binutils 2.22: Activate building in world
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1.\" Copyright (c) 1990, 1993
2.\" The Regents of the University of California. All rights reserved.
3.\"
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5.\" modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
6.\" are met:
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13.\" must display the following acknowledgement:
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17.\" may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
18.\" without specific prior written permission.
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20.\" THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE REGENTS AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND
21.\" ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
22.\" IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
23.\" ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE REGENTS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
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30.\" SUCH DAMAGE.
31.\"
32.\" @(#)hier.7 8.1 (Berkeley) 6/5/93
33.\" $FreeBSD: src/share/man/man7/hier.7,v 1.29.2.17 2003/01/13 21:43:50 ceri Exp $
34.\"
1c05bfaa 35.Dd April 2, 2011
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36.Dt HIER 7
37.Os
38.Sh NAME
39.Nm hier
40.Nd layout of filesystems
41.Sh DESCRIPTION
42A sketch of the filesystem hierarchy.
52eff785 43.Bl -tag -width ".Pa /modules/"
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44.It Pa /
45root directory of the filesystem
46.It Pa /bin/
47user utilities fundamental to both single-user and multi-user environments
48.It Pa /boot/
49programs and configuration files used during operating system bootstrap
50.Pp
52eff785 51.Bl -tag -width ".Pa defaults/" -compact
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52.It Pa defaults/
53default bootstrapping configuration files; see
54.Xr loader.conf 5
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55.It Pa kernel
56pure kernel executable (the operating system loaded into memory
57at boot time).
58.It Pa modules/
59loadable kernel modules;
60see
61.Xr kldstat 8
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62.El
63.It Pa /dev/
64block and character device files
65.Pp
2c272516 66.Bl -tag -width ".Pa fd/" -compact
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67.It Pa fd/
68file descriptor files;
69see
70.Xr \&fd 4
71.El
72.It Pa /etc/
73system configuration files and scripts
74.Pp
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75.Bl -tag -width ".Pa bluetooth/" -compact
76.It Pa bluetooth/
77bluetooth configuration files
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78.It Pa defaults/
79default system configuration files;
80see
81.Xr rc 8
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82.It Pa dma/
83.Xr dma 8
84configuration files
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85.\".It Pa firmware/
86.\"Firmware image files;
87.\"see
88.\".Xr firmware 9
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89.It Pa isdn/
90isdn4bsd configuration files;
91see
92.Xr isdnd 8
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93.It Pa localtime
94local timezone information;
95see
96.Xr ctime 3
97.It Pa mail/
98Sendmail control files
99.It Pa mtree/
100mtree configuration files;
101see
102.Xr mtree 8
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103.It Pa pam.d/
104configuration files for the Pluggable Authentication Modules (PAM)
105library
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106.It Pa periodic/
107scripts that are run daily, weekly, and monthly, via
108.Xr cron 8 ;
109see
110.Xr periodic 8
111.It Pa ppp/
112ppp configuration files;
113see
114.Xr ppp 8
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115.It Pa rc.d/
116System and daemon startup/control scripts;
117see
118.Xr rc 8
119.It Pa ssh/
120OpenSSH configuration files;
121see
122.Xr ssh 1
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123.It Pa ssl/
124OpenSSL configuration files
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125.It Pa upgrade/
126Files relevant to system upgrades
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127.It Pa uucp/
128uucp configuration files;
129see
130.Xr uucp 1
131.El
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132.It Pa /home/
