Import mdocml-1.12.1
[dragonfly.git] / contrib / mdocml / mandoc_char.7
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36342e81 1.\" $Id: mandoc_char.7,v 1.51 2011/11/23 10:09:30 kristaps Exp $
80387638 2.\"
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3.\" Copyright (c) 2003 Jason McIntyre <jmc@openbsd.org>
4.\" Copyright (c) 2009, 2010, 2011 Kristaps Dzonsons <kristaps@bsd.lv>
5.\" Copyright (c) 2011 Ingo Schwarze <schwarze@openbsd.org>
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6.\"
7.\" Permission to use, copy, modify, and distribute this software for any
8.\" purpose with or without fee is hereby granted, provided that the above
9.\" copyright notice and this permission notice appear in all copies.
10.\"
11.\" THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS" AND THE AUTHOR DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES
12.\" WITH REGARD TO THIS SOFTWARE INCLUDING ALL IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF
13.\" MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHOR BE LIABLE FOR
14.\" ANY SPECIAL, DIRECT, INDIRECT, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES OR ANY DAMAGES
15.\" WHATSOEVER RESULTING FROM LOSS OF USE, DATA OR PROFITS, WHETHER IN AN
16.\" ACTION OF CONTRACT, NEGLIGENCE OR OTHER TORTIOUS ACTION, ARISING OUT OF
17.\" OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE USE OR PERFORMANCE OF THIS SOFTWARE.
18.\"
36342e81 19.Dd $Mdocdate: November 23 2011 $
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20.Dt MANDOC_CHAR 7
21.Os
22.Sh NAME
23.Nm mandoc_char
24.Nd mandoc special characters
25.Sh DESCRIPTION
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26This page documents the
27.Xr roff 7
28escape sequences accepted by
80387638 29.Xr mandoc 1
36342e81 30to represent special characters in
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31.Xr mdoc 7
32and
33.Xr man 7
34documents.
35.Pp
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36The rendering depends on the
37.Xr mandoc 1
38output mode; in ASCII output, most characters are completely
39unintelligible.
40For that reason, using any of the special characters documented here,
41except those discussed in the
42.Sx DESCRIPTION ,
43is strongly discouraged; they are supported merely for backwards
44compatibility with existing documents.
45.Pp
46In particular, in English manual pages, do not use special-character
47escape sequences to represent national language characters in author
48names; instead, provide ASCII transcriptions of the names.
49.Ss Dashes and Hyphens
50In typography there are different types of dashes of various width:
51the hyphen (-),
52the minus sign (\-),
53the en-dash (\(en),
54and the em-dash (\(em).
55.Pp
56Hyphens are used for adjectives;
57to separate the two parts of a compound word;
58or to separate a word across two successive lines of text.
59The hyphen does not need to be escaped:
60.Bd -unfilled -offset indent
61blue-eyed
62lorry-driver
63.Ed
64.Pp
65The mathematical minus sign is used for negative numbers or subtraction.
66It should be written as
67.Sq \e- :
68.Bd -unfilled -offset indent
69a = 3 \e- 1;
70b = \e-2;
71.Ed
72.Pp
73The en-dash is used to separate the two elements of a range,
74or can be used the same way as an em-dash.
75It should be written as
76.Sq \e(en :
77.Bd -unfilled -offset indent
78pp. 95\e(en97.
79Go away \e(en or else!
80.Ed
81.Pp
82The em-dash can be used to show an interruption
83or can be used the same way as colons, semi-colons, or parentheses.
84It should be written as
85.Sq \e(em :
86.Bd -unfilled -offset indent
87Three things \e(em apples, oranges, and bananas.
88This is not that \e(em rather, this is that.
89.Ed
90.Pp
91Note:
92hyphens, minus signs, and en-dashes look identical under normal ASCII output.
93Other formats, such as PostScript, render them correctly,
94with differing widths.
95.Ss Spaces
96To separate words in normal text, for indenting and alignment
97in literal context, and when none of the following special cases apply,
98just use the normal space character
99.Pq Sq \ .
100.Pp
101When filling text, lines may be broken between words, i.e. at space
102characters.
103To prevent a line break between two particular words,
104use the non-breaking space escape sequence
105.Pq Sq \e~
106instead of the normal space character.
107For example, the input string
108.Dq number\e~1
109will be kept together as
110.Dq number\~1
111on the same output line.
