Remove doscmd(1).
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1.\" Copyright (c) 1990, 1993
2.\" The Regents of the University of California. All rights reserved.
3.\"
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5.\" modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
6.\" are met:
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13.\" must display the following acknowledgement:
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17.\" may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
18.\" without specific prior written permission.
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20.\" THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE REGENTS AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND
21.\" ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
22.\" IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
23.\" ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE REGENTS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
24.\" FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
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27.\" HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
28.\" LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
29.\" OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
30.\" SUCH DAMAGE.
31.\"
32.\" @(#)hier.7 8.1 (Berkeley) 6/5/93
33.\" $FreeBSD: src/share/man/man7/hier.7,v 1.29.2.17 2003/01/13 21:43:50 ceri Exp $
34.\"
e685772e 35.Dd November 26, 2011
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36.Dt HIER 7
37.Os
38.Sh NAME
39.Nm hier
40.Nd layout of filesystems
41.Sh DESCRIPTION
42A sketch of the filesystem hierarchy.
52eff785 43.Bl -tag -width ".Pa /modules/"
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44.It Pa /
45root directory of the filesystem
46.It Pa /bin/
47user utilities fundamental to both single-user and multi-user environments
48.It Pa /boot/
49programs and configuration files used during operating system bootstrap
50.Pp
52eff785 51.Bl -tag -width ".Pa defaults/" -compact
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52.It Pa defaults/
53default bootstrapping configuration files; see
54.Xr loader.conf 5
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55.It Pa kernel
56pure kernel executable (the operating system loaded into memory
57at boot time).
58.It Pa modules/
59loadable kernel modules;
60see
61.Xr kldstat 8
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62.El
63.It Pa /dev/
64block and character device files
65.Pp
2c272516 66.Bl -tag -width ".Pa fd/" -compact
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67.It Pa fd/
68file descriptor files;
69see
70.Xr \&fd 4
71.El
72.It Pa /etc/
73system configuration files and scripts
74.Pp
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75.Bl -tag -width ".Pa bluetooth/" -compact
76.It Pa bluetooth/
77bluetooth configuration files
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78.It Pa defaults/
79default system configuration files;
80see
81.Xr rc 8
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82.It Pa dma/
83.Xr dma 8
84configuration files
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85.\".It Pa firmware/
86.\"Firmware image files;
87.\"see
88.\".Xr firmware 9
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89.It Pa localtime
90local timezone information;
91see
92.Xr ctime 3
93.It Pa mail/
94Sendmail control files
95.It Pa mtree/
96mtree configuration files;
97see
98.Xr mtree 8
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99.It Pa pam.d/
100configuration files for the Pluggable Authentication Modules (PAM)
101library
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102.It Pa periodic/
103scripts that are run daily, weekly, and monthly, via
104.Xr cron 8 ;
105see
106.Xr periodic 8
107.It Pa ppp/
108ppp configuration files;
109see
110.Xr ppp 8
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111.It Pa rc.d/
112System and daemon startup/control scripts;
113see
114.Xr rc 8
115.It Pa ssh/
116OpenSSH configuration files;
117see
118.Xr ssh 1
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119.It Pa ssl/
120OpenSSL configuration files
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121.It Pa upgrade/
122Files relevant to system upgrades
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123.It Pa uucp/