133HOME directories of non-root users
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134.It Pa /mnt/
135empty directory commonly used by
136system administrators as a temporary mount point
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137.It Pa /pfs/
138pseudo file system directory (on
139.Xr hammer 5
140root file systems)
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141.It Pa /proc/
142process file system;
143see
144.Xr procfs 5 ,
145.Xr mount_procfs 8
146.It Pa /root/
147root's HOME directory
148.It Pa /sbin/
149system programs and administration utilities
150fundamental to both single-user and multi-user environments
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151.It Pa /sys/
152the kernel's source code (usually a symbolic link to
153.Pa /usr/src/sys )
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154.It Pa /tmp/
155temporary files that are not guaranteed to persist across system reboots
156.It Pa /usr/
157contains the majority of user utilities and applications
158.Pp
52eff785 159.Bl -tag -width ".Pa libdata/" -compact
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160.It Pa bin/
161common utilities, programming tools, and applications
162.It Pa games/
163useful and semi-frivolous programs
164.It Pa include/
165standard C include files
166.Pp
52eff785 167.Bl -tag -width ".Pa libmilter/" -compact
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168.It Pa arpa/
169C include files for Internet service protocols
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170.It Pa c++/
171C++ include files
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172.It Pa cam/
173C include files for the Common Access Methods Layer
f97cf1ca 174.Pp
52eff785 175.Bl -tag -width ".Pa scsi/" -compact
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176.It Pa scsi/
177The SCSI device on top of CAM
178.El
f97cf1ca 179.Pp
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180.It Pa dev/
181C include files for programming various
9bb2a92d 182.Dx
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184.It Pa emulation/
185Include Files for various emulation layers
984263bc 186.It Pa fs/
f97cf1ca 187.Pp
52eff785 188.Bl -tag -width ".Pa smbfs/" -compact
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189.It Pa smbfs/
190SMB/CIFS filesystem
191.El
f97cf1ca 192.Pp
984263bc 193.It Pa isofs/
f97cf1ca 194.Pp
52eff785 195.Bl -tag -width ".Pa cd9660/" -compact
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196.It Pa cd9660/
197iso9660 filesystem
198.El
f97cf1ca 199.Pp
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200.It Pa libmilter/
201C include files for libmilter,
202the sendmail mail filter API
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203.It Pa libprop/
204C include files for libprop
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205.It Pa machine/
206machine-specific C include files
207.It Pa msdosfs/
208MS-DOS file system
209.It Pa net/
210misc network C include files
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211.It Pa netatm/
212ATM include files;
213see
214.Xr atm 8
215.It Pa netinet/
216C include files for Internet standard protocols;
217see
218.Xr inet 4
219.It Pa netinet6/
220C include files for Internet protocol version 6;
221see
222.Xr inet6 4
223.It Pa netipx/
224IPX/SPX protocol stacks
225.It Pa netkey/
226kernel key-management service
227.It Pa netnatm/
228NATM include files;
229see
230.Xr natm 4
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231.It Pa netsmb/
232SMB/CIFS requester
233.It Pa nfs/
234C include files for NFS (Network File System)
235.It Pa objc/
236Objective C include files
237.It Pa openssl/
238OpenSSL (Cryptography/SSL toolkit) headers
42bcdd13
PA
239.It Pa pcap/
240Packet Capture (libpcap) headers;
241see
242.Xr pcap 3
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243.It Pa pccard/
244PC-CARD controllers
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245.It Pa protocols/
246C include files for Berkeley service protocols
247.It Pa readline/
248get a line from a user, with editing;
249see
250.Xr readline 3
251.It Pa rpc/
252remote procedure calls;
253see
254.Xr rpc 3
255.It Pa rpcsvc/
256definition of RPC service structures; see
257.Xr rpc 3
258.It Pa security/
259PAM; see
260.Xr pam 8
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261.It Pa sys/
262system C include files (kernel data structures)
