Merge from vendor branch OPENSSL:
[dragonfly.git] / secure / usr.bin / openssl / man / verify.1
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124.\" ========================================================================
125.\"
126.IX Title "VERIFY 1"
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127.TH VERIFY 1 "2007-10-24" "0.9.8g" "OpenSSL"
128.\" For nroff, turn off justification. Always turn off hyphenation; it makes
129.\" way too many mistakes in technical documents.
130.if n .ad l
131.nh
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132.SH "NAME"
133verify \- Utility to verify certificates.
134.SH "SYNOPSIS"
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135.IX Header "SYNOPSIS"
136\&\fBopenssl\fR \fBverify\fR
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137[\fB\-CApath directory\fR]
138[\fB\-CAfile file\fR]
139[\fB\-purpose purpose\fR]
140[\fB\-untrusted file\fR]
141[\fB\-help\fR]
142[\fB\-issuer_checks\fR]
143[\fB\-verbose\fR]
e3cdf75b 144[\fB\-\fR]
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145[certificates]
146.SH "DESCRIPTION"
8b0cefbb 147.IX Header "DESCRIPTION"
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148The \fBverify\fR command verifies certificate chains.
149.SH "COMMAND OPTIONS"
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150.IX Header "COMMAND OPTIONS"
151.IP "\fB\-CApath directory\fR" 4
152.IX Item "-CApath directory"
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153A directory of trusted certificates. The certificates should have names
154of the form: hash.0 or have symbolic links to them of this
8b0cefbb 155form (\*(L"hash\*(R" is the hashed certificate subject name: see the \fB\-hash\fR option
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156of the \fBx509\fR utility). Under Unix the \fBc_rehash\fR script will automatically
157create symbolic links to a directory of certificates.
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158.IP "\fB\-CAfile file\fR" 4
159.IX Item "-CAfile file"
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160A file of trusted certificates. The file should contain multiple certificates
161in \s-1PEM\s0 format concatenated together.
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162.IP "\fB\-untrusted file\fR" 4
163.IX Item "-untrusted file"
984263bc 164A file of untrusted certificates. The file should contain multiple certificates
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165.IP "\fB\-purpose purpose\fR" 4
166.IX Item "-purpose purpose"
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167the intended use for the certificate. Without this option no chain verification
168will be done. Currently accepted uses are \fBsslclient\fR, \fBsslserver\fR,
8b0cefbb 169\&\fBnssslserver\fR, \fBsmimesign\fR, \fBsmimeencrypt\fR. See the \fB\s-1VERIFY\s0 \s-1OPERATION\s0\fR
984263bc 170section for more information.
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171.IP "\fB\-help\fR" 4
172.IX Item "-help"
984263bc 173prints out a usage message.
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174.IP "\fB\-verbose\fR" 4
175.IX Item "-verbose"
984263bc 176print extra information about the operations being performed.
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177.IP "\fB\-issuer_checks\fR" 4
178.IX Item "-issuer_checks"
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179print out diagnostics relating to searches for the issuer certificate
180of the current certificate. This shows why each candidate issuer
181certificate was rejected. However the presence of rejection messages
182does not itself imply that anything is wrong: during the normal
183verify process several rejections may take place.
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184.IP "\fB\-\fR" 4
185.IX Item "-"
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186marks the last option. All arguments following this are assumed to be
187certificate files. This is useful if the first certificate filename begins
e3cdf75b 188with a \fB\-\fR.
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189.IP "\fBcertificates\fR" 4
190.IX Item "certificates"
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191one or more certificates to verify. If no certificate filenames are included
192then an attempt is made to read a certificate from standard input. They should
193all be in \s-1PEM\s0 format.
194.SH "VERIFY OPERATION"
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195.IX Header "VERIFY OPERATION"
196The \fBverify\fR program uses the same functions as the internal \s-1SSL\s0 and S/MIME
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197verification, therefore this description applies to these verify operations
198too.
199.PP
200There is one crucial difference between the verify operations performed
201by the \fBverify\fR program: wherever possible an attempt is made to continue
202after an error whereas normally the verify operation would halt on the
203first error. This allows all the problems with a certificate chain to be
204determined.