124uucp configuration files;
125see
126.Xr uucp 1
127.El
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128.It Pa /home/
129HOME directories of non-root users
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130.It Pa /mnt/
131empty directory commonly used by
132system administrators as a temporary mount point
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133.It Pa /pfs/
134pseudo file system directory (on
135.Xr hammer 5
136root file systems)
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137.It Pa /proc/
138process file system;
139see
140.Xr procfs 5 ,
141.Xr mount_procfs 8
142.It Pa /root/
143root's HOME directory
144.It Pa /sbin/
145system programs and administration utilities
146fundamental to both single-user and multi-user environments
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147.It Pa /sys/
148the kernel's source code (usually a symbolic link to
149.Pa /usr/src/sys )
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150.It Pa /tmp/
151temporary files that are not guaranteed to persist across system reboots
152.It Pa /usr/
153contains the majority of user utilities and applications
154.Pp
52eff785 155.Bl -tag -width ".Pa libdata/" -compact
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156.It Pa bin/
157common utilities, programming tools, and applications
158.It Pa games/
159useful and semi-frivolous programs
160.It Pa include/
161standard C include files
162.Pp
52eff785 163.Bl -tag -width ".Pa libmilter/" -compact
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164.It Pa arpa/
165C include files for Internet service protocols
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166.It Pa c++/
167C++ include files
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168.It Pa cam/
169C include files for the Common Access Methods Layer
f97cf1ca 170.Pp
52eff785 171.Bl -tag -width ".Pa scsi/" -compact
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172.It Pa scsi/
173The SCSI device on top of CAM
174.El
f97cf1ca 175.Pp
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176.It Pa dev/
177C include files for programming various
9bb2a92d 178.Dx
984263bc 179devices
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180.It Pa emulation/
181Include Files for various emulation layers
984263bc 182.It Pa fs/
f97cf1ca 183.Pp
52eff785 184.Bl -tag -width ".Pa smbfs/" -compact
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185.It Pa smbfs/
186SMB/CIFS filesystem
187.El
f97cf1ca 188.Pp
984263bc 189.It Pa isofs/
f97cf1ca 190.Pp
52eff785 191.Bl -tag -width ".Pa cd9660/" -compact
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192.It Pa cd9660/
193iso9660 filesystem
194.El
f97cf1ca 195.Pp
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196.It Pa libmilter/
197C include files for libmilter,
198the sendmail mail filter API
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199.It Pa libprop/
200C include files for libprop
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201.It Pa machine/
202machine-specific C include files
203.It Pa msdosfs/
204MS-DOS file system
205.It Pa net/
206misc network C include files
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207.It Pa netatm/
208ATM include files;
209see
210.Xr atm 8
211.It Pa netinet/
212C include files for Internet standard protocols;
213see
214.Xr inet 4
215.It Pa netinet6/
216C include files for Internet protocol version 6;
217see
218.Xr inet6 4
219.It Pa netipx/
220IPX/SPX protocol stacks
221.It Pa netkey/
222kernel key-management service
223.It Pa netnatm/
224NATM include files;
225see
226.Xr natm 4
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227.It Pa netsmb/
228SMB/CIFS requester
229.It Pa nfs/
230C include files for NFS (Network File System)
231.It Pa objc/
232Objective C include files
233.It Pa openssl/
234OpenSSL (Cryptography/SSL toolkit) headers
42bcdd13
PA
235.It Pa pcap/
236Packet Capture (libpcap) headers;
237see
238.Xr pcap 3
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239.It Pa pccard/
240PC-CARD controllers
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241.It Pa protocols/
242C include files for Berkeley service protocols
243.It Pa readline/
244get a line from a user, with editing;
245see
246.Xr readline 3
247.It Pa rpc/
248remote procedure calls;
249see
250.Xr rpc 3
251.It Pa rpcsvc/