112.Pp
113On request and macro lines, the normal space character serves as an
114argument delimiter.
115To include whitespace into arguments, quoting is usually the best choice.
116In some cases, using either the non-breaking
117.Pq Sq \e~
118or the breaking
119.Pq Sq \e\ \&
120space escape sequence may be preferable.
121To escape macro names and to protect whitespace at the end
122of input lines, the zero-width space
123.Pq Sq \e&
124is often useful.
125For example, in
126.Xr mdoc 7 ,
127a normal space character can be displayed in single quotes in either
128of the following ways:
129.Pp
130.Dl .Sq \(dq \(dq
131.Dl .Sq \e \e&
132.Ss Quotes
133On request and macro lines, the double-quote character
134.Pq Sq \(dq
135is handled specially to allow quoting.
136One way to prevent this special handling is by using the
137.Sq \e(dq
138escape sequence.
139.Pp
140Note that on text lines, literal double-quote characters can be used
141verbatim.
142All other quote-like characters can be used verbatim as well,
143even on request and macro lines.
144.Ss Periods
145The period
146.Pq Sq \&.
147is handled specially at the beginning of an input line,
148where it introduces a
149.Xr roff 7
150request or a macro, and when appearing alone as a macro argument in
151.Xr mdoc 7 .
152In such situations, prepend a zero-width space
153.Pq Sq \e&.
154to make it behave like normal text.
155.Pp
156Do not use the
157.Sq \e.
158escape sequence.
159It does not prevent special handling of the period.
160.Ss Backslashes
161To include a literal backslash
162.Pq Sq \e
163into the output, use the
164.Pq Sq \ee
165escape sequence.
166.Pp
167Note that doubling it
168.Pq Sq \e\e
169is not the right way to output a backslash.
170Because
171.Xr mandoc 1
172does not implement full
173.Xr roff 7
174functionality, it may work with
175.Xr mandoc 1 ,
176but it may have weird effects on complete
177.Xr roff 7
178implementations.
179.Sh SPECIAL CHARACTERS
180Special characters are encoded as
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181.Sq \eX
182.Pq for a one-character escape ,
183.Sq \e(XX
184.Pq two-character ,
185and
186.Sq \e[N]
187.Pq N-character .
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188For details, see the
189.Em Special Characters
190subsection of the
191.Xr roff 7
192manual.
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193.Pp
194Spacing:
36342e81 195.Bl -column "Input" "Description" -offset indent -compact
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196.It Em Input Ta Em Description
197.It \e~ Ta non-breaking, non-collapsing space
198.It \e Ta breaking, non-collapsing n-width space
199.It \e^ Ta zero-width space
200.It \e% Ta zero-width space
201.It \e& Ta zero-width space
202.It \e| Ta zero-width space
203.It \e0 Ta breaking, non-collapsing digit-width space
204.It \ec Ta removes any trailing space (if applicable)
205.El
206.Pp
207Lines:
36342e81 208.Bl -column "Input" "Rendered" "Description" -offset indent -compact
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209.It Em Input Ta Em Rendered Ta Em Description
210.It \e(ba Ta \(ba Ta bar
211.It \e(br Ta \(br Ta box rule