205.PP
206The verify operation consists of a number of separate steps.
207.PP
208Firstly a certificate chain is built up starting from the supplied certificate
8b0cefbb 209and ending in the root \s-1CA\s0. It is an error if the whole chain cannot be built
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210up. The chain is built up by looking up the issuers certificate of the current
211certificate. If a certificate is found which is its own issuer it is assumed
8b0cefbb 212to be the root \s-1CA\s0.
984263bc 213.PP
8b0cefbb 214The process of 'looking up the issuers certificate' itself involves a number
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215of steps. In versions of OpenSSL before 0.9.5a the first certificate whose
216subject name matched the issuer of the current certificate was assumed to be
217the issuers certificate. In OpenSSL 0.9.6 and later all certificates
218whose subject name matches the issuer name of the current certificate are
219subject to further tests. The relevant authority key identifier components
220of the current certificate (if present) must match the subject key identifier
221(if present) and issuer and serial number of the candidate issuer, in addition
222the keyUsage extension of the candidate issuer (if present) must permit
223certificate signing.
224.PP
225The lookup first looks in the list of untrusted certificates and if no match
8b0cefbb 226is found the remaining lookups are from the trusted certificates. The root \s-1CA\s0
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227is always looked up in the trusted certificate list: if the certificate to
228verify is a root certificate then an exact match must be found in the trusted
229list.
230.PP
231The second operation is to check every untrusted certificate's extensions for
232consistency with the supplied purpose. If the \fB\-purpose\fR option is not included
233then no checks are done. The supplied or \*(L"leaf\*(R" certificate must have extensions
234compatible with the supplied purpose and all other certificates must also be valid
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235\&\s-1CA\s0 certificates. The precise extensions required are described in more detail in
236the \fB\s-1CERTIFICATE\s0 \s-1EXTENSIONS\s0\fR section of the \fBx509\fR utility.
984263bc 237.PP
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238The third operation is to check the trust settings on the root \s-1CA\s0. The root
239\&\s-1CA\s0 should be trusted for the supplied purpose. For compatibility with previous
984263bc 240versions of SSLeay and OpenSSL a certificate with no trust settings is considered
2eaa1526 241to be valid for all purposes.
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242.PP
243The final operation is to check the validity of the certificate chain. The validity
244period is checked against the current system time and the notBefore and notAfter
245dates in the certificate. The certificate signatures are also checked at this
246point.
247.PP
248If all operations complete successfully then certificate is considered valid. If
249any operation fails then the certificate is not valid.
250.SH "DIAGNOSTICS"
8b0cefbb 251.IX Header "DIAGNOSTICS"
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252When a verify operation fails the output messages can be somewhat cryptic. The
253general form of the error message is:
254.PP
255.Vb 2
256\& server.pem: /C=AU/ST=Queensland/O=CryptSoft Pty Ltd/CN=Test CA (1024 bit)
257\& error 24 at 1 depth lookup:invalid CA certificate
258.Ve
8b0cefbb 259.PP
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260The first line contains the name of the certificate being verified followed by
261the subject name of the certificate. The second line contains the error number
262and the depth. The depth is number of the certificate being verified when a
263problem was detected starting with zero for the certificate being verified itself
8b0cefbb 264then 1 for the \s-1CA\s0 that signed the certificate and so on. Finally a text version
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265of the error number is presented.
266.PP
267An exhaustive list of the error codes and messages is shown below, this also
268includes the name of the error code as defined in the header file x509_vfy.h
269Some of the error codes are defined but never returned: these are described
270as \*(L"unused\*(R".
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271.IP "\fB0 X509_V_OK: ok\fR" 4
272.IX Item "0 X509_V_OK: ok"
984263bc 273the operation was successful.
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274.IP "\fB2 X509_V_ERR_UNABLE_TO_GET_ISSUER_CERT: unable to get issuer certificate\fR" 4
275.IX Item "2 X509_V_ERR_UNABLE_TO_GET_ISSUER_CERT: unable to get issuer certificate"
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276the issuer certificate could not be found: this occurs if the issuer certificate
277of an untrusted certificate cannot be found.