252definition of RPC service structures; see
253.Xr rpc 3
254.It Pa security/
255PAM; see
256.Xr pam 8
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257.It Pa sys/
258system C include files (kernel data structures)
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259.It Pa ufs/
260C include files for UFS (The U-word File System)
f97cf1ca 261.Pp
52eff785 262.Bl -tag -width ".Pa ffs/" -compact
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263.It Pa ffs/
264Fast filesystem
265.It Pa mfs/
266memory file system;
267see
268.Xr mount_mfs 8
269.It Pa ufs/
270UFS filesystem
271.El
f97cf1ca 272.Pp
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273.It Pa vm/
274virtual memory;
275see
276.Xr vmstat 8
277.El
278.Pp
279.It Pa lib/
280archive libraries
f97cf1ca 281.Pp
52eff785 282.Bl -tag -width ".Pa compat/" -compact
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283.It Pa aout/
284a.out archive libraries
285.It Pa compat/
286shared libraries for compatibility
b1956a22 287.Pp
52eff785 288.Bl -tag -width ".Pa aout/" -compact
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289.It Pa aout/
290a.out backward compatibility libraries
291.El
64099218
PA
292.It Pa engines/
293OpenSSL dynamic engines
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294.El
295.Pp
296.It Pa libdata/
297misc. utility data files
f97cf1ca 298.Pp
52eff785 299.Bl -tag -width ".Pa stallion/" -compact
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300.It Pa lint/
301various prebuilt lint libraries;
302see
303.Xr lint 1
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304.It Pa stallion/
305holds the download firmware images
306.El
307.Pp
308.It Pa libexec/
309system daemons & system utilities (executed by other programs)
f97cf1ca 310.Pp
6e12bf15 311.Bl -tag -width ".Pa binutils221/" -compact
b1242318 312.It Pa binutils221/
f97cf1ca 313.Pp
52eff785 314.Bl -tag -width ".Pa ldscripts/" -compact
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315.It Pa ldscripts/
316linker scripts;
317see
318.Xr ld 1
319.El
320.Pp
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321.It Pa binutils222/
322.Pp
323.Bl -tag -width ".Pa ldscripts/" -compact
324.It Pa ldscripts/
325linker scripts;
326see
327.Xr ld 1
328.El
329.Pp
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330.It Pa lpr/
331utilities and filters for LP print system;
332see
333.Xr lpr 1
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334.It Pa sendmail/
335the sendmail binary;
336see
337.Xr mailwrapper 8
338and
339.Xr sendmail 8
340.It Pa sm.bin/
341restricted shell for sendmail;
342see
343.Xr smrsh 8
344.It Pa uucp/
345uucp utilities;
346see
347.Xr uucp 1
348.El
349.Pp
350.It Pa local/
351local executables, libraries, etc.
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352Within
353.Pa local/ ,
354the general layout sketched out by
984263bc 355.Xr hier 7
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356for
357.Pa /usr
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358should be used.
359Exceptions are the
360.Pa man/
361directory (directly under
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362.Pa local/
363rather than under
364.Pa local/share/ ) ,
365documentation (in
366.Pa share/doc/<app>/ ) ,
367and
368.Pa /usr/local/etc
369.Pf ( mimics
370.Pa /etc ) .
984263bc 371.It Pa obj/
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372architecture-specific target tree produced by building the
373.Pa /usr/src
374tree
f97cf1ca 375.It Pa pkg/
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376default destination directory for the
377.Xr pkgsrc 7
378collection.
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379Within
380.Pa pkg/ ,
381the general layout sketched out by
f97cf1ca 382.Xr hier 7
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383for
384.Pa /usr
33fa2848 385should be used.
59730311
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386Exceptions are the
387.Pa man/
388directory (directly under
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389.Pa pkg/
390rather than under
391.Pa pkg/share/ ) ,
392documentation (in
393.Pa share/doc/<pkg>/ ) ,
394and
395.Pa /usr/pkg/etc
396.Pf ( mimics
397.Pa /etc ) .
f97cf1ca 398.It Pa pkgsrc/
a161144f 399The
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400.Xr pkgsrc 7
401collection (optional).