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263.It Pa ufs/
264C include files for UFS (The U-word File System)
f97cf1ca 265.Pp
52eff785 266.Bl -tag -width ".Pa ffs/" -compact
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267.It Pa ffs/
268Fast filesystem
269.It Pa mfs/
270memory file system;
271see
272.Xr mount_mfs 8
273.It Pa ufs/
274UFS filesystem
275.El
f97cf1ca 276.Pp
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277.It Pa vm/
278virtual memory;
279see
280.Xr vmstat 8
281.El
282.Pp
283.It Pa lib/
284archive libraries
f97cf1ca 285.Pp
52eff785 286.Bl -tag -width ".Pa compat/" -compact
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287.It Pa aout/
288a.out archive libraries
289.It Pa compat/
290shared libraries for compatibility
b1956a22 291.Pp
52eff785 292.Bl -tag -width ".Pa aout/" -compact
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293.It Pa aout/
294a.out backward compatibility libraries
295.El
64099218
PA
296.It Pa engines/
297OpenSSL dynamic engines
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298.El
299.Pp
300.It Pa libdata/
301misc. utility data files
f97cf1ca 302.Pp
52eff785 303.Bl -tag -width ".Pa stallion/" -compact
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304.It Pa doscmd/
305files used by doscmd (drivers, fonts, etc.);
306see
307.Xr doscmd 1
f97cf1ca 308.Pp
52eff785 309.Bl -tag -width ".Pa fonts/" -compact
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310.It Pa fonts/
311fonts used by doscmd
312.El
f97cf1ca 313.Pp
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314.It Pa lint/
315various prebuilt lint libraries;
316see
317.Xr lint 1
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318.It Pa stallion/
319holds the download firmware images
320.El
321.Pp
322.It Pa libexec/
323system daemons & system utilities (executed by other programs)
f97cf1ca 324.Pp
b1242318 325.It Pa binutils221/
f97cf1ca 326.Pp
52eff785 327.Bl -tag -width ".Pa ldscripts/" -compact
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328.It Pa ldscripts/
329linker scripts;
330see
331.Xr ld 1
332.El
333.Pp
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334.It Pa binutils222/
335.Pp
336.Bl -tag -width ".Pa ldscripts/" -compact
337.It Pa ldscripts/
338linker scripts;
339see
340.Xr ld 1
341.El
342.Pp
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343.It Pa lpr/
344utilities and filters for LP print system;
345see
346.Xr lpr 1
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347.It Pa sendmail/
348the sendmail binary;
349see
350.Xr mailwrapper 8
351and
352.Xr sendmail 8
353.It Pa sm.bin/
354restricted shell for sendmail;
355see
356.Xr smrsh 8
357.It Pa uucp/
358uucp utilities;
359see
360.Xr uucp 1
361.El
362.Pp
363.It Pa local/
364local executables, libraries, etc.
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365Within
366.Pa local/ ,
367the general layout sketched out by
984263bc 368.Xr hier 7
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369for
370.Pa /usr
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371should be used.
372Exceptions are the
373.Pa man/
374directory (directly under
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375.Pa local/
376rather than under
377.Pa local/share/ ) ,
378documentation (in
379.Pa share/doc/<app>/ ) ,
380and
381.Pa /usr/local/etc
382.Pf ( mimics
383.Pa /etc ) .
984263bc 384.It Pa obj/
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385architecture-specific target tree produced by building the
386.Pa /usr/src
387tree
f97cf1ca 388.It Pa pkg/
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389default destination directory for the
390.Xr pkgsrc 7
391collection.
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392Within
393.Pa pkg/ ,
394the general layout sketched out by
f97cf1ca 395.Xr hier 7
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396for
397.Pa /usr
33fa2848 398should be used.
59730311
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399Exceptions are the
400.Pa man/
401directory (directly under
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402.Pa pkg/
403rather than under
404.Pa pkg/share/ ) ,
405documentation (in
406.Pa share/doc/<pkg>/ ) ,
407and
408.Pa /usr/pkg/etc
409.Pf ( mimics
410.Pa /etc ) .
f97cf1ca 411.It Pa pkgsrc/
a161144f 412The
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413.Xr pkgsrc 7
414collection (optional).