212.It \e(ul Ta \(ul Ta underscore
213.It \e(rl Ta \(rl Ta overline
214.It \e(bb Ta \(bb Ta broken bar
215.It \e(sl Ta \(sl Ta forward slash
216.It \e(rs Ta \(rs Ta backward slash
217.El
218.Pp
219Text markers:
36342e81 220.Bl -column "Input" "Rendered" "Description" -offset indent -compact
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221.It Em Input Ta Em Rendered Ta Em Description
222.It \e(ci Ta \(ci Ta circle
223.It \e(bu Ta \(bu Ta bullet
224.It \e(dd Ta \(dd Ta double dagger
225.It \e(dg Ta \(dg Ta dagger
226.It \e(lz Ta \(lz Ta lozenge
227.It \e(sq Ta \(sq Ta white square
228.It \e(ps Ta \(ps Ta paragraph
229.It \e(sc Ta \(sc Ta section
230.It \e(lh Ta \(lh Ta left hand
231.It \e(rh Ta \(rh Ta right hand
232.It \e(at Ta \(at Ta at
233.It \e(sh Ta \(sh Ta hash (pound)
234.It \e(CR Ta \(CR Ta carriage return
235.It \e(OK Ta \(OK Ta check mark
236.El
237.Pp
238Legal symbols:
36342e81 239.Bl -column "Input" "Rendered" "Description" -offset indent -compact
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240.It Em Input Ta Em Rendered Ta Em Description
241.It \e(co Ta \(co Ta copyright
242.It \e(rg Ta \(rg Ta registered
243.It \e(tm Ta \(tm Ta trademarked
244.El
245.Pp
246Punctuation:
36342e81 247.Bl -column "Input" "Rendered" "Description" -offset indent -compact
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248.It Em Input Ta Em Rendered Ta Em Description
249.It \e(em Ta \(em Ta em-dash
250.It \e(en Ta \(en Ta en-dash
251.It \e(hy Ta \(hy Ta hyphen
252.It \ee Ta \e Ta back-slash
253.It \e. Ta \. Ta period
254.It \e(r! Ta \(r! Ta upside-down exclamation
255.It \e(r? Ta \(r? Ta upside-down question
256.El
257.Pp
258Quotes:
36342e81 259.Bl -column "Input" "Rendered" "Description" -offset indent -compact
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260.It Em Input Ta Em Rendered Ta Em Description
261.It \e(Bq Ta \(Bq Ta right low double-quote
262.It \e(bq Ta \(bq Ta right low single-quote
263.It \e(lq Ta \(lq Ta left double-quote
264.It \e(rq Ta \(rq Ta right double-quote
265.It \e(oq Ta \(oq Ta left single-quote
266.It \e(cq Ta \(cq Ta right single-quote
267.It \e(aq Ta \(aq Ta apostrophe quote (text)
268.It \e(dq Ta \(dq Ta double quote (text)
269.It \e(Fo Ta \(Fo Ta left guillemet
270.It \e(Fc Ta \(Fc Ta right guillemet
271.It \e(fo Ta \(fo Ta left single guillemet
272.It \e(fc Ta \(fc Ta right single guillemet
273.El
274.Pp
275Brackets:
36342e81 276.Bl -column "xxbracketrightbpx" Rendered Description -offset indent -compact
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277.It Em Input Ta Em Rendered Ta Em Description
278.It \e(lB Ta \(lB Ta left bracket
279.It \e(rB Ta \(rB Ta right bracket
280.It \e(lC Ta \(lC Ta left brace
281.It \e(rC Ta \(rC Ta right brace
282.It \e(la Ta \(la Ta left angle
283.It \e(ra Ta \(ra Ta right angle
284.It \e(bv Ta \(bv Ta brace extension
285.It \e[braceex] Ta \[braceex] Ta brace extension
286.It \e[bracketlefttp] Ta \[bracketlefttp] Ta top-left hooked bracket
287.It \e[bracketleftbp] Ta \[bracketleftbp] Ta bottom-left hooked bracket
288.It \e[bracketleftex] Ta \[bracketleftex] Ta left hooked bracket extension
289.It \e[bracketrighttp] Ta \[bracketrighttp] Ta top-right hooked bracket
