was
1806# not until 1909 when the Dutch government finally defined this by law.
1807# On 1937-07-01 this was changed to 20 minutes (exactly) ahead of GMT and
1808# was generally known as Dutch Time ("Nederlandse Tijd").
1809#
1810# (2001-04-08):
1811# 1892-05-01 was the date when the Dutch railways were by law required to
1812# observe GMT while the remainder of the Netherlands adhered to the common
1813# practice of following Amsterdam mean time.
1814#
1815# (2001-04-09):
1816# In 1835 the authorities of the province of North Holland requested the
1817# municipal authorities of the towns and cities in the province to observe
1818# Amsterdam mean time but I do not know in how many cases this request was
1819# actually followed.
1820#
1821# From 1852 onwards the Dutch telegraph offices were by law required to
1822# observe Amsterdam mean time. As the time signals from the observatory of
1823# Leiden were also distributed by the telegraph system, I assume that most
1824# places linked up with the telegraph (and railway) system automatically
1825# adopted Amsterdam mean time.
1826#
1827# Although the early Dutch railway companies initially observed a variety
1828# of times, most of them had adopted Amsterdam mean time by 1858 but it
1829# was not until 1866 when they were all required by law to observe
1830# Amsterdam mean time.
1831
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1832# The data entries before 1945 are taken from
1833# http://www.phys.uu.nl/~vgent/wettijd/wettijd.htm
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1834
1835# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
1836Rule Neth 1916 only - May 1 0:00 1:00 NST # Netherlands Summer Time
1837Rule Neth 1916 only - Oct 1 0:00 0 AMT # Amsterdam Mean Time
1838Rule Neth 1917 only - Apr 16 2:00s 1:00 NST
1839Rule Neth 1917 only - Sep 17 2:00s 0 AMT
1840Rule Neth 1918 1921 - Apr Mon>=1 2:00s 1:00 NST
1841Rule Neth 1918 1921 - Sep lastMon 2:00s 0 AMT
1842Rule Neth 1922 only - Mar lastSun 2:00s 1:00 NST
1843Rule Neth 1922 1936 - Oct Sun>=2 2:00s 0 AMT
1844Rule Neth 1923 only - Jun Fri>=1 2:00s 1:00 NST
1845Rule Neth 1924 only - Mar lastSun 2:00s 1:00 NST
1846Rule Neth 1925 only - Jun Fri>=1 2:00s 1:00 NST
1847# From 1926 through 1939 DST began 05-15, except that it was delayed by a week
1848# in years when 05-15 fell in the Pentecost weekend.
1849Rule Neth 1926 1931 - May 15 2:00s 1:00 NST
1850Rule Neth 1932 only - May 22 2:00s 1:00 NST
1851Rule Neth 1933 1936 - May 15 2:00s 1:00 NST
1852Rule Neth 1937 only - May 22 2:00s 1:00 NST
1853Rule Neth 1937 only - Jul 1 0:00 1:00 S
1854Rule Neth 1937 1939 - Oct Sun>=2 2:00s 0 -
1855Rule Neth 1938 1939 - May 15 2:00s 1:00 S
1856Rule Neth 1945 only - Apr 2 2:00s 1:00 S
1857Rule Neth 1945 only - Sep 16 2:00s 0 -
1858#
1859# Amsterdam Mean Time was +00:19:32.13 exactly, but the .13 is omitted
1860# below because the current format requires GMTOFF to be an integer.
1861# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
1862Zone Europe/Amsterdam 0:19:32 - LMT 1835
1863 0:19:32 Neth %s 1937 Jul 1
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1864 0:20 Neth NE%sT 1940 May 16 0:00 # Dutch Time
1865 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945 Apr 2 2:00
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1866 1:00 Neth CE%sT 1977
1867 1:00 EU CE%sT
1868
1869# Norway
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1870# http://met.no/met/met_lex/q_u/sommertid.html (2004-01) agrees with Shanks &
1871# Pottenger.
984263bc 1872# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
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1873Rule Norway 1916 only - May 22 1:00 1:00 S
1874Rule Norway 1916 only - Sep 30 0:00 0 -
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1875Rule Norway 1945 only - Apr 2 2:00s 1:00 S
1876Rule Norway 1945 only - Oct 1 2:00s 0 -
1877Rule Norway 1959 1964 - Mar Sun>=15 2:00s 1:00 S
1878Rule Norway 1959 1965 - Sep Sun>=15 2:00s 0 -
1879Rule Norway 1965 only - Apr 25 2:00s 1:00 S
1880# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
1881Zone Europe/Oslo 0:43:00 - LMT 1895 Jan 1
1882 1:00 Norway CE%sT 1940 Aug 10 23:00
1883 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945 Apr 2 2:00
1884 1:00 Norway CE%sT 1980
1885 1:00 EU CE%sT
1886
1887# Svalbard & Jan Mayen
1888
1889# From Steffen Thorsen (2001-05-01):
1890# Although I could not find it explicitly, it seems that Jan Mayen and
1891# Svalbard have been using the same time as Norway at least since the
1892# time they were declared as parts of Norway. Svalbard was declared
1893# as a part of Norway by law of 1925-07-17 no 11, section 4 and Jan
1894# Mayen by law of 1930-02-27 no 2, section 2. (From
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1895# <http://www.lovdata.no/all/nl-19250717-011.html> and
1896# <http://www.lovdata.no/all/nl-19300227-002.html>). The law/regulation
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1897# for normal/standard time in Norway is from 1894-06-29 no 1 (came
1898# into operation on 1895-01-01) and Svalbard/Jan Mayen seem to be a
1899# part of this law since 1925/1930. (From
48afb8ac 1900# <http://www.lovdata.no/all/nl-18940629-001.html>) I have not been
984263bc 1901# able to find if Jan Mayen used a different time zone (e.g. -0100)
48afb8ac 1902# before 1930. Jan Mayen has only been "inhabited" since 1921 by
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1903# Norwegian meteorologists and maybe used the same time as Norway ever
1904# since 1921. Svalbard (Arctic/Longyearbyen) has been inhabited since
1905# before 1895, and therefore probably changed the local time somewhere
1906# between 1895 and 1925 (inclusive).
1907
d1bcb6be 1908# From Paul Eggert (2013-09-04):
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1909#
1910# Actually, Jan Mayen was never occupied by Germany during World War II,
bc95ec93 1911# so it must have diverged from Oslo time during the war, as Oslo was
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1912# keeping Berlin time.
1913#
1914# <http://home.no.net/janmayen/history.htm> says that the meteorologists
1915# burned down their station in 1940 and left the island, but returned in
1916# 1941 with a small Norwegian garrison and continued operations despite
48afb8ac 1917# frequent air attacks from Germans. In 1943 the Americans established a
984263bc 1918# radiolocating station on the island, called "Atlantic City". Possibly
d1bcb6be 1919# the UT offset changed during the war, but I think it unlikely that
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1920# Jan Mayen used German daylight-saving rules.
1921#
1922# Svalbard is more complicated, as it was raided in August 1941 by an
1923# Allied party that evacuated the civilian population to England (says
1924# <http://www.bartleby.com/65/sv/Svalbard.html>). The Svalbard FAQ
1925# <http://www.svalbard.com/SvalbardFAQ.html> says that the Germans were
1926# expelled on 1942-05-14. However, small parties of Germans did return,
1927# and according to Wilhelm Dege's book "War North of 80" (1954)
48afb8ac 1928# http://www.ucalgary.ca/UofC/departments/UP/1-55238/1-55238-110-2.html
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1929# the German armed forces at the Svalbard weather station code-named
1930# Haudegen did not surrender to the Allies until September 1945.
1931#
d1bcb6be
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1932# All these events predate our cutoff date of 1970, so use Europe/Oslo
1933# for these regions.
984263bc 1934Link Europe/Oslo Arctic/Longyearbyen
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1935
1936# Poland
48afb8ac
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1937
1938# The 1919 dates and times can be found in Tygodnik Urzędowy nr 1 (1919-03-20),
1939# <http://www.wbc.poznan.pl/publication/32156> pp 1-2.
1940
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1941# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
1942Rule Poland 1918 1919 - Sep 16 2:00s 0 -
1943Rule Poland 1919 only - Apr 15 2:00s 1:00 S
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1944Rule Poland 1944 only - Apr 3 2:00s 1:00 S
1945# Whitman gives 1944 Nov 30; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
984263bc 1946Rule Poland 1944 only - Oct 4 2:00 0 -
bd7414aa 1947# For 1944-1948 Whitman gives the previous day; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
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MD
1948Rule Poland 1945 only - Apr 29 0:00 1:00 S
1949Rule Poland 1945 only - Nov 1 0:00 0 -
9ffe4b14 1950# For 1946 on the source is Kazimierz Borkowski,
48afb8ac
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1951# Toruń Center for Astronomy, Dept. of Radio Astronomy, Nicolaus Copernicus U.,
1952# http://www.astro.uni.torun.pl/~kb/Artykuly/U-PA/Czas2.htm#tth_tAb1
1953# Thanks to Przemysław Augustyniak (2005-05-28) for this reference.
9ffe4b14
SW
1954# He also gives these further references:
1955# Mon Pol nr 13, poz 162 (1995) <http://www.abc.com.pl/serwis/mp/1995/0162.htm>
1956# Druk nr 2180 (2003) <http://www.senat.gov.pl/k5/dok/sejm/053/2180.pdf>
1957Rule Poland 1946 only - Apr 14 0:00s 1:00 S
1958Rule Poland 1946 only - Oct 7 2:00s 0 -
1959Rule Poland 1947 only - May 4 2:00s 1:00 S
1960Rule Poland 1947 1949 - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
1961Rule Poland 1948 only - Apr 18 2:00s 1:00 S
1962Rule Poland 1949 only - Apr 10 2:00s 1:00 S
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1963Rule Poland 1957 only - Jun 2 1:00s 1:00 S
1964Rule Poland 1957 1958 - Sep lastSun 1:00s 0 -
1965Rule Poland 1958 only - Mar 30 1:00s 1:00 S
1966Rule Poland 1959 only - May 31 1:00s 1:00 S
1967Rule Poland 1959 1961 - Oct Sun>=1 1:00s 0 -
1968Rule Poland 1960 only - Apr 3 1:00s 1:00 S
9ffe4b14 1969Rule Poland 1961 1964 - May lastSun 1:00s 1:00 S
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1970Rule Poland 1962 1964 - Sep lastSun 1:00s 0 -
1971# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
1972Zone Europe/Warsaw 1:24:00 - LMT 1880
48afb8ac
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1973 1:24:00 - WMT 1915 Aug 5 # Warsaw Mean Time
1974 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1918 Sep 16 3:00
984263bc 1975 2:00 Poland EE%sT 1922 Jun
48afb8ac 1976 1:00 Poland CE%sT 1940 Jun 23 2:00
984263bc 1977 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Oct
9ffe4b14
SW
1978 1:00 Poland CE%sT 1977
1979 1:00 W-Eur CE%sT 1988
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MD
1980 1:00 EU CE%sT
1981
1982# Portugal
1983#
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1984# From Paul Eggert (2014-08-11), after a heads-up from Stephen Colebourne:
1985# According to a Portuguese decree (1911-05-26)
1986# http://dre.pt/pdf1sdip/1911/05/12500/23132313.pdf
1987# Lisbon was at -0:36:44.68, but switched to GMT on 1912-01-01 at 00:00.