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402.It Pa sbin/
403system daemons & system utilities (executed by users)
404.It Pa share/
405architecture-independent files
406.Pp
52eff785 407.Bl -tag -width ".Pa groff_font/" -compact
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408.It Pa calendar/
409a variety of pre-fab calendar files;
410see
411.Xr calendar 1
412.It Pa dict/
413word lists;
414see
415.Xr look 1
416.Pp
52eff785 417.Bl -tag -width ".Pa papers/" -compact
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418.It Pa web2
419words from Webster's 2nd International
420.It Pa words
421common words
422.It Pa papers/
423reference databases;
424see
425.Xr refer 1
426.El
427.Pp
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428.It Pa doc/
429miscellaneous documentation
7b14808b 430.Bl -tag -width ".Pa legal/" -compact
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431.It Pa legal/
432License files for vendor supplied firmwares
433.El
434.Pp
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435.It Pa examples/
436various examples for users and programmers
437.It Pa games/
438ASCII text files used by various games
439.It Pa groff_font/
440device description file for device name
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441.It Pa i18n/
442internationalization databases; see
443.Xr iconv 3
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444.It Pa info/
445GNU Info hypertext system
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446.It Pa libg++/
447libg++'s genclass prototype/template class files
448.It Pa locale/
449localization files;
450see
451.Xr setlocale 3
452.It Pa man/
453manual pages
454.It Pa me/
455macros for use with the me macro package;
456see
457.Xr me 7
458.It Pa misc/
459misc system-wide ASCII text files
f97cf1ca 460.Pp
52eff785 461.Bl -tag -width ".Pa termcap" -compact
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462.It Pa termcap
463terminal characteristics database;
464see
465.Xr termcap 5
466.El
f97cf1ca 467.Pp
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468.It Pa mk/
469templates for make;
470see
471.Xr make 1
472.It Pa nls/
473national language support files;
474see
475.Xr mklocale 1
9fc6d562
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476.It Pa openssl/
477.Pp
478.Bl -tag -width ".Pa man/" -compact
479.It Pa man/
480OpenSSL manual pages
481.El
482.Pp
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483.It Pa sendmail/
484sendmail configuration files;
485see
486.Xr sendmail 8
487.It Pa skel/
488example . (dot) files for new accounts
489.It Pa syscons/
28feafc7 490files used by
984263bc 491.Xr syscons 4
f97cf1ca 492.Pp
52eff785 493.Bl -tag -width ".Pa scrnmaps/" -compact
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494.It Pa fonts/
495console fonts;
496see
497.Xr vidcontrol 1
498and
499.Xr vidfont 1
500.It Pa keymaps/
501console keyboard maps;
502see
503.Xr kbdcontrol 1
504and
505.Xr kbdmap 1
506.It Pa scrnmaps/
507console screen maps
508.El
f97cf1ca 509.Pp
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510.It Pa tabset/
511tab description files for a variety of terminals; used in
512the termcap file;
513see
514.Xr termcap 5
515.It Pa tmac/
516text processing macros;
517see
518.Xr nroff 1
519and
520.Xr troff 1
521.It Pa vi/
522localization support and utilities for
523.Xr vi 1
524.It Pa zoneinfo/
525timezone configuration information;
526see
527.Xr tzfile 5
528.El
f97cf1ca 529.Pp
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530.It Pa src/
531.Bx ,
532third-party, and/or local source files
533.Pp
32c20b8b 534.Bl -tag -width ".Pa nrelease/" -compact
984263bc 535.It Pa bin/
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536source code for files in
537.Pa /bin
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538.It Pa contrib/
539source code for contributed software
540.It Pa crypto/
541source code for contributed cryptography software
542.It Pa etc/
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543source code for files in
544.Pa /etc
984263bc 545.It Pa games/
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546source code for files in
547.Pa /usr/games
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548.It Pa gnu/
549Utilities covered by the GNU General Public License
550.It Pa include/
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551source code for files in
552.Pa /usr/include
984263bc 553.It Pa lib/
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554source code for files in
555.Pa /usr/lib
984263bc 556.It Pa libexec/
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557source code for files in
558.Pa /usr/libexec
f97cf1ca 559.It Pa nrelease/
984263bc 560files required to produce a
9bb2a92d 561.Dx
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562release
563.It Pa sbin/
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564source code for files in
565.Pa /sbin
984263bc 566.It Pa secure/
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567build directory for files in
568.Pa /usr/src/crypto
984263bc 569.It Pa share/