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278.IP "\fB3 X509_V_ERR_UNABLE_TO_GET_CRL unable to get certificate \s-1CRL\s0\fR" 4
279.IX Item "3 X509_V_ERR_UNABLE_TO_GET_CRL unable to get certificate CRL"
984263bc 280the \s-1CRL\s0 of a certificate could not be found. Unused.
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281.IP "\fB4 X509_V_ERR_UNABLE_TO_DECRYPT_CERT_SIGNATURE: unable to decrypt certificate's signature\fR" 4
282.IX Item "4 X509_V_ERR_UNABLE_TO_DECRYPT_CERT_SIGNATURE: unable to decrypt certificate's signature"
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283the certificate signature could not be decrypted. This means that the actual signature value
284could not be determined rather than it not matching the expected value, this is only
285meaningful for \s-1RSA\s0 keys.
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286.IP "\fB5 X509_V_ERR_UNABLE_TO_DECRYPT_CRL_SIGNATURE: unable to decrypt \s-1CRL\s0's signature\fR" 4
287.IX Item "5 X509_V_ERR_UNABLE_TO_DECRYPT_CRL_SIGNATURE: unable to decrypt CRL's signature"
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288the \s-1CRL\s0 signature could not be decrypted: this means that the actual signature value
289could not be determined rather than it not matching the expected value. Unused.
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290.IP "\fB6 X509_V_ERR_UNABLE_TO_DECODE_ISSUER_PUBLIC_KEY: unable to decode issuer public key\fR" 4
291.IX Item "6 X509_V_ERR_UNABLE_TO_DECODE_ISSUER_PUBLIC_KEY: unable to decode issuer public key"
984263bc 292the public key in the certificate SubjectPublicKeyInfo could not be read.
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293.IP "\fB7 X509_V_ERR_CERT_SIGNATURE_FAILURE: certificate signature failure\fR" 4
294.IX Item "7 X509_V_ERR_CERT_SIGNATURE_FAILURE: certificate signature failure"
984263bc 295the signature of the certificate is invalid.
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296.IP "\fB8 X509_V_ERR_CRL_SIGNATURE_FAILURE: \s-1CRL\s0 signature failure\fR" 4
297.IX Item "8 X509_V_ERR_CRL_SIGNATURE_FAILURE: CRL signature failure"
984263bc 298the signature of the certificate is invalid. Unused.
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299.IP "\fB9 X509_V_ERR_CERT_NOT_YET_VALID: certificate is not yet valid\fR" 4
300.IX Item "9 X509_V_ERR_CERT_NOT_YET_VALID: certificate is not yet valid"
984263bc 301the certificate is not yet valid: the notBefore date is after the current time.
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302.IP "\fB10 X509_V_ERR_CERT_HAS_EXPIRED: certificate has expired\fR" 4
303.IX Item "10 X509_V_ERR_CERT_HAS_EXPIRED: certificate has expired"
984263bc 304the certificate has expired: that is the notAfter date is before the current time.
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305.IP "\fB11 X509_V_ERR_CRL_NOT_YET_VALID: \s-1CRL\s0 is not yet valid\fR" 4
306.IX Item "11 X509_V_ERR_CRL_NOT_YET_VALID: CRL is not yet valid"
984263bc 307the \s-1CRL\s0 is not yet valid. Unused.
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308.IP "\fB12 X509_V_ERR_CRL_HAS_EXPIRED: \s-1CRL\s0 has expired\fR" 4
309.IX Item "12 X509_V_ERR_CRL_HAS_EXPIRED: CRL has expired"
984263bc 310the \s-1CRL\s0 has expired. Unused.
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311.IP "\fB13 X509_V_ERR_ERROR_IN_CERT_NOT_BEFORE_FIELD: format error in certificate's notBefore field\fR" 4
312.IX Item "13 X509_V_ERR_ERROR_IN_CERT_NOT_BEFORE_FIELD: format error in certificate's notBefore field"
984263bc 313the certificate notBefore field contains an invalid time.