1988# Round the old offset to -0:36:45. This agrees with Willett but disagrees
1989# with Shanks, who says the transition occurred on 1911-05-24 at 00:00 for
1990# Europe/Lisbon, Atlantic/Azores, and Atlantic/Madeira.
1991#
9ffe4b14 1992# From Rui Pedro Salgueiro (1992-11-12):
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MD
1993# Portugal has recently (September, 27) changed timezone
1994# (from WET to MET or CET) to harmonize with EEC.
1995#
9ffe4b14 1996# Martin Bruckmann (1996-02-29) reports via Peter Ilieve
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MD
1997# that Portugal is reverting to 0:00 by not moving its clocks this spring.
1998# The new Prime Minister was fed up with getting up in the dark in the winter.
1999#
2000# From Paul Eggert (1996-11-12):
2001# IATA SSIM (1991-09) reports several 1991-09 and 1992-09 transitions
2002# at 02:00u, not 01:00u. Assume that these are typos.
2003# IATA SSIM (1991/1992) reports that the Azores were at -1:00.
2004# IATA SSIM (1993-02) says +0:00; later issues (through 1996-09) say -1:00.
2005# Guess that the Azores changed to EU rules in 1992 (since that's when Portugal
2006# harmonized with the EU), and that they stayed +0:00 that winter.
2007#
2008# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
2009# DSH writes that despite Decree 1,469 (1915), the change to the clocks was not
2010# done every year, depending on what Spain did, because of railroad schedules.
bd7414aa 2011# Go with Shanks & Pottenger.
984263bc 2012Rule Port 1916 only - Jun 17 23:00 1:00 S
bd7414aa 2013# Whitman gives 1916 Oct 31; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
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MD
2014Rule Port 1916 only - Nov 1 1:00 0 -
2015Rule Port 1917 only - Feb 28 23:00s 1:00 S
2016Rule Port 1917 1921 - Oct 14 23:00s 0 -
2017Rule Port 1918 only - Mar 1 23:00s 1:00 S
2018Rule Port 1919 only - Feb 28 23:00s 1:00 S
2019Rule Port 1920 only - Feb 29 23:00s 1:00 S
2020Rule Port 1921 only - Feb 28 23:00s 1:00 S
2021Rule Port 1924 only - Apr 16 23:00s 1:00 S
2022Rule Port 1924 only - Oct 14 23:00s 0 -
2023Rule Port 1926 only - Apr 17 23:00s 1:00 S
2024Rule Port 1926 1929 - Oct Sat>=1 23:00s 0 -
2025Rule Port 1927 only - Apr 9 23:00s 1:00 S
2026Rule Port 1928 only - Apr 14 23:00s 1:00 S
2027Rule Port 1929 only - Apr 20 23:00s 1:00 S
2028Rule Port 1931 only - Apr 18 23:00s 1:00 S
bd7414aa 2029# Whitman gives 1931 Oct 8; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
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MD
2030Rule Port 1931 1932 - Oct Sat>=1 23:00s 0 -
2031Rule Port 1932 only - Apr 2 23:00s 1:00 S
984263bc 2032Rule Port 1934 only - Apr 7 23:00s 1:00 S
bd7414aa 2033# Whitman gives 1934 Oct 5; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
984263bc 2034Rule Port 1934 1938 - Oct Sat>=1 23:00s 0 -
bd7414aa 2035# Shanks & Pottenger give 1935 Apr 30; go with Whitman.
984263bc
MD
2036Rule Port 1935 only - Mar 30 23:00s 1:00 S
2037Rule Port 1936 only - Apr 18 23:00s 1:00 S
bd7414aa 2038# Whitman gives 1937 Apr 2; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
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MD
2039Rule Port 1937 only - Apr 3 23:00s 1:00 S
2040Rule Port 1938 only - Mar 26 23:00s 1:00 S
2041Rule Port 1939 only - Apr 15 23:00s 1:00 S
bd7414aa 2042# Whitman gives 1939 Oct 7; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
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MD
2043Rule Port 1939 only - Nov 18 23:00s 0 -
2044Rule Port 1940 only - Feb 24 23:00s 1:00 S
bd7414aa 2045# Shanks & Pottenger give 1940 Oct 7; go with Whitman.
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MD
2046Rule Port 1940 1941 - Oct 5 23:00s 0 -
2047Rule Port 1941 only - Apr 5 23:00s 1:00 S
2048Rule Port 1942 1945 - Mar Sat>=8 23:00s 1:00 S
2049Rule Port 1942 only - Apr 25 22:00s 2:00 M # Midsummer
2050Rule Port 1942 only - Aug 15 22:00s 1:00 S
2051Rule Port 1942 1945 - Oct Sat>=24 23:00s 0 -
2052Rule Port 1943 only - Apr 17 22:00s 2:00 M
2053Rule Port 1943 1945 - Aug Sat>=25 22:00s 1:00 S
2054Rule Port 1944 1945 - Apr Sat>=21 22:00s 2:00 M
2055Rule Port 1946 only - Apr Sat>=1 23:00s 1:00 S
2056Rule Port 1946 only - Oct Sat>=1 23:00s 0 -
2057Rule Port 1947 1949 - Apr Sun>=1 2:00s 1:00 S
2058Rule Port 1947 1949 - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
bd7414aa
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2059# Shanks & Pottenger say DST was observed in 1950; go with Whitman.
2060# Whitman gives Oct lastSun for 1952 on; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
984263bc
MD
2061Rule Port 1951 1965 - Apr Sun>=1 2:00s 1:00 S
2062Rule Port 1951 1965 - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
2063Rule Port 1977 only - Mar 27 0:00s 1:00 S
2064Rule Port 1977 only - Sep 25 0:00s 0 -
2065Rule Port 1978 1979 - Apr Sun>=1 0:00s 1:00 S
2066Rule Port 1978 only - Oct 1 0:00s 0 -
2067Rule Port 1979 1982 - Sep lastSun 1:00s 0 -
2068Rule Port 1980 only - Mar lastSun 0:00s 1:00 S
2069Rule Port 1981 1982 - Mar lastSun 1:00s 1:00 S
2070Rule Port 1983 only - Mar lastSun 2:00s 1:00 S
48afb8ac 2071#
984263bc 2072# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
48afb8ac
SW
2073Zone Europe/Lisbon -0:36:45 - LMT 1884
2074 -0:36:45 - LMT 1912 Jan 1 # Lisbon Mean Time
2075 0:00 Port WE%sT 1966 Apr 3 2:00
2076 1:00 - CET 1976 Sep 26 1:00
2077 0:00 Port WE%sT 1983 Sep 25 1:00s
2078 0:00 W-Eur WE%sT 1992 Sep 27 1:00s
2079 1:00 EU CE%sT 1996 Mar 31 1:00u
984263bc 2080 0:00 EU WE%sT
48afb8ac
SW
2081Zone Atlantic/Azores -1:42:40 - LMT 1884 # Ponta Delgada
2082 -1:54:32 - HMT 1912 Jan 1 # Horta Mean Time
2083 -2:00 Port AZO%sT 1966 Apr 3 2:00 # Azores Time
2084 -1:00 Port AZO%sT 1983 Sep 25 1:00s
2085 -1:00 W-Eur AZO%sT 1992 Sep 27 1:00s
2086 0:00 EU WE%sT 1993 Mar 28 1:00u
984263bc 2087 -1:00 EU AZO%sT
48afb8ac
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2088Zone Atlantic/Madeira -1:07:36 - LMT 1884 # Funchal
2089 -1:07:36 - FMT 1912 Jan 1 # Funchal Mean Time
2090 -1:00 Port MAD%sT 1966 Apr 3 2:00 # Madeira Time
2091 0:00 Port WE%sT 1983 Sep 25 1:00s
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MD
2092 0:00 EU WE%sT
2093
2094# Romania
2095#
2096# From Paul Eggert (1999-10-07):
48afb8ac
SW
2097# Nine O'clock <http://www.nineoclock.ro/POL/1778pol.html>
2098# (1998-10-23) reports that the switch occurred at
984263bc
MD
2099# 04:00 local time in fall 1998. For lack of better info,
2100# assume that Romania and Moldova switched to EU rules in 1997,
2101# the same year as Bulgaria.
2102#
2103# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
2104Rule Romania 1932 only - May 21 0:00s 1:00 S
2105Rule Romania 1932 1939 - Oct Sun>=1 0:00s 0 -
2106Rule Romania 1933 1939 - Apr Sun>=2 0:00s 1:00 S
2107Rule Romania 1979 only - May 27 0:00 1:00 S
2108Rule Romania 1979 only - Sep lastSun 0:00 0 -
2109Rule Romania 1980 only - Apr 5 23:00 1:00 S
2110Rule Romania 1980 only - Sep lastSun 1:00 0 -
2111Rule Romania 1991 1993 - Mar lastSun 0:00s 1:00 S
2112Rule Romania 1991 1993 - Sep lastSun 0:00s 0 -
2113# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
2114Zone Europe/Bucharest 1:44:24 - LMT 1891 Oct
48afb8ac
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2115 1:44:24 - BMT 1931 Jul 24 # Bucharest MT
2116 2:00 Romania EE%sT 1981 Mar 29 2:00s
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2117 2:00 C-Eur EE%sT 1991
2118 2:00 Romania EE%sT 1994
2119 2:00 E-Eur EE%sT 1997
2120 2:00 EU EE%sT
2121
48afb8ac 2122
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2123# Russia
2124
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2125# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2011-09-15):
2126# Based on last Russian Government Decree # 725 on August 31, 2011
2127# (Government document
80e7e01d 2128# http://www.government.ru/gov/results/16355/print/
80e7e01d
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2129# in Russian)
2130# there are few corrections have to be made for some Russian time zones...
2131# All updated Russian Time Zones were placed in table and translated to English
2132# by WorldTimeZone.com at the link below:
80e7e01d 2133# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_russia36.htm
80e7e01d
SW
2134
2135# From Sanjeev Gupta (2011-09-27):
2136# Scans of [Decree #23 of January 8, 1992] are available at:
80e7e01d
SW
2137# http://government.consultant.ru/page.aspx?1223966
2138# They are in Cyrillic letters (presumably Russian).
2139
2140# From Arthur David Olson (2012-05-09):
2141# Regarding the instant when clocks in time-zone-shifting parts of Russia
2142# changed in September 2011:
2143#
2144# One source is
80e7e01d 2145# http://government.ru/gov/results/16355/
80e7e01d
SW
2146# which, according to translate.google.com, begins "Decree of August 31,
2147# 2011 No 725" and contains no other dates or "effective date" information.
2148#
2149# Another source is
80e7e01d 2150# http://www.rg.ru/2011/09/06/chas-zona-dok.html
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SW
2151# which, according to translate.google.com, begins "Resolution of the
2152# Government of the Russian Federation on August 31, 2011 N 725" and also
2153# contains "Date first official publication: September 6, 2011 Posted on:
2154# in the 'RG' - Federal Issue number 5573 September 6, 2011" but which
2155# does not contain any "effective date" information.
2156#
2157# Another source is
80e7e01d 2158# http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oymyakonsky_District#cite_note-RuTime-7
80e7e01d
SW
2159# which, in note 8, contains "Resolution #725 of August 31, 2011...
2160# Effective as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication"
2161# but which does not contain any reference to September 6, 2011.
2162#
2163# The Wikipedia article refers to
80e7e01d 2164# http://base.consultant.ru/cons/cgi/online.cgi?req=doc;base=LAW;n=118896
80e7e01d
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2165# which seems to copy the text of the government.ru page.