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570source for files in
571.Pa /usr/share
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572.It Pa sys/
573kernel source code
574.It Pa tools/
575tools used for maintenance and testing of
9bb2a92d 576.Dx
984263bc 577.It Pa usr.bin/
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578source code for files in
579.Pa /usr/bin
984263bc 580.It Pa usr.sbin/
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581source code for files in
582.Pa /usr/sbin
984263bc 583.El
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584.El
585.It Pa /var/
586multi-purpose log, temporary, transient, and spool files
587.Pp
52eff785 588.Bl -tag -width ".Pa preserve/" -compact
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589.It Pa account/
590system accounting files
591.Pp
52eff785 592.Bl -tag -width ".Pa acct" -compact
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593.It Pa acct
594execution accounting file;
595see
596.Xr acct 5
597.El
598.Pp
599.It Pa at/
600timed command scheduling files;
601see
602.Xr \&at 1
f97cf1ca 603.Pp
52eff785 604.Bl -tag -width ".Pa spool/" -compact
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605.It Pa jobs/
606directory containing job files
607.It Pa spool/
608directory containing output spool files
609.El
610.Pp
611.It Pa backups/
612misc. backup files
613.It Pa crash/
614default directory to store kernel crash dumps; see
615.Xr crash 8
616and
617.Xr savecore 8
618.It Pa cron/
619files used by cron;
620see
621.Xr cron 8
f97cf1ca 622.Pp
52eff785 623.Bl -tag -width ".Pa tabs/" -compact
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624.It Pa tabs/
625crontab files;
626see
627.Xr crontab 5
628.El
629.Pp
630.It Pa db/
631misc. automatically generated system-specific database files
632.It Pa empty/
a009fae0 633empty directory used by
984263bc 634.Xr sshd 8
a009fae0 635for privilege separation
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636.It Pa games/
637misc. game status and score files
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638.It Pa hammer/
639per PFS (pseudo file system) snapshots directory for
640.Xr hammer 5
641file systems
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642.It Pa log/
643misc. system log files
644.Pp
52eff785 645.Bl -tag -width ".Pa wtmp" -compact
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646.It Pa wtmp
647login/logout log;
648see
649.Xr wtmp 5
650.El
651.Pp
652.It Pa mail/
653user mailbox files
654.It Pa msgs/
655system messages database;
656see
657.Xr msgs 1
658.It Pa preserve/
659temporary home of files preserved after an accidental death
660of an editor;
661see
662.Xr \&ex 1
663.It Pa quotas/
664filesystem quota information files
665.It Pa run/
666system information files describing various info about
667system since it was booted
668.Pp
52eff785 669.Bl -tag -width ".Pa ppp/" -compact
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670.It Pa ppp/
671writable by the
672.Dq network
673group for command connection sockets; see
674.Xr ppp 8
675.It Pa utmp
676database of current users;
677see
678.Xr utmp 5
679.El
680.Pp
681.It Pa rwho/
682rwho data files;
683see
684.Xr rwhod 8 ,
685.Xr rwho 1 ,
686and
687.Xr ruptime 1
688.It Pa spool/
689misc. printer and mail system spooling directories
690.Pp
52eff785 691.Bl -tag -width ".Pa clientmqueue/" -compact
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692.It Pa clientmqueue/
693undelivered submission mail queue;
694see
695.Xr sendmail 8
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696.It Pa dma/
697undelivered mail queue;
698see
699.Xr dma 8
984263bc 700.It Pa ftp/
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701commonly
702.Pa ~ftp ;
703the anonymous ftp root directory
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704.It Pa mqueue/
705undelivered mail queue;
706see
707.Xr sendmail 8
708.It Pa output/
709line printer spooling directories
710.It Pa uucp/
711uucp spool directory
712.It Pa uucppublic/
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713commonly
714.Pa ~uucp ;
715public uucp temporary directory
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716.El
717.Pp
718.It Pa tmp/
719temporary files that are kept between system reboots
f97cf1ca 720.Pp
52eff785 721.Bl -tag -width ".Pa vi.recover/" -compact
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722.It Pa vi.recover/
723the directory where recovery files are stored
724.El
f97cf1ca 725.Pp
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726.It Pa yp/
727the NIS maps
728.El
729.El
730.Sh NOTES
731This manual page documents the default
9bb2a92d 732.Dx
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733filesystem layout, but
734the actual hierarchy on a given system is defined at the system
735administrator's discretion.
736A well-maintained installation will include a customized version of
737this document.
738.Sh SEE ALSO
739.Xr apropos 1 ,
740.Xr find 1 ,
741.Xr finger 1 ,
742.Xr grep 1 ,
743.Xr ls 1 ,
744.Xr whatis 1 ,
745.Xr whereis 1 ,
746.Xr which 1 ,
747.Xr fsck 8
748.Sh HISTORY
749A
750.Nm
751manual page appeared in
752.At v7 .