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314.IP "\fB14 X509_V_ERR_ERROR_IN_CERT_NOT_AFTER_FIELD: format error in certificate's notAfter field\fR" 4
315.IX Item "14 X509_V_ERR_ERROR_IN_CERT_NOT_AFTER_FIELD: format error in certificate's notAfter field"
984263bc 316the certificate notAfter field contains an invalid time.
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317.IP "\fB15 X509_V_ERR_ERROR_IN_CRL_LAST_UPDATE_FIELD: format error in \s-1CRL\s0's lastUpdate field\fR" 4
318.IX Item "15 X509_V_ERR_ERROR_IN_CRL_LAST_UPDATE_FIELD: format error in CRL's lastUpdate field"
984263bc 319the \s-1CRL\s0 lastUpdate field contains an invalid time. Unused.
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320.IP "\fB16 X509_V_ERR_ERROR_IN_CRL_NEXT_UPDATE_FIELD: format error in \s-1CRL\s0's nextUpdate field\fR" 4
321.IX Item "16 X509_V_ERR_ERROR_IN_CRL_NEXT_UPDATE_FIELD: format error in CRL's nextUpdate field"
984263bc 322the \s-1CRL\s0 nextUpdate field contains an invalid time. Unused.
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323.IP "\fB17 X509_V_ERR_OUT_OF_MEM: out of memory\fR" 4
324.IX Item "17 X509_V_ERR_OUT_OF_MEM: out of memory"
984263bc 325an error occurred trying to allocate memory. This should never happen.
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326.IP "\fB18 X509_V_ERR_DEPTH_ZERO_SELF_SIGNED_CERT: self signed certificate\fR" 4
327.IX Item "18 X509_V_ERR_DEPTH_ZERO_SELF_SIGNED_CERT: self signed certificate"
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328the passed certificate is self signed and the same certificate cannot be found in the list of
329trusted certificates.
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330.IP "\fB19 X509_V_ERR_SELF_SIGNED_CERT_IN_CHAIN: self signed certificate in certificate chain\fR" 4
331.IX Item "19 X509_V_ERR_SELF_SIGNED_CERT_IN_CHAIN: self signed certificate in certificate chain"
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332the certificate chain could be built up using the untrusted certificates but the root could not
333be found locally.
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334.IP "\fB20 X509_V_ERR_UNABLE_TO_GET_ISSUER_CERT_LOCALLY: unable to get local issuer certificate\fR" 4
335.IX Item "20 X509_V_ERR_UNABLE_TO_GET_ISSUER_CERT_LOCALLY: unable to get local issuer certificate"
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336the issuer certificate of a locally looked up certificate could not be found. This normally means
337the list of trusted certificates is not complete.
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338.IP "\fB21 X509_V_ERR_UNABLE_TO_VERIFY_LEAF_SIGNATURE: unable to verify the first certificate\fR" 4
339.IX Item "21 X509_V_ERR_UNABLE_TO_VERIFY_LEAF_SIGNATURE: unable to verify the first certificate"
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340no signatures could be verified because the chain contains only one certificate and it is not
341self signed.
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342.IP "\fB22 X509_V_ERR_CERT_CHAIN_TOO_LONG: certificate chain too long\fR" 4
343.IX Item "22 X509_V_ERR_CERT_CHAIN_TOO_LONG: certificate chain too long"
984263bc 344the certificate chain length is greater than the supplied maximum depth. Unused.
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345.IP "\fB23 X509_V_ERR_CERT_REVOKED: certificate revoked\fR" 4
346.IX Item "23 X509_V_ERR_CERT_REVOKED: certificate revoked"
984263bc 347the certificate has been revoked. Unused.
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348.IP "\fB24 X509_V_ERR_INVALID_CA: invalid \s-1CA\s0 certificate\fR" 4
349.IX Item "24 X509_V_ERR_INVALID_CA: invalid CA certificate"
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350a \s-1CA\s0 certificate is invalid. Either it is not a \s-1CA\s0 or its extensions are not consistent
351with the supplied purpose.