2166#
2167# Tobias Conradi combines Wikipedia's
2168# "as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication"
48afb8ac
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2169# with www.rg.ru's "Date of first official publication: September 6, 2011" to
2170# get September 13, 2011 as the cutover date (unusually, a Tuesday, as Tobias
2171# Conradi notes).
80e7e01d
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2172#
2173# None of the sources indicates a time of day for changing clocks.
2174#
2175# Go with 2011-09-13 0:00s.
2176
48afb8ac
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2177# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2014-07-01):
2178# According to the Russian news (ITAR-TASS News Agency)
2179# http://en.itar-tass.com/russia/738562
2180# the State Duma has approved ... the draft bill on returning to
2181# winter time standard and return Russia 11 time zones. The new
2182# regulations will come into effect on October 26, 2014 at 02:00 ...
2183# http://asozd2.duma.gov.ru/main.nsf/%28Spravka%29?OpenAgent&RN=431985-6&02
2184# Here is a link where we put together table (based on approved Bill N
2185# 431985-6) with proposed 11 Russian time zones and corresponding
2186# areas/cities/administrative centers in the Russian Federation (in English):
2187# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_russia65.html
2188#
2189# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2014-07-22):
2190# Putin signed the Federal Law 431985-6 ... (in Russian)
2191# http://itar-tass.com/obschestvo/1333711
2192# http://www.pravo.gov.ru:8080/page.aspx?111660
2193# http://www.kremlin.ru/acts/46279
2194# From October 26, 2014 the new Russian time zone map will looks like this:
2195# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_russia-map-2014-07.html
2196
bd7414aa 2197# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
984263bc
MD
2198# Except for Moscow after 1919-07-01, I invented the time zone abbreviations.
2199# Moscow time zone abbreviations after 1919-07-01, and Moscow rules after 1991,
bd7414aa
SW
2200# are from Andrey A. Chernov. The rest is from Shanks & Pottenger,
2201# except we follow Chernov's report that 1992 DST transitions were Sat
2202# 23:00, not Sun 02:00s.
984263bc 2203#
9ffe4b14 2204# From Stanislaw A. Kuzikowski (1994-06-29):
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MD
2205# But now it is some months since Novosibirsk is 3 hours ahead of Moscow!
2206# I do not know why they have decided to make this change;
2207# as far as I remember it was done exactly during winter->summer switching
2208# so we (Novosibirsk) simply did not switch.
2209#
9ffe4b14 2210# From Andrey A. Chernov (1996-10-04):
d1bcb6be 2211# 'MSK' and 'MSD' were born and used initially on Moscow computers with
ba5ba9da 2212# UNIX-like OSes by several developer groups (e.g. Demos group, Kiae group)....
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MD
2213# The next step was the UUCP network, the Relcom predecessor
2214# (used mainly for mail), and MSK/MSD was actively used there.
2215#
9ffe4b14 2216# From Chris Carrier (1996-10-30):
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MD
2217# According to a friend of mine who rode the Trans-Siberian Railroad from
2218# Moscow to Irkutsk in 1995, public air and rail transport in Russia ...
2219# still follows Moscow time, no matter where in Russia it is located.
2220#
2221# For Grozny, Chechnya, we have the following story from
2222# John Daniszewski, "Scavengers in the Rubble", Los Angeles Times (2001-02-07):
48afb8ac 2223# News - often false - is spread by word of mouth. A rumor that it was
984263bc 2224# time to move the clocks back put this whole city out of sync with
48afb8ac 2225# the rest of Russia for two weeks - even soldiers stationed here began
984263bc
MD
2226# enforcing curfew at the wrong time.
2227#
2228# From Gwillim Law (2001-06-05):
2229# There's considerable evidence that Sakhalin Island used to be in
2230# UTC+11, and has changed to UTC+10, in this decade. I start with the
2231# SSIM, which listed Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk in zone RU10 along with Magadan
2232# until February 1997, and then in RU9 with Khabarovsk and Vladivostok
2233# since September 1997.... Although the Kuril Islands are
2234# administratively part of Sakhalin oblast', they appear to have
2235# remained on UTC+11 along with Magadan.
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SW
2236
2237# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-06):
2238# The comments detailing the coverage of each Russian zone are meant to assist
2239# with maintenance only and represent our best guesses as to which regions
2240# are covered by each zone. They are not meant to be taken as an authoritative
2241# listing. The region codes listed come from
2242# http://en.wikipedia.org/w/?title=Federal_subjects_of_Russia&oldid=611810498
2243# and are used for convenience only; no guarantees are made regarding their
2244# future stability. ISO 3166-2:RU codes are also listed for first-level
2245# divisions where available.
2246
984263bc 2247# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
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2248
2249
2250# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03):
2251# Europe/Kaliningrad covers...
2252# 39 RU-KGD Kaliningrad Oblast
2253
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MD
2254Zone Europe/Kaliningrad 1:22:00 - LMT 1893 Apr
2255 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945
2256 2:00 Poland CE%sT 1946
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2257 3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
2258 2:00 Russia EE%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s
2259 3:00 - FET 2014 Oct 26 2:00s
2260 2:00 - EET
2261
2262
2263# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25):
2264# Europe/Moscow covers...
2265# 01 RU-AD Adygea, Republic of
2266# 05 RU-DA Dagestan, Republic of
2267# 06 RU-IN Ingushetia, Republic of
2268# 07 RU-KB Kabardino-Balkar Republic
2269# 08 RU-KL Kalmykia, Republic of
2270# 09 RU-KC Karachay-Cherkess Republic
2271# 10 RU-KR Karelia, Republic of
2272# 11 RU-KO Komi Republic
2273# 12 RU-ME Mari El Republic
2274# 13 RU-MO Mordovia, Republic of
2275# 15 RU-SE North Ossetia-Alania, Republic of
2276# 16 RU-TA Tatarstan, Republic of
2277# 20 RU-CE Chechen Republic
2278# 21 RU-CU Chuvash Republic
2279# 23 RU-KDA Krasnodar Krai
2280# 26 RU-STA Stavropol Krai
2281# 29 RU-ARK Arkhangelsk Oblast
2282# 31 RU-BEL Belgorod Oblast
2283# 32 RU-BRY Bryansk Oblast
2284# 33 RU-VLA Vladimir Oblast
2285# 35 RU-VLG Vologda Oblast
2286# 36 RU-VOR Voronezh Oblast
2287# 37 RU-IVA Ivanovo Oblast
2288# 40 RU-KLU Kaluga Oblast
2289# 44 RU-KOS Kostroma Oblast
2290# 46 RU-KRS Kursk Oblast
2291# 47 RU-LEN Leningrad Oblast
2292# 48 RU-LIP Lipetsk Oblast
2293# 50 RU-MOS Moscow Oblast
2294# 51 RU-MUR Murmansk Oblast
2295# 52 RU-NIZ Nizhny Novgorod Oblast
2296# 53 RU-NGR Novgorod Oblast
2297# 57 RU-ORL Oryol Oblast
2298# 58 RU-PNZ Penza Oblast
2299# 60 RU-PSK Pskov Oblast
2300# 61 RU-ROS Rostov Oblast
2301# 62 RU-RYA Ryazan Oblast
2302# 67 RU-SMO Smolensk Oblast
2303# 68 RU-TAM Tambov Oblast
2304# 69 RU-TVE Tver Oblast
2305# 71 RU-TUL Tula Oblast
2306# 73 RU-ULY Ulyanovsk Oblast
2307# 76 RU-YAR Yaroslavl Oblast
2308# 77 RU-MOW Moscow
2309# 78 RU-SPE Saint Petersburg
2310# 83 RU-NEN Nenets Autonomous Okrug
2311
2312# From Vladimir Karpinsky (2014-07-08):
2313# LMT in Moscow (before Jul 3, 1916) is 2:30:17, that was defined by Moscow
2314# Observatory (coordinates: 55 deg. 45'29.70", 37 deg. 34'05.30")....
2315# LMT in Moscow since Jul 3, 1916 is 2:31:01 as a result of new standard.
2316# (The info is from the book by Byalokoz ... p. 18.)
2317# The time in St. Petersburg as capital of Russia was defined by
2318# Pulkov observatory, near St. Petersburg. In 1916 LMT Moscow
2319# was synchronized with LMT St. Petersburg (+30 minutes), (Pulkov observatory
2320# coordinates: 59 deg. 46'18.70", 30 deg. 19'40.70") so 30 deg. 19'40.70" >
2321# 2h01m18.7s = 2:01:19. LMT Moscow = LMT St.Petersburg + 30m 2:01:19 + 0:30 =
2322# 2:31:19 ...
2323#
2324# From Paul Eggert (2014-07-08):
2325# Milne does not list Moscow, but suggests that its time might be listed in
2326# Résumés mensuels et annuels des observations météorologiques (1895).
2327# Presumably this is OCLC 85825704, a journal published with parallel text in
2328# Russian and French. This source has not been located; go with Karpinsky.
2329
2330Zone Europe/Moscow 2:30:17 - LMT 1880
2331 2:30:17 - MMT 1916 Jul 3 # Moscow Mean Time
2332 2:31:19 Russia %s 1919 Jul 1 2:00
1780da0f 2333 3:00 Russia %s 1921 Oct
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MD
2334 3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1922 Oct
2335 2:00 - EET 1930 Jun 21
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SW
2336 3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
2337 2:00 Russia EE%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s
2338 3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 2011 Mar 27 2:00s
2339 4:00 - MSK 2014 Oct 26 2:00s
2340 3:00 - MSK
2341
2342
2343# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03):
2344# Europe/Simferopol covers...
2345# ** **** Crimea, Republic of
2346# ** **** Sevastopol
2347
2348Zone Europe/Simferopol 2:16:24 - LMT 1880
2349 2:16 - SMT 1924 May 2 # Simferopol Mean T
2350 2:00 - EET 1930 Jun 21
2351 3:00 - MSK 1941 Nov
2352 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Apr 13
2353 3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1990
2354 3:00 - MSK 1990 Jul 1 2:00
2355 2:00 - EET 1992
2356# Central Crimea used Moscow time 1994/1997.
2357#
2358# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
2359# The _Economist_ (1994-05-28, p 45) reports that central Crimea switched
2360# from Kiev to Moscow time sometime after the January 1994 elections.
2361# Shanks (1999) says "date of change uncertain", but implies that it happened
2362# sometime between the 1994 DST switches. Shanks & Pottenger simply say
2363# 1994-09-25 03:00, but that can't be right. For now, guess it
2364# changed in May.
2365 2:00 E-Eur EE%sT 1994 May
2366# From IATA SSIM (1994/1997), which also says that Kerch is still like Kiev.
2367 3:00 E-Eur MSK/MSD 1996 Mar 31 3:00s
2368 3:00 1:00 MSD 1996 Oct 27 3:00s
2369# IATA SSIM (1997-09) says Crimea switched to EET/EEST.
2370# Assume it happened in March by not changing the clocks.
2371 3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1997
2372 3:00 - MSK 1997 Mar lastSun 1:00u
2373# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2014-03-17):
2374# time change at 2:00 (2am) on March 30, 2014
2375# http://vz.ru/news/2014/3/17/677464.html
2376# From Paul Eggert (2014-03-30):
2377# Simferopol and Sevastopol reportedly changed their central town clocks
2378# late the previous day, but this appears to have been ceremonial
2379# and the discrepancies are small enough to not worry about.
2380 2:00 EU EE%sT 2014 Mar 30 2:00
2381 4:00 - MSK 2014 Oct 26 2:00s
2382 3:00 - MSK
2383
2384
2385# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03):
2386# Europe/Volgograd covers...