290.It \e[bracketrightbp] Ta \[bracketrightbp] Ta bottom-right hooked bracket
291.It \e[bracketrightex] Ta \[bracketrightex] Ta right hooked bracket extension
292.It \e(lt Ta \(lt Ta top-left hooked brace
293.It \e[bracelefttp] Ta \[bracelefttp] Ta top-left hooked brace
294.It \e(lk Ta \(lk Ta mid-left hooked brace
295.It \e[braceleftmid] Ta \[braceleftmid] Ta mid-left hooked brace
296.It \e(lb Ta \(lb Ta bottom-left hooked brace
297.It \e[braceleftbp] Ta \[braceleftbp] Ta bottom-left hooked brace
298.It \e[braceleftex] Ta \[braceleftex] Ta left hooked brace extension
299.It \e(rt Ta \(rt Ta top-left hooked brace
300.It \e[bracerighttp] Ta \[bracerighttp] Ta top-right hooked brace
301.It \e(rk Ta \(rk Ta mid-right hooked brace
302.It \e[bracerightmid] Ta \[bracerightmid] Ta mid-right hooked brace
303.It \e(rb Ta \(rb Ta bottom-right hooked brace
304.It \e[bracerightbp] Ta \[bracerightbp] Ta bottom-right hooked brace
305.It \e[bracerightex] Ta \[bracerightex] Ta right hooked brace extension
306.It \e[parenlefttp] Ta \[parenlefttp] Ta top-left hooked parenthesis
307.It \e[parenleftbp] Ta \[parenleftbp] Ta bottom-left hooked parenthesis
308.It \e[parenleftex] Ta \[parenleftex] Ta left hooked parenthesis extension
309.It \e[parenrighttp] Ta \[parenrighttp] Ta top-right hooked parenthesis
310.It \e[parenrightbp] Ta \[parenrightbp] Ta bottom-right hooked parenthesis
311.It \e[parenrightex] Ta \[parenrightex] Ta right hooked parenthesis extension
312.El
313.Pp
314Arrows:
36342e81 315.Bl -column "Input" "Rendered" "Description" -offset indent -compact
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316.It Em Input Ta Em Rendered Ta Em Description
317.It \e(<- Ta \(<- Ta left arrow
318.It \e(-> Ta \(-> Ta right arrow
319.It \e(<> Ta \(<> Ta left-right arrow
320.It \e(da Ta \(da Ta down arrow
321.It \e(ua Ta \(ua Ta up arrow
322.It \e(va Ta \(va Ta up-down arrow
323.It \e(lA Ta \(lA Ta left double-arrow
324.It \e(rA Ta \(rA Ta right double-arrow
325.It \e(hA Ta \(hA Ta left-right double-arrow
326.It \e(uA Ta \(uA Ta up double-arrow
327.It \e(dA Ta \(dA Ta down double-arrow
328.It \e(vA Ta \(vA Ta up-down double-arrow
329.El
330.Pp
331Logical:
36342e81 332.Bl -column "Input" "Rendered" "Description" -offset indent -compact
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333.It Em Input Ta Em Rendered Ta Em Description
334.It \e(AN Ta \(AN Ta logical and
335.It \e(OR Ta \(OR Ta logical or
336.It \e(no Ta \(no Ta logical not
337.It \e[tno] Ta \[tno] Ta logical not (text)
338.It \e(te Ta \(te Ta existential quantifier
339.It \e(fa Ta \(fa Ta universal quantifier
340.It \e(st Ta \(st Ta such that
341.It \e(tf Ta \(tf Ta therefore
342.It \e(3d Ta \(3d Ta therefore
343.It \e(or Ta \(or Ta bitwise or
344.El
345.Pp
346Mathematical:
36342e81 347.Bl -column "xxcoproductxx" "Rendered" "Description" -offset indent -compact
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348.It Em Input Ta Em Rendered Ta Em Description
349.It \e(pl Ta \(pl Ta plus
350.It \e(mi Ta \(mi Ta minus
351.It \e- Ta \- Ta minus (text)
352.It \e(-+ Ta \(-+ Ta minus-plus
353.It \e(+- Ta \(+- Ta plus-minus