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415.It Pa sbin/
416system daemons & system utilities (executed by users)
417.It Pa share/
418architecture-independent files
419.Pp
52eff785 420.Bl -tag -width ".Pa groff_font/" -compact
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421.It Pa calendar/
422a variety of pre-fab calendar files;
423see
424.Xr calendar 1
425.It Pa dict/
426word lists;
427see
428.Xr look 1
429.Pp
52eff785 430.Bl -tag -width ".Pa papers/" -compact
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431.It Pa web2
432words from Webster's 2nd International
433.It Pa words
434common words
435.It Pa papers/
436reference databases;
437see
438.Xr refer 1
439.El
440.Pp
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441.It Pa doc/
442miscellaneous documentation
7b14808b 443.Bl -tag -width ".Pa legal/" -compact
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444.It Pa legal/
445License files for vendor supplied firmwares
446.El
447.Pp
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448.It Pa examples/
449various examples for users and programmers
450.It Pa games/
451ASCII text files used by various games
452.It Pa groff_font/
453device description file for device name
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454.It Pa i18n/
455internationalization databases; see
456.Xr iconv 3
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457.It Pa info/
458GNU Info hypertext system
459.It Pa isdn/
460ISDN
461.It Pa libg++/
462libg++'s genclass prototype/template class files
463.It Pa locale/
464localization files;
465see
466.Xr setlocale 3
467.It Pa man/
468manual pages
469.It Pa me/
470macros for use with the me macro package;
471see
472.Xr me 7
473.It Pa misc/
474misc system-wide ASCII text files
f97cf1ca 475.Pp
52eff785 476.Bl -tag -width ".Pa termcap" -compact
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477.It Pa termcap
478terminal characteristics database;
479see
480.Xr termcap 5
481.El
f97cf1ca 482.Pp
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483.It Pa mk/
484templates for make;
485see
486.Xr make 1
487.It Pa nls/
488national language support files;
489see
490.Xr mklocale 1
9fc6d562
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491.It Pa openssl/
492.Pp
493.Bl -tag -width ".Pa man/" -compact
494.It Pa man/
495OpenSSL manual pages
496.El
497.Pp
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498.It Pa sendmail/
499sendmail configuration files;
500see
501.Xr sendmail 8
502.It Pa skel/
503example . (dot) files for new accounts
504.It Pa syscons/
28feafc7 505files used by
984263bc 506.Xr syscons 4
f97cf1ca 507.Pp
52eff785 508.Bl -tag -width ".Pa scrnmaps/" -compact
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509.It Pa fonts/
510console fonts;
511see
512.Xr vidcontrol 1
513and
514.Xr vidfont 1
515.It Pa keymaps/
516console keyboard maps;
517see
518.Xr kbdcontrol 1
519and
520.Xr kbdmap 1
521.It Pa scrnmaps/
522console screen maps
523.El
f97cf1ca 524.Pp
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525.It Pa tabset/
526tab description files for a variety of terminals; used in
527the termcap file;
528see
529.Xr termcap 5
530.It Pa tmac/
531text processing macros;
532see
533.Xr nroff 1
534and
535.Xr troff 1
536.It Pa vi/
537localization support and utilities for
538.Xr vi 1
539.It Pa zoneinfo/
540timezone configuration information;
541see
542.Xr tzfile 5
543.El
f97cf1ca 544.Pp
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545.It Pa src/
546.Bx ,
547third-party, and/or local source files
548.Pp
32c20b8b 549.Bl -tag -width ".Pa nrelease/" -compact
984263bc 550.It Pa bin/
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551source code for files in
552.Pa /bin
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553.It Pa contrib/
554source code for contributed software
555.It Pa crypto/
556source code for contributed cryptography software
557.It Pa etc/
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558source code for files in
559.Pa /etc
984263bc 560.It Pa games/
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561source code for files in
562.Pa /usr/games
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563.It Pa gnu/
564Utilities covered by the GNU General Public License
565.It Pa include/
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566source code for files in
567.Pa /usr/include
984263bc 568.It Pa lib/
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569source code for files in
570.Pa /usr/lib
984263bc 571.It Pa libexec/
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572source code for files in
573.Pa /usr/libexec
f97cf1ca 574.It Pa nrelease/
984263bc 575files required to produce a
9bb2a92d 576.Dx
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577release
578.It Pa sbin/
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579source code for files in
580.Pa /sbin
984263bc 581.It Pa secure/
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582build directory for files in
583.Pa /usr/src/crypto
984263bc 584.It Pa share/
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585source for files in