2387# 30 RU-AST Astrakhan Oblast
2388# 34 RU-VGG Volgograd Oblast
2389# 43 RU-KIR Kirov Oblast
2390# 64 RU-SAR Saratov Oblast
2391
2392# From Paul Eggert (2006-05-09):
2393# Shanks & Pottenger say Kirov is still at +0400 but Wikipedia says +0300.
2394# Perhaps it switched after the others? But we have no data.
2395
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SW
2396Zone Europe/Volgograd 2:57:40 - LMT 1920 Jan 3
2397 3:00 - TSAT 1925 Apr 6 # Tsaritsyn Time
2398 3:00 - STAT 1930 Jun 21 # Stalingrad Time
2399 4:00 - STAT 1961 Nov 11
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SW
2400 4:00 Russia VOL%sT 1989 Mar 26 2:00s # Volgograd T
2401 3:00 Russia VOL%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
2402 4:00 - VOLT 1992 Mar 29 2:00s
2403 3:00 Russia MSK 2011 Mar 27 2:00s
2404 4:00 - MSK 2014 Oct 26 2:00s
2405 3:00 - MSK
2406
2407
2408# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25):
2409# Europe/Samara covers...
2410# 18 RU-UD Udmurt Republic
2411# 63 RU-SAM Samara Oblast
2412
2413# Byalokoz 1919 says Samara was 3:20:20.
2414
2415Zone Europe/Samara 3:20:20 - LMT 1919 Jul 1 2:00
bd7414aa
SW
2416 3:00 - SAMT 1930 Jun 21
2417 4:00 - SAMT 1935 Jan 27
48afb8ac
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2418 4:00 Russia KUY%sT 1989 Mar 26 2:00s # Kuybyshev
2419 3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
2420 2:00 Russia EE%sT 1991 Sep 29 2:00s
2421 3:00 - KUYT 1991 Oct 20 3:00
2422 4:00 Russia SAM%sT 2010 Mar 28 2:00s # Samara Time
2423 3:00 Russia SAM%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s
ffa9a577 2424 4:00 - SAMT
63c2ac5e 2425
48afb8ac
SW
2426
2427# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25):
2428# Asia/Yekaterinburg covers...
2429# 02 RU-BA Bashkortostan, Republic of
2430# 90 RU-PER Perm Krai
2431# 45 RU-KGN Kurgan Oblast
2432# 56 RU-ORE Orenburg Oblast
2433# 66 RU-SVE Sverdlovsk Oblast
2434# 72 RU-TYU Tyumen Oblast
2435# 74 RU-CHE Chelyabinsk Oblast
2436# 86 RU-KHM Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug - Yugra
2437# 89 RU-YAN Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug
2438#
2439# Note: Effective 2005-12-01, (59) Perm Oblast and (81) Komi-Permyak
2440# Autonomous Okrug merged to form (90, RU-PER) Perm Krai.
2441
2442# Milne says Yekaterinburg was 4:02:32.9; round to nearest.
2443# Byalokoz 1919 says its provincial time was based on Perm, at 3:45:05.
2444# Assume it switched on 1916-07-03, the time of the new standard.
2445# The 1919 and 1930 transitions are from Shanks.
2446
2447Zone Asia/Yekaterinburg 4:02:33 - LMT 1916 Jul 3
2448 3:45:05 - PMT 1919 Jul 15 4:00
984263bc 2449 4:00 - SVET 1930 Jun 21 # Sverdlovsk Time
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SW
2450 5:00 Russia SVE%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
2451 4:00 Russia SVE%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s
2452 5:00 Russia YEK%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s
2453 6:00 - YEKT 2014 Oct 26 2:00s
2454 5:00 - YEKT
2455
2456
2457# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25):
2458# Asia/Omsk covers...
2459# 04 RU-AL Altai Republic
2460# 22 RU-ALT Altai Krai
2461# 55 RU-OMS Omsk Oblast
2462
2463# Byalokoz 1919 says Omsk was 4:53:30.
2464
2465Zone Asia/Omsk 4:53:30 - LMT 1919 Nov 14
2466 5:00 - OMST 1930 Jun 21 # Omsk Time
2467 6:00 Russia OMS%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
2468 5:00 Russia OMS%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s
2469 6:00 Russia OMS%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s
2470 7:00 - OMST 2014 Oct 26 2:00s
2471 6:00 - OMST
2472
2473
2474# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03):
2475# Asia/Novosibirsk covers...
2476# 54 RU-NVS Novosibirsk Oblast
2477# 70 RU-TOM Tomsk Oblast
2478
bd7414aa
SW
2479# From Paul Eggert (2006-08-19): I'm guessing about Tomsk here; it's
2480# not clear when it switched from +7 to +6.
48afb8ac
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2481
2482Zone Asia/Novosibirsk 5:31:40 - LMT 1919 Dec 14 6:00
984263bc 2483 6:00 - NOVT 1930 Jun 21 # Novosibirsk Time
48afb8ac
SW
2484 7:00 Russia NOV%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
2485 6:00 Russia NOV%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s
bd7414aa 2486 7:00 Russia NOV%sT 1993 May 23 # say Shanks & P.
48afb8ac
SW
2487 6:00 Russia NOV%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s
2488 7:00 - NOVT 2014 Oct 26 2:00s
2489 6:00 - NOVT
2490
2491
2492# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03):
2493# Asia/Novokuznetsk covers...
2494# 42 RU-KEM Kemerovo Oblast
f4d6ca16
SW
2495
2496# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-10-13):
2497# Kemerovo oblast' (Kemerovo region) in Russia will change current time zone on
2498# March 28, 2010:
2499# from current Russia Zone 6 - Krasnoyarsk Time Zone (KRA) UTC +0700
2500# to Russia Zone 5 - Novosibirsk Time Zone (NOV) UTC +0600
2501#
2502# This is according to Government of Russia decree # 740, on September
2503# 14, 2009 "Application in the territory of the Kemerovo region the Fifth
2504# time zone." ("Russia Zone 5" or old "USSR Zone 5" is GMT +0600)
2505#
2506# Russian Government web site (Russian language)
f4d6ca16 2507# http://www.government.ru/content/governmentactivity/rfgovernmentdecisions/archive/2009/09/14/991633.htm
f4d6ca16
SW
2508# or Russian-English translation by WorldTimeZone.com with reference
2509# map to local region and new Russia Time Zone map after March 28, 2010
f4d6ca16 2510# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_russia03.html
f4d6ca16
SW
2511#
2512# Thus, when Russia will switch to DST on the night of March 28, 2010
2513# Kemerovo region (Kemerovo oblast') will not change the clock.
2514#
2515# As a result, Kemerovo oblast' will be in the same time zone as
2516# Novosibirsk, Omsk, Tomsk, Barnaul and Altai Republic.
2517
48afb8ac
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2518# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-02), per Alexander Krivenyshev (2014-07-02):
2519# The Kemerovo region will remain at UTC+7 through the 2014-10-26 change, thus
2520# realigning itself with KRAT.
2521
2522Zone Asia/Novokuznetsk 5:48:48 - LMT 1924 May 1
f4d6ca16 2523 6:00 - KRAT 1930 Jun 21 # Krasnoyarsk Time
48afb8ac
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2524 7:00 Russia KRA%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
2525 6:00 Russia KRA%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s
2526 7:00 Russia KRA%sT 2010 Mar 28 2:00s
2527 6:00 Russia NOV%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s # Novosibirsk
2528 7:00 - NOVT 2014 Oct 26 2:00s
2529 7:00 - KRAT # Krasnoyarsk Time
2530
2531
2532# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25):
2533# Asia/Krasnoyarsk covers...
2534# 17 RU-TY Tuva Republic
2535# 19 RU-KK Khakassia, Republic of
2536# 24 RU-KYA Krasnoyarsk Krai
2537#
2538# Note: Effective 2007-01-01, (88) Evenk Autonomous Okrug and (84) Taymyr
2539# Autonomous Okrug were merged into (24, RU-KYA) Krasnoyarsk Krai.
2540
2541# Byalokoz 1919 says Krasnoyarsk was 6:11:26.
2542
2543Zone Asia/Krasnoyarsk 6:11:26 - LMT 1920 Jan 6
984263bc 2544 6:00 - KRAT 1930 Jun 21 # Krasnoyarsk Time
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2545 7:00 Russia KRA%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
2546 6:00 Russia KRA%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s
2547 7:00 Russia KRA%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s
2548 8:00 - KRAT 2014 Oct 26 2:00s
2549 7:00 - KRAT
2550
2551
2552# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25):
2553# Asia/Irkutsk covers...
2554# 03 RU-BU Buryatia, Republic of
2555# 38 RU-IRK Irkutsk Oblast
2556#
2557# Note: Effective 2008-01-01, (85) Ust-Orda Buryat Autonomous Okrug was
2558# merged into (38, RU-IRK) Irkutsk Oblast.
2559
2560# Milne 1899 says Irkutsk was 6:57:15.
2561# Byalokoz 1919 says Irkutsk was 6:57:05.
2562# Go with Byalokoz.
2563
2564Zone Asia/Irkutsk 6:57:05 - LMT 1880
2565 6:57:05 - IMT 1920 Jan 25 # Irkutsk Mean Time
984263bc 2566 7:00 - IRKT 1930 Jun 21 # Irkutsk Time
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2567 8:00 Russia IRK%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
2568 7:00 Russia IRK%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s
2569 8:00 Russia IRK%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s
2570 9:00 - IRKT 2014 Oct 26 2:00s
2571 8:00 - IRKT
2572
2573
2574# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-06):
2575# Asia/Chita covers...
2576# 92 RU-ZAB Zabaykalsky Krai
2577#
2578# Note: Effective 2008-03-01, (75) Chita Oblast and (80) Agin-Buryat
2579# Autonomous Okrug merged to form (92, RU-ZAB) Zabaykalsky Krai.
2580
2581Zone Asia/Chita 7:33:52 - LMT 1919 Dec 15
2582 8:00 - YAKT 1930 Jun 21 # Yakutsk Time
2583 9:00 Russia YAK%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
2584 8:00 Russia YAK%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s
2585 9:00 Russia YAK%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s
2586 10:00 - YAKT 2014 Oct 26 2:00s
2587 8:00 - IRKT
2588
2589
2590# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2009-11-29):
2591# Asia/Yakutsk covers...
2592# 28 RU-AMU Amur Oblast
2593#
2594# ...and parts of (14, RU-SA) Sakha (Yakutia) Republic:
2595# 14-02 **** Aldansky District
2596# 14-04 **** Amginsky District
2597# 14-05 **** Anabarsky District
2598# 14-06 **** Bulunsky District
2599# 14-07 **** Verkhnevilyuysky District
2600# 14-10 **** Vilyuysky District
2601# 14-11 **** Gorny District
2602# 14-12 **** Zhigansky District
2603# 14-13 **** Kobyaysky District
2604# 14-14 **** Lensky District
2605# 14-15 **** Megino-Kangalassky District
2606# 14-16 **** Mirninsky District
2607# 14-18 **** Namsky District
2608# 14-19 **** Neryungrinsky District
2609# 14-21 **** Nyurbinsky District
2610# 14-23 **** Olenyoksky District
2611# 14-24 **** Olyokminsky District
2612# 14-26 **** Suntarsky District
2613# 14-27 **** Tattinsky District
2614# 14-29 **** Ust-Aldansky District
2615# 14-32 **** Khangalassky District
2616# 14-33 **** Churapchinsky District
2617# 14-34 **** Eveno-Bytantaysky National District
2618
2619# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03):
2620# Our commentary seems to have lost mention of (14-19) Neryungrinsky District.