354.It \e[t+-] Ta \[t+-] Ta plus-minus (text)
355.It \e(pc Ta \(pc Ta centre-dot
356.It \e(mu Ta \(mu Ta multiply
357.It \e[tmu] Ta \[tmu] Ta multiply (text)
358.It \e(c* Ta \(c* Ta circle-multiply
359.It \e(c+ Ta \(c+ Ta circle-plus
360.It \e(di Ta \(di Ta divide
361.It \e[tdi] Ta \[tdi] Ta divide (text)
362.It \e(f/ Ta \(f/ Ta fraction
363.It \e(** Ta \(** Ta asterisk
364.It \e(<= Ta \(<= Ta less-than-equal
365.It \e(>= Ta \(>= Ta greater-than-equal
366.It \e(<< Ta \(<< Ta much less
367.It \e(>> Ta \(>> Ta much greater
368.It \e(eq Ta \(eq Ta equal
369.It \e(!= Ta \(!= Ta not equal
370.It \e(== Ta \(== Ta equivalent
371.It \e(ne Ta \(ne Ta not equivalent
372.It \e(=~ Ta \(=~ Ta congruent
373.It \e(-~ Ta \(-~ Ta asymptotically congruent
374.It \e(ap Ta \(ap Ta asymptotically similar
375.It \e(~~ Ta \(~~ Ta approximately similar
376.It \e(~= Ta \(~= Ta approximately equal
377.It \e(pt Ta \(pt Ta proportionate
378.It \e(es Ta \(es Ta empty set
379.It \e(mo Ta \(mo Ta element
380.It \e(nm Ta \(nm Ta not element
381.It \e(sb Ta \(sb Ta proper subset
382.It \e(nb Ta \(nb Ta not subset
383.It \e(sp Ta \(sp Ta proper superset
384.It \e(nc Ta \(nc Ta not superset
385.It \e(ib Ta \(ib Ta reflexive subset
386.It \e(ip Ta \(ip Ta reflexive superset
387.It \e(ca Ta \(ca Ta intersection
388.It \e(cu Ta \(cu Ta union
389.It \e(/_ Ta \(/_ Ta angle
390.It \e(pp Ta \(pp Ta perpendicular
391.It \e(is Ta \(is Ta integral
392.It \e[integral] Ta \[integral] Ta integral
393.It \e[sum] Ta \[sum] Ta summation
394.It \e[product] Ta \[product] Ta product
395.It \e[coproduct] Ta \[coproduct] Ta coproduct
396.It \e(gr Ta \(gr Ta gradient
397.It \e(sr Ta \(sr Ta square root
398.It \e[sqrt] Ta \[sqrt] Ta square root
399.It \e(lc Ta \(lc Ta left-ceiling
400.It \e(rc Ta \(rc Ta right-ceiling
401.It \e(lf Ta \(lf Ta left-floor
402.It \e(rf Ta \(rf Ta right-floor
403.It \e(if Ta \(if Ta infinity
404.It \e(Ah Ta \(Ah Ta aleph
405.It \e(Im Ta \(Im Ta imaginary
406.It \e(Re Ta \(Re Ta real
407.It \e(pd Ta \(pd Ta partial differential
408.It \e(-h Ta \(-h Ta Planck constant over 2\(*p
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409.It \e[12] Ta \[12] Ta one-half
410.It \e[14] Ta \[14] Ta one-fourth
411.It \e[34] Ta \[34] Ta three-fourths
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412.El
413.Pp
414Ligatures:
36342e81 415.Bl -column "Input" "Rendered" "Description" -offset indent -compact
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416.It Em Input Ta Em Rendered Ta Em Description
417.It \e(ff Ta \(ff Ta ff ligature
418.It \e(fi Ta \(fi Ta fi ligature
419.It \e(fl Ta \(fl Ta fl ligature
420.It \e(Fi Ta \(Fi Ta ffi ligature
421.It \e(Fl Ta \(Fl Ta ffl ligature
422.It \e(AE Ta \(AE Ta AE
423.It \e(ae Ta \(ae Ta ae
424.It \e(OE Ta \(OE Ta OE
425.It \e(oe Ta \(oe Ta oe
426.It \e(ss Ta \(ss Ta German eszett
427.It \e(IJ Ta \(IJ Ta IJ ligature
428.It \e(ij Ta \(ij Ta ij ligature
429.El
430.Pp
431Accents:
36342e81 432.Bl -column "Input" "Rendered" "Description" -offset indent -compact
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433.It Em Input Ta Em Rendered Ta Em Description
434.It \e(a" Ta \(a" Ta Hungarian umlaut