586.Pa /usr/share
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587.It Pa sys/
588kernel source code
589.It Pa tools/
590tools used for maintenance and testing of
9bb2a92d 591.Dx
984263bc 592.It Pa usr.bin/
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593source code for files in
594.Pa /usr/bin
984263bc 595.It Pa usr.sbin/
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596source code for files in
597.Pa /usr/sbin
984263bc 598.El
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599.El
600.It Pa /var/
601multi-purpose log, temporary, transient, and spool files
602.Pp
52eff785 603.Bl -tag -width ".Pa preserve/" -compact
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604.It Pa account/
605system accounting files
606.Pp
52eff785 607.Bl -tag -width ".Pa acct" -compact
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608.It Pa acct
609execution accounting file;
610see
611.Xr acct 5
612.El
613.Pp
614.It Pa at/
615timed command scheduling files;
616see
617.Xr \&at 1
f97cf1ca 618.Pp
52eff785 619.Bl -tag -width ".Pa spool/" -compact
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620.It Pa jobs/
621directory containing job files
622.It Pa spool/
623directory containing output spool files
624.El
625.Pp
626.It Pa backups/
627misc. backup files
628.It Pa crash/
629default directory to store kernel crash dumps; see
630.Xr crash 8
631and
632.Xr savecore 8
633.It Pa cron/
634files used by cron;
635see
636.Xr cron 8
f97cf1ca 637.Pp
52eff785 638.Bl -tag -width ".Pa tabs/" -compact
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639.It Pa tabs/
640crontab files;
641see
642.Xr crontab 5
643.El
644.Pp
645.It Pa db/
646misc. automatically generated system-specific database files
647.It Pa empty/
a009fae0 648empty directory used by
984263bc 649.Xr sshd 8
a009fae0 650for privilege separation
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651.It Pa games/
652misc. game status and score files
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653.It Pa hammer/
654per PFS (pseudo file system) snapshots directory for
655.Xr hammer 5
656file systems
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657.It Pa log/
658misc. system log files
659.Pp
52eff785 660.Bl -tag -width ".Pa wtmp" -compact
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661.It Pa wtmp
662login/logout log;
663see
664.Xr wtmp 5
665.El
666.Pp
667.It Pa mail/
668user mailbox files
669.It Pa msgs/
670system messages database;
671see
672.Xr msgs 1
673.It Pa preserve/
674temporary home of files preserved after an accidental death
675of an editor;
676see
677.Xr \&ex 1
678.It Pa quotas/
679filesystem quota information files
680.It Pa run/
681system information files describing various info about
682system since it was booted
683.Pp
52eff785 684.Bl -tag -width ".Pa ppp/" -compact
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685.It Pa ppp/
686writable by the
687.Dq network
688group for command connection sockets; see
689.Xr ppp 8
690.It Pa utmp
691database of current users;
692see
693.Xr utmp 5
694.El
695.Pp
696.It Pa rwho/
697rwho data files;
698see
699.Xr rwhod 8 ,
700.Xr rwho 1 ,
701and
702.Xr ruptime 1
703.It Pa spool/
704misc. printer and mail system spooling directories
705.Pp
52eff785 706.Bl -tag -width ".Pa clientmqueue/" -compact
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707.It Pa clientmqueue/
708undelivered submission mail queue;
709see
710.Xr sendmail 8
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711.It Pa dma/
712undelivered mail queue;
713see
714.Xr dma 8
984263bc 715.It Pa ftp/
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716commonly
717.Pa ~ftp ;
718the anonymous ftp root directory
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719.It Pa mqueue/
720undelivered mail queue;
721see
722.Xr sendmail 8
723.It Pa output/
724line printer spooling directories
725.It Pa uucp/
726uucp spool directory
727.It Pa uucppublic/
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728commonly
729.Pa ~uucp ;
730public uucp temporary directory
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731.El
732.Pp
733.It Pa tmp/
734temporary files that are kept between system reboots
f97cf1ca 735.Pp
52eff785 736.Bl -tag -width ".Pa vi.recover/" -compact
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737.It Pa vi.recover/
738the directory where recovery files are stored
739.El
f97cf1ca 740.Pp
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741.It Pa yp/
742the NIS maps
743.El
744.El
745.Sh NOTES
746This manual page documents the default
9bb2a92d 747.Dx
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748filesystem layout, but
749the actual hierarchy on a given system is defined at the system
750administrator's discretion.
751A well-maintained installation will include a customized version of
752this document.
753.Sh SEE ALSO
754.Xr apropos 1 ,
755.Xr find 1 ,
756.Xr finger 1 ,
757.Xr grep 1 ,
758.Xr ls 1 ,
759.Xr whatis 1 ,
760.Xr whereis 1 ,
761.Xr which 1 ,
762.Xr fsck 8
763.Sh HISTORY
764A
765.Nm
766manual page appeared in
767.At v7 .