2621# Since the surrounding districts of Sakha are all YAKT, assume this is, too.
2622# Also assume its history has been the same as the rest of Asia/Yakutsk.
2623
2624# Byalokoz 1919 says Yakutsk was 8:38:58.
2625
2626Zone Asia/Yakutsk 8:38:58 - LMT 1919 Dec 15
984263bc 2627 8:00 - YAKT 1930 Jun 21 # Yakutsk Time
48afb8ac
SW
2628 9:00 Russia YAK%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
2629 8:00 Russia YAK%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s
2630 9:00 Russia YAK%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s
2631 10:00 - YAKT 2014 Oct 26 2:00s
2632 9:00 - YAKT
2633
2634
2635# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2009-11-29):
2636# Asia/Vladivostok covers...
2637# 25 RU-PRI Primorsky Krai
2638# 27 RU-KHA Khabarovsk Krai
2639# 79 RU-YEV Jewish Autonomous Oblast
2640#
2641# ...and parts of (14, RU-SA) Sakha (Yakutia) Republic:
2642# 14-09 **** Verkhoyansky District
2643# 14-31 **** Ust-Yansky District
2644
2645# Milne 1899 says Vladivostok was 8:47:33.5.
2646# Byalokoz 1919 says Vladivostok was 8:47:31.
2647# Go with Byalokoz.
2648
2649Zone Asia/Vladivostok 8:47:31 - LMT 1922 Nov 15
984263bc 2650 9:00 - VLAT 1930 Jun 21 # Vladivostok Time
48afb8ac
SW
2651 10:00 Russia VLA%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
2652 9:00 Russia VLA%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s
2653 10:00 Russia VLA%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s
2654 11:00 - VLAT 2014 Oct 26 2:00s
2655 10:00 - VLAT
2656
2657
2658# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03):
2659# Asia/Khandyga covers parts of (14, RU-SA) Sakha (Yakutia) Republic:
2660# 14-28 **** Tomponsky District
2661# 14-30 **** Ust-Maysky District
80e7e01d
SW
2662
2663# From Arthur David Olson (2012-05-09):
2664# Tomponskij and Ust'-Majskij switched from Vladivostok time to Yakutsk time
2665# in 2011.
48afb8ac 2666
80e7e01d
SW
2667# From Paul Eggert (2012-11-25):
2668# Shanks and Pottenger (2003) has Khandyga on Yakutsk time.
2669# Make a wild guess that it switched to Vladivostok time in 2004.
2670# This transition is no doubt wrong, but we have no better info.
48afb8ac 2671
80e7e01d
SW
2672Zone Asia/Khandyga 9:02:13 - LMT 1919 Dec 15
2673 8:00 - YAKT 1930 Jun 21 # Yakutsk Time
48afb8ac
SW
2674 9:00 Russia YAK%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
2675 8:00 Russia YAK%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s
80e7e01d 2676 9:00 Russia YAK%sT 2004
48afb8ac
SW
2677 10:00 Russia VLA%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s
2678 11:00 - VLAT 2011 Sep 13 0:00s # Decree 725?
2679 10:00 - YAKT 2014 Oct 26 2:00s
2680 9:00 - YAKT
80e7e01d 2681
48afb8ac
SW
2682
2683# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03):
2684# Asia/Sakhalin covers...
2685# 65 RU-SAK Sakhalin Oblast
2686# ...with the exception of:
2687# 65-11 **** Severo-Kurilsky District (North Kuril Islands)
2688
2689# The Zone name should be Asia/Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, but that's too long.
984263bc 2690Zone Asia/Sakhalin 9:30:48 - LMT 1905 Aug 23
48afb8ac 2691 9:00 - JCST 1937 Oct 1
984263bc 2692 9:00 - JST 1945 Aug 25
48afb8ac
SW
2693 11:00 Russia SAK%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s # Sakhalin T
2694 10:00 Russia SAK%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s
2695 11:00 Russia SAK%sT 1997 Mar lastSun 2:00s
2696 10:00 Russia SAK%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s
2697 11:00 - SAKT 2014 Oct 26 2:00s
2698 10:00 - SAKT
2699
2700
2701# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2009-11-29):
2702# Asia/Magadan covers...
2703# 49 RU-MAG Magadan Oblast
2704
2705# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-06), per Alexander Krivenyshev (2014-07-02):
2706# Magadan Oblast is moving from UTC+12 to UTC+10 on 2014-10-26; however,
2707# several districts of Sakha Republic as well as Severo-Kurilsky District of
2708# the Sakhalin Oblast (also known as the North Kuril Islands), represented
2709# until now by Asia/Magadan, will instead move to UTC+11. These regions will
2710# need their own zone.
2711
984263bc
MD
2712Zone Asia/Magadan 10:03:12 - LMT 1924 May 2
2713 10:00 - MAGT 1930 Jun 21 # Magadan Time
48afb8ac
SW
2714 11:00 Russia MAG%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
2715 10:00 Russia MAG%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s
2716 11:00 Russia MAG%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s
2717 12:00 - MAGT 2014 Oct 26 2:00s
2718 10:00 - MAGT
2719
2720
2721# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-06):
2722# Asia/Srednekolymsk covers parts of (14, RU-SA) Sakha (Yakutia) Republic:
2723# 14-01 **** Abyysky District
2724# 14-03 **** Allaikhovsky District
2725# 14-08 **** Verkhnekolymsky District
2726# 14-17 **** Momsky District
2727# 14-20 **** Nizhnekolymsky District
2728# 14-25 **** Srednekolymsky District
2729#
2730# ...and parts of (65, RU-SAK) Sakhalin Oblast:
2731# 65-11 **** Severo-Kurilsky District (North Kuril Islands)
2732
2733# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-02):
2734# Oymyakonsky District of Sakha Republic (represented by Ust-Nera), along with
2735# most of Sakhalin Oblast (represented by Sakhalin) will be moving to UTC+10 on
2736# 2014-10-26 to stay aligned with VLAT/SAKT; however, Severo-Kurilsky District
2737# of the Sakhalin Oblast (also known as the North Kuril Islands, represented by
2738# Severo-Kurilsk) will remain on UTC+11.
2739
2740# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-06):
2741# Assume North Kuril Islands have history like Magadan before 2011-03-27.
2742# There is a decent chance this is wrong, in which case a new zone
2743# Asia/Severo-Kurilsk would become necessary.
2744#
2745# Srednekolymsk and Zyryanka are the most populous places amongst these
2746# districts, but have very similar populations. In fact, Wikipedia currently
2747# lists them both as having 3528 people, exactly 1668 males and 1860 females
2748# each! (Yikes!)
2749# http://en.wikipedia.org/w/?title=Srednekolymsky_District&oldid=603435276
2750# http://en.wikipedia.org/w/?title=Verkhnekolymsky_District&oldid=594378493
2751# Assume this is a mistake, albeit an amusing one.
2752#
2753# Looking at censuses, the populations of the two municipalities seem to have
2754# fluctuated recently. Zyryanka was more populous than Srednekolymsk in the
2755# 1989 and 2002 censuses, but Srednekolymsk was more populous in the most
2756# recent (2010) census, 3525 to 3170. (See pages 195 and 197 of
2757# http://www.gks.ru/free_doc/new_site/perepis2010/croc/Documents/Vol1/pub-01-05.pdf
2758# in Russian.) In addition, Srednekolymsk appears to be a much older
2759# settlement and the population of Zyryanka seems to be declining.
2760# Go with Srednekolymsk.
2761#
2762# Since Magadan Oblast moves to UTC+10 on 2014-10-26, we cannot keep using MAGT
2763# as the abbreviation. Use SRET instead.
2764
2765Zone Asia/Srednekolymsk 10:14:52 - LMT 1924 May 2
2766 10:00 - MAGT 1930 Jun 21 # Magadan Time
2767 11:00 Russia MAG%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
2768 10:00 Russia MAG%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s
2769 11:00 Russia MAG%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s
2770 12:00 - MAGT 2014 Oct 26 2:00s
2771 11:00 - SRET # Srednekolymsk Time
2772
2773
2774# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03):
2775# Asia/Ust-Nera covers parts of (14, RU-SA) Sakha (Yakutia) Republic:
2776# 14-22 **** Oymyakonsky District
80e7e01d
SW
2777
2778# From Arthur David Olson (2012-05-09):
48afb8ac 2779# Ojmyakonskij [and the Kuril Islands] switched from
80e7e01d 2780# Magadan time to Vladivostok time in 2011.
48afb8ac
SW
2781#
2782# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-06), per Alexander Krivenyshev (2014-07-02):
2783# It's unlikely that any of the Kuril Islands were involved in such a switch,
2784# as the South and Middle Kurils have been on UTC+11 (SAKT) with the rest of
2785# Sakhalin Oblast since at least 2011-09, and the North Kurils have been on
2786# UTC+12 since at least then, too.
2787
80e7e01d
SW
2788Zone Asia/Ust-Nera 9:32:54 - LMT 1919 Dec 15
2789 8:00 - YAKT 1930 Jun 21 # Yakutsk Time
2790 9:00 Russia YAKT 1981 Apr 1
48afb8ac
SW
2791 11:00 Russia MAG%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
2792 10:00 Russia MAG%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s
2793 11:00 Russia MAG%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s
2794 12:00 - MAGT 2011 Sep 13 0:00s # Decree 725?
2795 11:00 - VLAT 2014 Oct 26 2:00s
2796 10:00 - VLAT
2797
80e7e01d 2798
48afb8ac
SW
2799# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25):
2800# Asia/Kamchatka covers...
2801# 91 RU-KAM Kamchatka Krai
984263bc 2802#
48afb8ac
SW
2803# Note: Effective 2007-07-01, (41) Kamchatka Oblast and (82) Koryak
2804# Autonomous Okrug merged to form (91, RU-KAM) Kamchatka Krai.
2805
2806# The Zone name should be Asia/Petropavlovsk-Kamchatski or perhaps
2807# Asia/Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, but these are too long.
984263bc
MD
2808Zone Asia/Kamchatka 10:34:36 - LMT 1922 Nov 10
2809 11:00 - PETT 1930 Jun 21 # P-K Time
48afb8ac
SW
2810 12:00 Russia PET%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
2811 11:00 Russia PET%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s
2812 12:00 Russia PET%sT 2010 Mar 28 2:00s
2813 11:00 Russia PET%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s
ffa9a577 2814 12:00 - PETT
48afb8ac
SW
2815
2816
2817# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03):
2818# Asia/Anadyr covers...
2819# 87 RU-CHU Chukotka Autonomous Okrug
2820
984263bc
MD
2821Zone Asia/Anadyr 11:49:56 - LMT 1924 May 2
2822 12:00 - ANAT 1930 Jun 21 # Anadyr Time
48afb8ac
SW
2823 13:00 Russia ANA%sT 1982 Apr 1 0:00s
2824 12:00 Russia ANA%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
2825 11:00 Russia ANA%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s
2826 12:00 Russia ANA%sT 2010 Mar 28 2:00s
2827 11:00 Russia ANA%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s
ffa9a577 2828 12:00 - ANAT
984263bc 2829
48afb8ac 2830
d1bcb6be
SW
2831# San Marino
2832# See Europe/Rome.