435.It \e(a- Ta \(a- Ta macron
436.It \e(a. Ta \(a. Ta dotted
437.It \e(a^ Ta \(a^ Ta circumflex
438.It \e(aa Ta \(aa Ta acute
439.It \e' Ta \' Ta acute
440.It \e(ga Ta \(ga Ta grave
441.It \e` Ta \` Ta grave
442.It \e(ab Ta \(ab Ta breve
443.It \e(ac Ta \(ac Ta cedilla
444.It \e(ad Ta \(ad Ta dieresis
445.It \e(ah Ta \(ah Ta caron
446.It \e(ao Ta \(ao Ta ring
447.It \e(a~ Ta \(a~ Ta tilde
448.It \e(ho Ta \(ho Ta ogonek
449.It \e(ha Ta \(ha Ta hat (text)
450.It \e(ti Ta \(ti Ta tilde (text)
451.El
452.Pp
453Accented letters:
36342e81 454.Bl -column "Input" "Rendered" "Description" -offset indent -compact
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455.It Em Input Ta Em Rendered Ta Em Description
456.It \e('A Ta \('A Ta acute A
457.It \e('E Ta \('E Ta acute E
458.It \e('I Ta \('I Ta acute I
459.It \e('O Ta \('O Ta acute O
460.It \e('U Ta \('U Ta acute U
461.It \e('a Ta \('a Ta acute a
462.It \e('e Ta \('e Ta acute e
463.It \e('i Ta \('i Ta acute i
464.It \e('o Ta \('o Ta acute o
465.It \e('u Ta \('u Ta acute u
466.It \e(`A Ta \(`A Ta grave A
467.It \e(`E Ta \(`E Ta grave E
468.It \e(`I Ta \(`I Ta grave I
469.It \e(`O Ta \(`O Ta grave O
470.It \e(`U Ta \(`U Ta grave U
471.It \e(`a Ta \(`a Ta grave a
472.It \e(`e Ta \(`e Ta grave e
473.It \e(`i Ta \(`i Ta grave i
474.It \e(`o Ta \(`i Ta grave o
475.It \e(`u Ta \(`u Ta grave u
476.It \e(~A Ta \(~A Ta tilde A
477.It \e(~N Ta \(~N Ta tilde N
478.It \e(~O Ta \(~O Ta tilde O
479.It \e(~a Ta \(~a Ta tilde a
480.It \e(~n Ta \(~n Ta tilde n
481.It \e(~o Ta \(~o Ta tilde o
482.It \e(:A Ta \(:A Ta dieresis A
483.It \e(:E Ta \(:E Ta dieresis E
484.It \e(:I Ta \(:I Ta dieresis I
485.It \e(:O Ta \(:O Ta dieresis O
486.It \e(:U Ta \(:U Ta dieresis U
487.It \e(:a Ta \(:a Ta dieresis a
488.It \e(:e Ta \(:e Ta dieresis e
489.It \e(:i Ta \(:i Ta dieresis i
490.It \e(:o Ta \(:o Ta dieresis o
491.It \e(:u Ta \(:u Ta dieresis u
492.It \e(:y Ta \(:y Ta dieresis y
493.It \e(^A Ta \(^A Ta circumflex A
494.It \e(^E Ta \(^E Ta circumflex E
495.It \e(^I Ta \(^I Ta circumflex I
496.It \e(^O Ta \(^O Ta circumflex O
497.It \e(^U Ta \(^U Ta circumflex U
498.It \e(^a Ta \(^a Ta circumflex a
499.It \e(^e Ta \(^e Ta circumflex e
500.It \e(^i Ta \(^i Ta circumflex i
501.It \e(^o Ta \(^o Ta circumflex o
502.It \e(^u Ta \(^u Ta circumflex u
503.It \e(,C Ta \(,C Ta cedilla C
504.It \e(,c Ta \(,c Ta cedilla c
505.It \e(/L Ta \(/L Ta stroke L
506.It \e(/l Ta \(/l Ta stroke l
507.It \e(/O Ta \(/O Ta stroke O
508.It \e(/o Ta \(/o Ta stroke o
509.It \e(oA Ta \(oA Ta ring A
510.It \e(oa Ta \(oa Ta ring a
511.El
512.Pp
513Special letters:
36342e81 514.Bl -column "Input" "Rendered" "Description" -offset indent -compact
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515.It Em Input Ta Em Rendered Ta Em Description
516.It \e(-D Ta \(-D Ta Eth
517.It \e(Sd Ta \(Sd Ta eth
518.It \e(TP Ta \(TP Ta Thorn
519.It \e(Tp Ta \(Tp Ta thorn
520.It \e(.i Ta \(.i Ta dotless i
521.It \e(.j Ta \(.j Ta dotless j
522.El
523.Pp
524Currency:
36342e81 525.Bl -column "Input" "Rendered" "Description" -offset indent -compact
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526.It Em Input Ta Em Rendered Ta Em Description