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352.IP "\fB25 X509_V_ERR_PATH_LENGTH_EXCEEDED: path length constraint exceeded\fR" 4
353.IX Item "25 X509_V_ERR_PATH_LENGTH_EXCEEDED: path length constraint exceeded"
984263bc 354the basicConstraints pathlength parameter has been exceeded.
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355.IP "\fB26 X509_V_ERR_INVALID_PURPOSE: unsupported certificate purpose\fR" 4
356.IX Item "26 X509_V_ERR_INVALID_PURPOSE: unsupported certificate purpose"
984263bc 357the supplied certificate cannot be used for the specified purpose.
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358.IP "\fB27 X509_V_ERR_CERT_UNTRUSTED: certificate not trusted\fR" 4
359.IX Item "27 X509_V_ERR_CERT_UNTRUSTED: certificate not trusted"
984263bc 360the root \s-1CA\s0 is not marked as trusted for the specified purpose.
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361.IP "\fB28 X509_V_ERR_CERT_REJECTED: certificate rejected\fR" 4
362.IX Item "28 X509_V_ERR_CERT_REJECTED: certificate rejected"
984263bc 363the root \s-1CA\s0 is marked to reject the specified purpose.
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364.IP "\fB29 X509_V_ERR_SUBJECT_ISSUER_MISMATCH: subject issuer mismatch\fR" 4
365.IX Item "29 X509_V_ERR_SUBJECT_ISSUER_MISMATCH: subject issuer mismatch"
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366the current candidate issuer certificate was rejected because its subject name
367did not match the issuer name of the current certificate. Only displayed when
368the \fB\-issuer_checks\fR option is set.
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369.IP "\fB30 X509_V_ERR_AKID_SKID_MISMATCH: authority and subject key identifier mismatch\fR" 4
370.IX Item "30 X509_V_ERR_AKID_SKID_MISMATCH: authority and subject key identifier mismatch"
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371the current candidate issuer certificate was rejected because its subject key
372identifier was present and did not match the authority key identifier current
373certificate. Only displayed when the \fB\-issuer_checks\fR option is set.
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374.IP "\fB31 X509_V_ERR_AKID_ISSUER_SERIAL_MISMATCH: authority and issuer serial number mismatch\fR" 4
375.IX Item "31 X509_V_ERR_AKID_ISSUER_SERIAL_MISMATCH: authority and issuer serial number mismatch"
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376the current candidate issuer certificate was rejected because its issuer name
377and serial number was present and did not match the authority key identifier
378of the current certificate. Only displayed when the \fB\-issuer_checks\fR option is set.
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379.IP "\fB32 X509_V_ERR_KEYUSAGE_NO_CERTSIGN:key usage does not include certificate signing\fR" 4
380.IX Item "32 X509_V_ERR_KEYUSAGE_NO_CERTSIGN:key usage does not include certificate signing"
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381the current candidate issuer certificate was rejected because its keyUsage extension
382does not permit certificate signing.
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383.IP "\fB50 X509_V_ERR_APPLICATION_VERIFICATION: application verification failure\fR" 4
384.IX Item "50 X509_V_ERR_APPLICATION_VERIFICATION: application verification failure"
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385an application specific error. Unused.
386.SH "BUGS"
8b0cefbb 387.IX Header "BUGS"
984263bc 388Although the issuer checks are a considerably improvement over the old technique they still
8b0cefbb 389suffer from limitations in the underlying X509_LOOKUP \s-1API\s0. One consequence of this is that
984263bc 390trusted certificates with matching subject name must either appear in a file (as specified by the
8b0cefbb 391\&\fB\-CAfile\fR option) or a directory (as specified by \fB\-CApath\fR. If they occur in both then only
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392the certificates in the file will be recognised.
393.PP
394Previous versions of OpenSSL assume certificates with matching subject name are identical and
395mishandled them.
396.SH "SEE ALSO"
e3cdf75b 397.IX Header "SEE ALSO"
8b0cefbb 398\&\fIx509\fR\|(1)