2833
17f48456 2834# Serbia
984263bc
MD
2835# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
2836Zone Europe/Belgrade 1:22:00 - LMT 1884
2837 1:00 - CET 1941 Apr 18 23:00
3f249718 2838 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945
48afb8ac 2839 1:00 - CET 1945 May 8 2:00s
984263bc 2840 1:00 1:00 CEST 1945 Sep 16 2:00s
48afb8ac 2841# Metod Koželj reports that the legal date of
984263bc 2842# transition to EU rules was 1982-11-27, for all of Yugoslavia at the time.
48afb8ac 2843# Shanks & Pottenger don't give as much detail, so go with Koželj.
984263bc
MD
2844 1:00 - CET 1982 Nov 27
2845 1:00 EU CE%sT
2846Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Ljubljana # Slovenia
17f48456 2847Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Podgorica # Montenegro
984263bc
MD
2848Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Sarajevo # Bosnia and Herzegovina
2849Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Skopje # Macedonia
2850Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Zagreb # Croatia
2851
2852# Slovakia
2853Link Europe/Prague Europe/Bratislava
2854
2855# Slovenia
d1bcb6be 2856# See Europe/Belgrade.
984263bc
MD
2857
2858# Spain
2859# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
bd7414aa
SW
2860# For 1917-1919 Whitman gives Apr Sat>=1 - Oct Sat>=1;
2861# go with Shanks & Pottenger.
984263bc
MD
2862Rule Spain 1917 only - May 5 23:00s 1:00 S
2863Rule Spain 1917 1919 - Oct 6 23:00s 0 -
2864Rule Spain 1918 only - Apr 15 23:00s 1:00 S
2865Rule Spain 1919 only - Apr 5 23:00s 1:00 S
bd7414aa 2866# Whitman gives 1921 Feb 28 - Oct 14; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
984263bc 2867Rule Spain 1924 only - Apr 16 23:00s 1:00 S
bd7414aa 2868# Whitman gives 1924 Oct 14; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
984263bc
MD
2869Rule Spain 1924 only - Oct 4 23:00s 0 -
2870Rule Spain 1926 only - Apr 17 23:00s 1:00 S
bd7414aa 2871# Whitman says no DST in 1929; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
984263bc
MD
2872Rule Spain 1926 1929 - Oct Sat>=1 23:00s 0 -
2873Rule Spain 1927 only - Apr 9 23:00s 1:00 S
2874Rule Spain 1928 only - Apr 14 23:00s 1:00 S
2875Rule Spain 1929 only - Apr 20 23:00s 1:00 S
bd7414aa
SW
2876# Whitman gives 1937 Jun 16, 1938 Apr 16, 1940 Apr 13;
2877# go with Shanks & Pottenger.
984263bc
MD
2878Rule Spain 1937 only - May 22 23:00s 1:00 S
2879Rule Spain 1937 1939 - Oct Sat>=1 23:00s 0 -
2880Rule Spain 1938 only - Mar 22 23:00s 1:00 S
2881Rule Spain 1939 only - Apr 15 23:00s 1:00 S
2882Rule Spain 1940 only - Mar 16 23:00s 1:00 S
bd7414aa 2883# Whitman says no DST 1942-1945; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
984263bc
MD
2884Rule Spain 1942 only - May 2 22:00s 2:00 M # Midsummer
2885Rule Spain 1942 only - Sep 1 22:00s 1:00 S
2886Rule Spain 1943 1946 - Apr Sat>=13 22:00s 2:00 M
2887Rule Spain 1943 only - Oct 3 22:00s 1:00 S
2888Rule Spain 1944 only - Oct 10 22:00s 1:00 S
2889Rule Spain 1945 only - Sep 30 1:00 1:00 S
2890Rule Spain 1946 only - Sep 30 0:00 0 -
2891Rule Spain 1949 only - Apr 30 23:00 1:00 S
2892Rule Spain 1949 only - Sep 30 1:00 0 -
2893Rule Spain 1974 1975 - Apr Sat>=13 23:00 1:00 S
2894Rule Spain 1974 1975 - Oct Sun>=1 1:00 0 -
2895Rule Spain 1976 only - Mar 27 23:00 1:00 S
2896Rule Spain 1976 1977 - Sep lastSun 1:00 0 -
2897Rule Spain 1977 1978 - Apr 2 23:00 1:00 S
2898Rule Spain 1978 only - Oct 1 1:00 0 -
2899# The following rules are copied from Morocco from 1967 through 1978.
2900Rule SpainAfrica 1967 only - Jun 3 12:00 1:00 S
2901Rule SpainAfrica 1967 only - Oct 1 0:00 0 -
2902Rule SpainAfrica 1974 only - Jun 24 0:00 1:00 S
2903Rule SpainAfrica 1974 only - Sep 1 0:00 0 -
2904Rule SpainAfrica 1976 1977 - May 1 0:00 1:00 S
2905Rule SpainAfrica 1976 only - Aug 1 0:00 0 -
2906Rule SpainAfrica 1977 only - Sep 28 0:00 0 -
2907Rule SpainAfrica 1978 only - Jun 1 0:00 1:00 S
2908Rule SpainAfrica 1978 only - Aug 4 0:00 0 -
2909# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
bd7414aa 2910Zone Europe/Madrid -0:14:44 - LMT 1901 Jan 1 0:00s
984263bc
MD
2911 0:00 Spain WE%sT 1946 Sep 30
2912 1:00 Spain CE%sT 1979
2913 1:00 EU CE%sT
2914Zone Africa/Ceuta -0:21:16 - LMT 1901
2915 0:00 - WET 1918 May 6 23:00
2916 0:00 1:00 WEST 1918 Oct 7 23:00
2917 0:00 - WET 1924
2918 0:00 Spain WE%sT 1929
48afb8ac 2919 0:00 SpainAfrica WE%sT 1984 Mar 16
984263bc
MD
2920 1:00 - CET 1986
2921 1:00 EU CE%sT
2922Zone Atlantic/Canary -1:01:36 - LMT 1922 Mar # Las Palmas de Gran C.
48afb8ac
SW
2923 -1:00 - CANT 1946 Sep 30 1:00 # Canaries T
2924 0:00 - WET 1980 Apr 6 0:00s
2925 0:00 1:00 WEST 1980 Sep 28 0:00s
984263bc
MD
2926 0:00 EU WE%sT
2927# IATA SSIM (1996-09) says the Canaries switch at 2:00u, not 1:00u.
2928# Ignore this for now, as the Canaries are part of the EU.
2929
2930# Sweden
2931
bd7414aa 2932# From Ivan Nilsson (2001-04-13), superseding Shanks & Pottenger:
984263bc 2933#
48afb8ac 2934# The law "Svensk författningssamling 1878, no 14" about standard time in 1879:
984263bc
MD
2935# From the beginning of 1879 (that is 01-01 00:00) the time for all
2936# places in the country is "the mean solar time for the meridian at
2937# three degrees, or twelve minutes of time, to the west of the
2938# meridian of the Observatory of Stockholm". The law is dated 1878-05-31.
2939#
2940# The observatory at that time had the meridian 18 degrees 03' 30"
2941# eastern longitude = 01:12:14 in time. Less 12 minutes gives the
2942# national standard time as 01:00:14 ahead of GMT....
2943#
2944# About the beginning of CET in Sweden. The lawtext ("Svensk
48afb8ac 2945# författningssamling 1899, no 44") states, that "from the beginning
984263bc
MD
2946# of 1900... ... the same as the mean solar time for the meridian at
2947# the distance of one hour of time from the meridian of the English
2948# observatory at Greenwich, or at 12 minutes 14 seconds to the west
2949# from the meridian of the Observatory of Stockholm". The law is dated
2950# 1899-06-16. In short: At 1900-01-01 00:00:00 the new standard time
2951# in Sweden is 01:00:00 ahead of GMT.
2952#
48afb8ac 2953# 1916: The lawtext ("Svensk författningssamling 1916, no 124") states
984263bc
MD
2954# that "1916-05-15 is considered to begin one hour earlier". It is
2955# pretty obvious that at 05-14 23:00 the clocks are set to 05-15 00:00....
2956# Further the law says, that "1916-09-30 is considered to end one hour later".
2957#
2958# The laws regulating [DST] are available on the site of the Swedish
2959# Parliament beginning with 1985 - the laws regulating 1980/1984 are
2960# not available on the site (to my knowledge they are only available
2961# in Swedish): <http://www.riksdagen.se/english/work/sfst.asp> (type
2962# "sommartid" without the quotes in the field "Fritext" and then click
48afb8ac 2963# the Sök-button).
984263bc
MD
2964#
2965# (2001-05-13):
2966#
2967# I have now found a newspaper stating that at 1916-10-01 01:00
2968# summertime the church-clocks etc were set back one hour to show
2969# 1916-10-01 00:00 standard time. The article also reports that some
2970# people thought the switch to standard time would take place already
2971# at 1916-10-01 00:00 summer time, but they had to wait for another
2972# hour before the event took place.
2973#
2974# Source: The newspaper "Dagens Nyheter", 1916-10-01, page 7 upper left.
2975
2976# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
2977Zone Europe/Stockholm 1:12:12 - LMT 1879 Jan 1
48afb8ac 2978 1:00:14 - SET 1900 Jan 1 # Swedish Time
984263bc 2979 1:00 - CET 1916 May 14 23:00
48afb8ac 2980 1:00 1:00 CEST 1916 Oct 1 1:00
984263bc
MD
2981 1:00 - CET 1980
2982 1:00 EU CE%sT
2983
2984# Switzerland
2985# From Howse:
2986# By the end of the 18th century clocks and watches became commonplace
2987# and their performance improved enormously. Communities began to keep
48afb8ac 2988# mean time in preference to apparent time - Geneva from 1780 ....
984263bc 2989# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
d1bcb6be 2990# From Whitman (who writes "Midnight?"):
09695390
SW
2991# Rule Swiss 1940 only - Nov 2 0:00 1:00 S
2992# Rule Swiss 1940 only - Dec 31 0:00 0 -
bd7414aa 2993# From Shanks & Pottenger:
09695390
SW
2994# Rule Swiss 1941 1942 - May Sun>=1 2:00 1:00 S
2995# Rule Swiss 1941 1942 - Oct Sun>=1 0:00 0 -
2996
2997# From Alois Treindl (2008-12-17):
2998# I have researched the DST usage in Switzerland during the 1940ies.
2999#
3000# As I wrote in an earlier message, I suspected the current tzdata values
3001# to be wrong. This is now verified.
3002#
3003# I have found copies of the original ruling by the Swiss Federal
48afb8ac 3004# government, in 'Eidgenössische Gesetzessammlung 1941 and 1942' (Swiss
09695390
SW
3005# federal law collection)...
3006#
3007# DST began on Monday 5 May 1941, 1:00 am by shifting the clocks to 2:00 am
3008# DST ended on Monday 6 Oct 1941, 2:00 am by shifting the clocks to 1:00 am.
3009#
3010# DST began on Monday, 4 May 1942 at 01:00 am
3011# DST ended on Monday, 5 Oct 1942 at 02:00 am
3012#
3013# There was no DST in 1940, I have checked the law collection carefully.
3014# It is also indicated by the fact that the 1942 entry in the law
3015# collection points back to 1941 as a reference, but no reference to any
3016# other years are made.
3017#
3018# Newspaper articles I have read in the archives on 6 May 1941 reported
3019# about the introduction of DST (Sommerzeit in German) during the previous
3020# night as an absolute novelty, because this was the first time that such
3021# a thing had happened in Switzerland.