527.It \e(Do Ta \(Do Ta dollar
528.It \e(ct Ta \(ct Ta cent
529.It \e(Eu Ta \(Eu Ta Euro symbol
530.It \e(eu Ta \(eu Ta Euro symbol
531.It \e(Ye Ta \(Ye Ta yen
532.It \e(Po Ta \(Po Ta pound
533.It \e(Cs Ta \(Cs Ta Scandinavian
534.It \e(Fn Ta \(Fn Ta florin
535.El
536.Pp
537Units:
36342e81 538.Bl -column "Input" "Rendered" "Description" -offset indent -compact
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539.It Em Input Ta Em Rendered Ta Em Description
540.It \e(de Ta \(de Ta degree
541.It \e(%0 Ta \(%0 Ta per-thousand
542.It \e(fm Ta \(fm Ta minute
543.It \e(sd Ta \(sd Ta second
544.It \e(mc Ta \(mc Ta micro
545.El
546.Pp
547Greek letters:
36342e81 548.Bl -column "Input" "Rendered" "Description" -offset indent -compact
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549.It Em Input Ta Em Rendered Ta Em Description
550.It \e(*A Ta \(*A Ta Alpha
551.It \e(*B Ta \(*B Ta Beta
552.It \e(*G Ta \(*G Ta Gamma
553.It \e(*D Ta \(*D Ta Delta
554.It \e(*E Ta \(*E Ta Epsilon
555.It \e(*Z Ta \(*Z Ta Zeta
556.It \e(*Y Ta \(*Y Ta Eta
557.It \e(*H Ta \(*H Ta Theta
558.It \e(*I Ta \(*I Ta Iota
559.It \e(*K Ta \(*K Ta Kappa
560.It \e(*L Ta \(*L Ta Lambda
561.It \e(*M Ta \(*M Ta Mu
562.It \e(*N Ta \(*N Ta Nu
563.It \e(*C Ta \(*C Ta Xi
564.It \e(*O Ta \(*O Ta Omicron
565.It \e(*P Ta \(*P Ta Pi
566.It \e(*R Ta \(*R Ta Rho
567.It \e(*S Ta \(*S Ta Sigma
568.It \e(*T Ta \(*T Ta Tau
569.It \e(*U Ta \(*U Ta Upsilon
570.It \e(*F Ta \(*F Ta Phi
571.It \e(*X Ta \(*X Ta Chi
572.It \e(*Q Ta \(*Q Ta Psi
573.It \e(*W Ta \(*W Ta Omega
574.It \e(*a Ta \(*a Ta alpha
575.It \e(*b Ta \(*b Ta beta
576.It \e(*g Ta \(*g Ta gamma
577.It \e(*d Ta \(*d Ta delta
578.It \e(*e Ta \(*e Ta epsilon
579.It \e(*z Ta \(*z Ta zeta
580.It \e(*y Ta \(*y Ta eta
581.It \e(*h Ta \(*h Ta theta
582.It \e(*i Ta \(*i Ta iota
583.It \e(*k Ta \(*k Ta kappa
584.It \e(*l Ta \(*l Ta lambda
585.It \e(*m Ta \(*m Ta mu
586.It \e(*n Ta \(*n Ta nu
587.It \e(*c Ta \(*c Ta xi
588.It \e(*o Ta \(*o Ta omicron
589.It \e(*p Ta \(*p Ta pi
590.It \e(*r Ta \(*r Ta rho
591.It \e(*s Ta \(*s Ta sigma
592.It \e(*t Ta \(*t Ta tau
593.It \e(*u Ta \(*u Ta upsilon
594.It \e(*f Ta \(*f Ta phi
595.It \e(*x Ta \(*x Ta chi
596.It \e(*q Ta \(*q Ta psi
597.It \e(*w Ta \(*w Ta omega
598.It \e(+h Ta \(+h Ta theta variant
599.It \e(+f Ta \(+f Ta phi variant
600.It \e(+p Ta \(+p Ta pi variant
601.It \e(+e Ta \(+e Ta epsilon variant
602.It \e(ts Ta \(ts Ta sigma terminal
603.El
604.Sh PREDEFINED STRINGS
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605Predefined strings are inherited from the macro packages of historical
606troff implementations.
607They are
608.Em not recommended
609for use, as they differ across implementations.
610Manuals using these predefined strings are almost certainly not
611portable.
80387638 612.Pp
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613Their syntax is similar to special characters, using
614.Sq \e*X
615.Pq for a one-character escape ,
616.Sq \e*(XX
617.Pq two-character ,
618and
619.Sq \e*[N]
620.Pq N-character .
621For details, see the
622.Em Predefined Strings
623subsection of the
624.Xr roff 7
625manual.