3022#
48afb8ac 3023# I have also checked 1916, because one book source (Gabriel, Traité de
09695390
SW
3024# l'heure dans le monde) claims that Switzerland had DST in 1916. This is
3025# false, no official document could be found. Probably Gabriel got misled
3026# by references to Germany, which introduced DST in 1916 for the first time.
3027#
3028# The tzdata rules for Switzerland must be changed to:
3029# Rule Swiss 1941 1942 - May Mon>=1 1:00 1:00 S
3030# Rule Swiss 1941 1942 - Oct Mon>=1 2:00 0 -
3031#
3032# The 1940 rules must be deleted.
3033#
3034# One further detail for Switzerland, which is probably out of scope for
d1bcb6be 3035# most users of tzdata: The [Europe/Zurich zone] ...
09695390 3036# describes all of Switzerland correctly, with the exception of
48afb8ac 3037# the Canton de Genève (Geneva, Genf). Between 1848 and 1894 Geneva did not
09695390
SW
3038# follow Bern Mean Time but kept its own local mean time.
3039# To represent this, an extra zone would be needed.
d1bcb6be
SW
3040#
3041# From Alois Treindl (2013-09-11):
3042# The Federal regulations say
3043# http://www.admin.ch/opc/de/classified-compilation/20071096/index.html
48afb8ac 3044# ... the meridian for Bern mean time ... is 7 degrees 26' 22.50".
d1bcb6be
SW
3045# Expressed in time, it is 0h29m45.5s.
3046
3047# From Pierre-Yves Berger (2013-09-11):
48afb8ac
SW
3048# the "Circulaire du conseil fédéral" (December 11 1893)
3049# http://www.amtsdruckschriften.bar.admin.ch/viewOrigDoc.do?id=10071353
d1bcb6be
SW
3050# clearly states that the [1894-06-01] change should be done at midnight
3051# but if no one is present after 11 at night, could be postponed until one
3052# hour before the beginning of service.
3053
3054# From Paul Eggert (2013-09-11):
3055# Round BMT to the nearest even second, 0:29:46.
3056#
3057# We can find no reliable source for Shanks's assertion that all of Switzerland
3058# except Geneva switched to Bern Mean Time at 00:00 on 1848-09-12. This book:
3059#
48afb8ac 3060# Jakob Messerli. Gleichmässig, pünktlich, schnell. Zeiteinteilung und
d1bcb6be
SW
3061# Zeitgebrauch in der Schweiz im 19. Jahrhundert. Chronos, Zurich 1995,
3062# ISBN 3-905311-68-2, OCLC 717570797.
3063#
3064# suggests that the transition was more gradual, and that the Swiss did not
3065# agree about civil time during the transition. The timekeeping it gives the
3066# most detail for is postal and telegraph time: here, federal legislation (the
48afb8ac 3067# "Bundesgesetz über die Erstellung von elektrischen Telegraphen") passed on
d1bcb6be
SW
3068# 1851-11-23, and an official implementation notice was published 1853-07-16
3069# (Bundesblatt 1853, Bd. II, S. 859). On p 72 Messerli writes that in
3070# practice since July 1853 Bernese time was used in "all postal and telegraph
3071# offices in Switzerland from Geneva to St. Gallen and Basel to Chiasso"
3072# (Google translation). For now, model this transition as occurring on
3073# 1853-07-16, though it probably occurred at some other date in Zurich, and
3074# legal civil time probably changed at still some other transition date.
09695390
SW
3075
3076# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
3077Rule Swiss 1941 1942 - May Mon>=1 1:00 1:00 S
3078Rule Swiss 1941 1942 - Oct Mon>=1 2:00 0 -
984263bc 3079# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
d1bcb6be 3080Zone Europe/Zurich 0:34:08 - LMT 1853 Jul 16 # See above comment.
48afb8ac 3081 0:29:46 - BMT 1894 Jun # Bern Mean Time
984263bc
MD
3082 1:00 Swiss CE%sT 1981
3083 1:00 EU CE%sT
3084
3085# Turkey
70fc4940
SW
3086
3087# From Amar Devegowda (2007-01-03):
3088# The time zone rules for Istanbul, Turkey have not been changed for years now.
48afb8ac 3089# ... The latest rules are available at:
70fc4940
SW
3090# http://www.timeanddate.com/worldclock/timezone.html?n=107
3091# From Steffen Thorsen (2007-01-03):
3092# I have been able to find press records back to 1996 which all say that
3093# DST started 01:00 local time and end at 02:00 local time. I am not sure
3094# what happened before that. One example for each year from 1996 to 2001:
3095# http://newspot.byegm.gov.tr/arsiv/1996/21/N4.htm
3096# http://www.byegm.gov.tr/YAYINLARIMIZ/CHR/ING97/03/97X03X25.TXT
3097# http://www.byegm.gov.tr/YAYINLARIMIZ/CHR/ING98/03/98X03X02.HTM
3098# http://www.byegm.gov.tr/YAYINLARIMIZ/CHR/ING99/10/99X10X26.HTM#%2016
3099# http://www.byegm.gov.tr/YAYINLARIMIZ/CHR/ING2000/03/00X03X06.HTM#%2021
3100# http://www.byegm.gov.tr/YAYINLARIMIZ/CHR/ING2001/03/23x03x01.HTM#%2027
3101# From Paul Eggert (2007-01-03):
3102# Prefer the above source to Shanks & Pottenger for time stamps after 1990.
3103
8393cd87
SW
3104# From Steffen Thorsen (2007-03-09):
3105# Starting 2007 though, it seems that they are adopting EU's 1:00 UTC
3106# start/end time, according to the following page (2007-03-07):
3107# http://www.ntvmsnbc.com/news/402029.asp
3108# The official document is located here - it is in Turkish...:
3109# http://rega.basbakanlik.gov.tr/eskiler/2007/03/20070307-7.htm
3110# I was able to locate the following seemingly official document
3111# (on a non-government server though) describing dates between 2002 and 2006:
3112# http://www.alomaliye.com/bkk_2002_3769.htm
3113
48afb8ac 3114# From Gökdeniz Karadağ (2011-03-10):
980da900
SW
3115# According to the articles linked below, Turkey will change into summer
3116# time zone (GMT+3) on March 28, 2011 at 3:00 a.m. instead of March 27.
3117# This change is due to a nationwide exam on 27th.
980da900 3118# http://www.worldbulletin.net/?aType=haber&ArticleID=70872
980da900 3119# Turkish:
980da900 3120# http://www.hurriyet.com.tr/ekonomi/17230464.asp?gid=373
39560a18
SW
3121
3122# From Faruk Pasin (2014-02-14):
3123# The DST for Turkey has been changed for this year because of the
3124# Turkish Local election....
3125# http://www.sabah.com.tr/Ekonomi/2014/02/12/yaz-saatinde-onemli-degisiklik
3126# ... so Turkey will move clocks forward one hour on March 31 at 3:00 a.m.
48afb8ac
SW
3127# From Randal L. Schwartz (2014-04-15):
3128# Having landed on a flight from the states to Istanbul (via AMS) on March 31,
3129# I can tell you that NOBODY (even the airlines) respected this timezone DST
3130# change delay. Maybe the word just didn't get out in time.
3131# From Paul Eggert (2014-06-15):
3132# The press reported massive confusion, as election officials obeyed the rule
3133# change but cell phones (and airline baggage systems) did not. See:
3134# Kostidis M. Eventful elections in Turkey. Balkan News Agency
3135# http://www.balkaneu.com/eventful-elections-turkey/ 2014-03-30.
3136# I guess the best we can do is document the official time.
234dfcd0 3137
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3138# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
3139Rule Turkey 1916 only - May 1 0:00 1:00 S
3140Rule Turkey 1916 only - Oct 1 0:00 0 -
3141Rule Turkey 1920 only - Mar 28 0:00 1:00 S
3142Rule Turkey 1920 only - Oct 25 0:00 0 -
3143Rule Turkey 1921 only - Apr 3 0:00 1:00 S
3144Rule Turkey 1921 only - Oct 3 0:00 0 -
3145Rule Turkey 1922 only - Mar 26 0:00 1:00 S
3146Rule Turkey 1922 only - Oct 8 0:00 0 -
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SW
3147# Whitman gives 1923 Apr 28 - Sep 16 and no DST in 1924-1925;
3148# go with Shanks & Pottenger.
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MD
3149Rule Turkey 1924 only - May 13 0:00 1:00 S
3150Rule Turkey 1924 1925 - Oct 1 0:00 0 -
3151Rule Turkey 1925 only - May 1 0:00 1:00 S
3152Rule Turkey 1940 only - Jun 30 0:00 1:00 S
3153Rule Turkey 1940 only - Oct 5 0:00 0 -
3154Rule Turkey 1940 only - Dec 1 0:00 1:00 S
3155Rule Turkey 1941 only - Sep 21 0:00 0 -
3156Rule Turkey 1942 only - Apr 1 0:00 1:00 S
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SW
3157# Whitman omits the next two transition and gives 1945 Oct 1;
3158# go with Shanks & Pottenger.
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MD
3159Rule Turkey 1942 only - Nov 1 0:00 0 -
3160Rule Turkey 1945 only - Apr 2 0:00 1:00 S
3161Rule Turkey 1945 only - Oct 8 0:00 0 -
3162Rule Turkey 1946 only - Jun 1 0:00 1:00 S
3163Rule Turkey 1946 only - Oct 1 0:00 0 -
3164Rule Turkey 1947 1948 - Apr Sun>=16 0:00 1:00 S
3165Rule Turkey 1947 1950 - Oct Sun>=2 0:00 0 -
3166Rule Turkey 1949 only - Apr 10 0:00 1:00 S
3167Rule Turkey 1950 only - Apr 19 0:00 1:00 S
3168Rule Turkey 1951 only - Apr 22 0:00 1:00 S
3169Rule Turkey 1951 only - Oct 8 0:00 0 -
3170Rule Turkey 1962 only - Jul 15 0:00 1:00 S
3171Rule Turkey 1962 only - Oct 8 0:00 0 -
3172Rule Turkey 1964 only - May 15 0:00 1:00 S
3173Rule Turkey 1964 only - Oct 1 0:00 0 -
3174Rule Turkey 1970 1972 - May Sun>=2 0:00 1:00 S
3175Rule Turkey 1970 1972 - Oct Sun>=2 0:00 0 -
3176Rule Turkey 1973 only - Jun 3 1:00 1:00 S
3177Rule Turkey 1973 only - Nov 4 3:00 0 -
3178Rule Turkey 1974 only - Mar 31 2:00 1:00 S
3179Rule Turkey 1974 only - Nov 3 5:00 0 -
3180Rule Turkey 1975 only - Mar 30 0:00 1:00 S
3181Rule Turkey 1975 1976 - Oct lastSun 0:00 0 -
3182Rule Turkey 1976 only - Jun 1 0:00 1:00 S
3183Rule Turkey 1977 1978 - Apr Sun>=1 0:00 1:00 S
3184Rule Turkey 1977 only - Oct 16 0:00 0 -
3185Rule Turkey 1979 1980 - Apr Sun>=1 3:00 1:00 S
3186Rule Turkey 1979 1982 - Oct Mon>=11 0:00 0 -
3187Rule Turkey 1981 1982 - Mar lastSun 3:00 1:00 S
3188Rule Turkey 1983 only - Jul 31 0:00 1:00 S
3189Rule Turkey 1983 only - Oct 2 0:00 0 -
3190Rule Turkey 1985 only - Apr 20 0:00 1:00 S
3191Rule Turkey 1985 only - Sep 28 0:00 0 -
70fc4940
SW
3192Rule Turkey 1986 1990 - Mar lastSun 2:00s 1:00 S
3193Rule Turkey 1986 1990 - Sep lastSun 2:00s 0 -
8393cd87 3194Rule Turkey 1991 2006 - Mar lastSun 1:00s 1:00 S
70fc4940 3195Rule Turkey 1991 1995 - Sep lastSun 1:00s 0 -
8393cd87 3196Rule Turkey 1996 2006 - Oct lastSun 1:00s 0 -
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MD
3197# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
3198Zone Europe/Istanbul 1:55:52 - LMT 1880
3199 1:56:56 - IMT 1910 Oct # Istanbul Mean Time?