626.Bl -column "Input" "Rendered" "Description" -offset indent
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627.It Em Input Ta Em Rendered Ta Em Description
628.It \e*(Ba Ta \*(Ba Ta vertical bar
629.It \e*(Ne Ta \*(Ne Ta not equal
630.It \e*(Ge Ta \*(Ge Ta greater-than-equal
631.It \e*(Le Ta \*(Le Ta less-than-equal
632.It \e*(Gt Ta \*(Gt Ta greater-than
633.It \e*(Lt Ta \*(Lt Ta less-than
634.It \e*(Pm Ta \*(Pm Ta plus-minus
635.It \e*(If Ta \*(If Ta infinity
636.It \e*(Pi Ta \*(Pi Ta pi
637.It \e*(Na Ta \*(Na Ta NaN
638.It \e*(Am Ta \*(Am Ta ampersand
639.It \e*R Ta \*R Ta restricted mark
640.It \e*(Tm Ta \*(Tm Ta trade mark
641.It \e*q Ta \*q Ta double-quote
642.It \e*(Rq Ta \*(Rq Ta right-double-quote
643.It \e*(Lq Ta \*(Lq Ta left-double-quote
644.It \e*(lp Ta \*(lp Ta right-parenthesis
645.It \e*(rp Ta \*(rp Ta left-parenthesis
646.It \e*(lq Ta \*(lq Ta left double-quote
647.It \e*(rq Ta \*(rq Ta right double-quote
648.It \e*(ua Ta \*(ua Ta up arrow
649.It \e*(va Ta \*(va Ta up-down arrow
650.It \e*(<= Ta \*(<= Ta less-than-equal
651.It \e*(>= Ta \*(>= Ta greater-than-equal
652.It \e*(aa Ta \*(aa Ta acute
653.It \e*(ga Ta \*(ga Ta grave
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654.It \e*(Px Ta \*(Px Ta POSIX standard name
655.It \e*(Ai Ta \*(Ai Ta ANSI standard name
80387638 656.El
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657.Sh UNICODE CHARACTERS
658The escape sequence
659.Pp
660.Dl \e[uXXXX]
661.Pp
662is interpreted as a Unicode codepoint.
663The codepoint must be in the range above U+0080 and less than U+10FFFF.
664For compatibility, points must be zero-padded to four characters; if
665greater than four characters, no zero padding is allowed.
666Unicode surrogates are not allowed.
667.\" .Pp
668.\" Unicode glyphs attenuate to the
669.\" .Sq \&?
670.\" character if invalid or not rendered by current output media.
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671.Sh NUMBERED CHARACTERS
672For backward compatibility with existing manuals,
673.Xr mandoc 1
674also supports the
80387638 675.Pp
60e1e752 676.Dl \eN\(aq Ns Ar number Ns \(aq
80387638 677.Pp
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678escape sequence, inserting the character
679.Ar number
680from the current character set into the output.
681Of course, this is inherently non-portable and is already marked
682as deprecated in the Heirloom roff manual.
683For example, do not use \eN'34', use \e(dq, or even the plain
684.Sq \(dq
685character where possible.
686.Sh COMPATIBILITY
687This section documents compatibility between mandoc and other other
688troff implementations, at this time limited to GNU troff
689.Pq Qq groff .
80387638 690.Pp
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691.Bl -dash -compact
692.It
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693The \eN\(aq\(aq escape sequence is limited to printable characters; in
694groff, it accepts arbitrary character numbers.
695.It
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696In
697.Fl T Ns Cm ascii ,
698the
699\e(ss, \e(nm, \e(nb, \e(nc, \e(ib, \e(ip, \e(pp, \e[sum], \e[product],
700\e[coproduct], \e(gr, \e(\-h, and \e(a. special characters render
701differently between mandoc and groff.
702.It
703In
704.Fl T Ns Cm html
705and
706.Fl T Ns Cm xhtml ,
707the \e(~=, \e(nb, and \e(nc special characters render differently
708between mandoc and groff.
709.It
710The
711.Fl T Ns Cm ps
712and
713.Fl T Ns Cm pdf
714modes format like
715.Fl T Ns Cm ascii
716instead of rendering glyphs as in groff.
717.It
718The \e[radicalex], \e[sqrtex], and \e(ru special characters have been omitted
719from mandoc either because they are poorly documented or they have no
720known representation.
721.El
80387638 722.Sh SEE ALSO
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723.Xr mandoc 1 ,
724.Xr man 7 ,
725.Xr mdoc 7 ,
726.Xr roff 7
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727.Sh AUTHORS
728The
729.Nm
730manual page was written by
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731.An Kristaps Dzonsons ,
732.Mt kristaps@bsd.lv .
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733.Sh CAVEATS
734The
735.Sq \e*(Ba
736escape mimics the behaviour of the
737.Sq \&|
738character in
739.Xr mdoc 7 ;
740thus, if you wish to render a vertical bar with no side effects, use
741the
742.Sq \e(ba
743escape.