3200 2:00 Turkey EE%sT 1978 Oct 15
3201 3:00 Turkey TR%sT 1985 Apr 20 # Turkey Time
8393cd87 3202 2:00 Turkey EE%sT 2007
48afb8ac
SW
3203 2:00 EU EE%sT 2011 Mar 27 1:00u
3204 2:00 - EET 2011 Mar 28 1:00u
3205 2:00 EU EE%sT 2014 Mar 30 1:00u
3206 2:00 - EET 2014 Mar 31 1:00u
8393cd87 3207 2:00 EU EE%sT
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3208Link Europe/Istanbul Asia/Istanbul # Istanbul is in both continents.
3209
3210# Ukraine
3211#
96e83414 3212# From Igor Karpov, who works for the Ukrainian Ministry of Justice,
984263bc 3213# via Garrett Wollman (2003-01-27):
96e83414 3214# BTW, I've found the official document on this matter. It's government
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MD
3215# regulations number 509, May 13, 1996. In my poor translation it says:
3216# "Time in Ukraine is set to second timezone (Kiev time). Each last Sunday
3217# of March at 3am the time is changing to 4am and each last Sunday of
3218# October the time at 4am is changing to 3am"
3219
8e329db9
SW
3220# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2011-09-20):
3221# On September 20, 2011 the deputies of the Verkhovna Rada agreed to
3222# abolish the transfer clock to winter time.
3223#
3224# Bill number 8330 of MP from the Party of Regions Oleg Nadoshi got
3225# approval from 266 deputies.
3226#
48afb8ac 3227# Ukraine abolishes transfer back to the winter time (in Russian)
8e329db9 3228# http://news.mail.ru/politics/6861560/
8e329db9
SW
3229#
3230# The Ukrainians will no longer change the clock (in Russian)
8e329db9 3231# http://www.segodnya.ua/news/14290482.html
8e329db9
SW
3232#
3233# Deputies cancelled the winter time (in Russian)
8e329db9 3234# http://www.pravda.com.ua/rus/news/2011/09/20/6600616/
e9ad9bde
SW
3235#
3236# From Philip Pizzey (2011-10-18):
3237# Today my Ukrainian colleagues have informed me that the
3238# Ukrainian parliament have decided that they will go to winter
3239# time this year after all.
3240#
3241# From Udo Schwedt (2011-10-18):
96e83414 3242# As far as I understand, the recent change to the Ukrainian time zone
e9ad9bde
SW
3243# (Europe/Kiev) to introduce permanent daylight saving time (similar
3244# to Russia) was reverted today:
e9ad9bde 3245# http://portal.rada.gov.ua/rada/control/en/publish/article/info_left?art_id=287324&cat_id=105995
e9ad9bde
SW
3246#
3247# Also reported by Alexander Bokovoy (2011-10-18) who also noted:
3248# The law documents themselves are at
e9ad9bde 3249# http://w1.c1.rada.gov.ua/pls/zweb_n/webproc4_1?id=&pf3511=41484
e9ad9bde 3250
39560a18
SW
3251# From Vladimir in Moscow via Alois Treindl re Kiev time 1991/2 (2014-02-28):
3252# First in Ukraine they changed Time zone from UTC+3 to UTC+2 with DST:
3253# 03 25 1990 02:00 -03.00 1 Time Zone 3 with DST
3254# 07 01 1990 02:00 -02.00 1 Time Zone 2 with DST
3255# * Ukrainian Government's Resolution of 18.06.1990, No. 134.
3256# http://search.ligazakon.ua/l_doc2.nsf/link1/T001500.html
3257#
3258# They did not end DST in September, 1990 (according to the law,
3259# "summer time" was still in action):
3260# 09 30 1990 03:00 -02.00 1 Time Zone 2 with DST
3261# * Ukrainian Government's Resolution of 21.09.1990, No. 272.
3262# http://search.ligazakon.ua/l_doc2.nsf/link1/KP900272.html
3263#
3264# Again no change in March, 1991 ("summer time" in action):
3265# 03 31 1991 02:00 -02.00 1 Time Zone 2 with DST
3266#
3267# DST ended in September 1991 ("summer time" ended):
3268# 09 29 1991 03:00 -02.00 0 Time Zone 2, no DST
3269# * Ukrainian Government's Resolution of 25.09.1991, No. 225.
3270# http://www.uazakon.com/documents/date_21/pg_iwgdoc.htm
3271# This is an answer.
3272#
3273# Since 1992 they had normal DST procedure:
3274# 03 29 1992 02:00 -02.00 1 DST started
3275# 09 27 1992 03:00 -02.00 0 DST ended
3276# * Ukrainian Government's Resolution of 20.03.1992, No. 139.
3277# http://www.uazakon.com/documents/date_8u/pg_grcasa.htm
8e329db9 3278
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3279# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
3280# Most of Ukraine since 1970 has been like Kiev.
0e49ec84
SW
3281# "Kyiv" is the transliteration of the Ukrainian name, but
3282# "Kiev" is more common in English.
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MD
3283Zone Europe/Kiev 2:02:04 - LMT 1880
3284 2:02:04 - KMT 1924 May 2 # Kiev Mean Time
3285 2:00 - EET 1930 Jun 21
3286 3:00 - MSK 1941 Sep 20
3287 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1943 Nov 6
48afb8ac
SW
3288 3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1990 Jul 1 2:00
3289 2:00 1:00 EEST 1991 Sep 29 3:00
984263bc 3290 2:00 E-Eur EE%sT 1995
e9ad9bde 3291 2:00 EU EE%sT
984263bc 3292# Ruthenia used CET 1990/1991.
48afb8ac 3293# "Uzhhorod" is the transliteration of the Rusyn/Ukrainian pronunciation, but
0e49ec84 3294# "Uzhgorod" is more common in English.
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MD
3295Zone Europe/Uzhgorod 1:29:12 - LMT 1890 Oct
3296 1:00 - CET 1940
3297 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Oct
3298 1:00 1:00 CEST 1944 Oct 26
3299 1:00 - CET 1945 Jun 29
3300 3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1990
48afb8ac
SW
3301 3:00 - MSK 1990 Jul 1 2:00
3302 1:00 - CET 1991 Mar 31 3:00
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MD
3303 2:00 - EET 1992
3304 2:00 E-Eur EE%sT 1995
e9ad9bde 3305 2:00 EU EE%sT
984263bc 3306# Zaporozh'ye and eastern Lugansk oblasts observed DST 1990/1991.
0e49ec84
SW
3307# "Zaporizhia" is the transliteration of the Ukrainian name, but
3308# "Zaporozh'ye" is more common in English. Use the common English
3309# spelling, except omit the apostrophe as it is not allowed in
3310# portable Posix file names.
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3311Zone Europe/Zaporozhye 2:20:40 - LMT 1880
3312 2:20 - CUT 1924 May 2 # Central Ukraine T
3313 2:00 - EET 1930 Jun 21
3314 3:00 - MSK 1941 Aug 25
3315 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1943 Oct 25
48afb8ac 3316 3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1991 Mar 31 2:00
984263bc 3317 2:00 E-Eur EE%sT 1995
e9ad9bde 3318 2:00 EU EE%sT
984263bc 3319
d1bcb6be
SW
3320# Vatican City
3321# See Europe/Rome.
3322
984263bc
MD
3323###############################################################################
3324
3325# One source shows that Bulgaria, Cyprus, Finland, and Greece observe DST from
3326# the last Sunday in March to the last Sunday in September in 1986.
3327# The source shows Romania changing a day later than everybody else.
3328#
3329# According to Bernard Sieloff's source, Poland is in the MET time zone but
3330# uses the WE DST rules. The Western USSR uses EET+1 and ME DST rules.
3331# Bernard Sieloff's source claims Romania switches on the same day, but at
3332# 00:00 standard time (i.e., 01:00 DST). It also claims that Turkey
3333# switches on the same day, but switches on at 01:00 standard time
3334# and off at 00:00 standard time (i.e., 01:00 DST)
3335
3336# ...
3337# Date: Wed, 28 Jan 87 16:56:27 -0100
9ffe4b14 3338# From: Tom Hofmann
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MD
3339# ...
3340#
3341# ...the European time rules are...standardized since 1981, when
48afb8ac 3342# most European countries started DST. Before that year, only
984263bc
MD
3343# a few countries (UK, France, Italy) had DST, each according
3344# to own national rules. In 1981, however, DST started on
3345# 'Apr firstSun', and not on 'Mar lastSun' as in the following
3346# years...
3347# But also since 1981 there are some more national exceptions
3348# than listed in 'europe': Switzerland, for example, joined DST
3349# one year later, Denmark ended DST on 'Oct 1' instead of 'Sep
48afb8ac 3350# lastSun' in 1981 - I don't know how they handle now.
984263bc
MD
3351#
3352# Finally, DST ist always from 'Apr 1' to 'Oct 1' in the
3353# Soviet Union (as far as I know).
3354#
3355# Tom Hofmann, Scientific Computer Center, CIBA-GEIGY AG,
3356# 4002 Basle, Switzerland
9ffe4b14 3357# ...
984263bc
MD
3358
3359# ...
3360# Date: Wed, 4 Feb 87 22:35:22 +0100
9ffe4b14 3361# From: Dik T. Winter
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MD
3362# ...
3363#
3364# The information from Tom Hofmann is (as far as I know) not entirely correct.
3365# After a request from chongo at amdahl I tried to retrieve all information
3366# about DST in Europe. I was able to find all from about 1969.
3367#
3368# ...standardization on DST in Europe started in about 1977 with switches on
3369# first Sunday in April and last Sunday in September...
3370# In 1981 UK joined Europe insofar that
3371# the starting day for both shifted to last Sunday in March. And from 1982
3372# the whole of Europe used DST, with switch dates April 1 and October 1 in
3373# the Sov[i]et Union. In 1985 the SU reverted to standard Europe[a]n switch
3374# dates...
3375#
3376# It should also be remembered that time-zones are not constants; e.g.
3377# Portugal switched in 1976 from MET (or CET) to WET with DST...
3378# Note also that though there were rules for switch dates not
3379# all countries abided to these dates, and many individual deviations
3380# occurred, though not since 1982 I believe. Another note: it is always
3381# assumed that DST is 1 hour ahead of normal time, this need not be the
3382# case; at least in the Netherlands there have been times when DST was 2 hours
3383# in advance of normal time.
3384#
3385# ...
3386# dik t. winter, cwi, amsterdam, nederland
9ffe4b14 3387# ...
984263bc
MD
3388
3389# From Bob Devine (1988-01-28):
3390# ...
3391# Greece: Last Sunday in April to last Sunday in September (iffy on dates).
3392# Since 1978. Change at midnight.
3393# ...
3394# Monaco: has same DST as France.
3395# ...