kernel: Remove the old unionfs that was unhooked from the build since 2004.
[dragonfly.git] / sbin / mount_ufs / mount_ufs.8
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28.\" @(#)mount.8 8.8 (Berkeley) 6/16/94
29.\" $FreeBSD: src/sbin/mount/mount.8,v 1.31.2.12 2003/02/23 21:17:42 trhodes Exp $
30.\"
31.Dd October 7, 2011
f029e46e 32.Dt MOUNT_UFS 8
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33.Os
34.Sh NAME
f029e46e 35.Nm mount_ufs
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36.Nd mount file systems
37.Sh SYNOPSIS
38.Nm
39.Op Fl adfpruvw
40.Op Fl F Ar fstab
41.Op Fl o Ar options
42.Op Fl t Ar type
43.Nm
44.Op Fl dfpruvw
45.Brq Ar special | node
46.Nm
47.Op Fl dfpruvw
48.Op Fl o Ar options
49.Op Fl t Ar type
50.Ar special node
51.Sh DESCRIPTION
52The
53.Nm
54utility calls the
55.Xr mount 2
56system call to prepare and graft a
57.Ar "special device"
58or the remote node (rhost:path) on to the file system tree at the point
59.Ar node .
60If either
61.Ar special
62or
63.Ar node
64are not provided, the appropriate information is taken from the
65.Xr fstab 5
66file.
67.Pp
68The system maintains a list of currently mounted file systems.
69If no arguments are given to
70.Nm ,
71this list is printed.
72.Pp
73The options are as follows:
74.Bl -tag -width indent
75.It Fl a
76All the filesystems described in
77.Xr fstab 5
78are mounted.
79Exceptions are those marked as
80.Dq noauto ,
81excluded by the
82.Fl t
83flag (see below), or if they are already mounted (except the
84root filesystem which is always remounted to preserve
85traditional single user mode behavior).
86.It Fl d
87Causes everything to be done except for the actual system call.
88This option is useful in conjunction with the
89.Fl v
90flag to
91determine what the
92.Nm
93command is trying to do.
94.It Fl F Ar fstab
95Specify the
96.Pa fstab
97file to use.
98.It Fl f
99Forces the revocation of write access when trying to downgrade
100a filesystem mount status from read-write to read-only.
101Also
102forces the R/W mount of an unclean filesystem (dangerous; use with
103caution).
104.It Fl o
105Options are specified with a
106.Fl o
107flag followed by a comma separated string of options.
108If a
109.Dq no
110prefix is added or removed from a option name, then meaning is negated.
111In case of conflicting options being specified, the rightmost option
112takes effect.
113The following options are available:
114.Bl -tag -width indent
115.It Cm async
116All
117.Tn I/O
118to the file system should be done asynchronously.
119This is a
120.Em dangerous
121flag to set,
122and should not be used unless you are prepared to recreate the file
123system should your system crash.
124.It Cm current
125When used with the
126.Fl u
127flag, this is the same as specifying the options currently in effect for
128the mounted filesystem.
129.It Cm force
130The same as
131.Fl f ;
132forces the revocation of write access when trying to downgrade
133a filesystem mount status from read-write to read-only.
134Also
135forces the R/W mount of an unclean filesystem (dangerous; use with caution).
136.It Cm fstab
137When used with the
138.Fl u
139flag, this is the same as specifying all the options listed in the
140.Xr fstab 5
141file for the filesystem.
142.It Cm noasync
143Metadata I/O should be done synchronously, while data I/O should be done
144asynchronously.
145This is the default.
146.It Cm noatime
147Do not update the file access time when reading from a file.
148This option
149is useful on filesystems where there are large numbers of files and
150performance is more critical than updating the file access time (which is
151rarely ever important).
152This option is currently only supported on local filesystems.
153.It Cm noauto
154This filesystem should be skipped when
155.Nm
156is run with the
157.Fl a
158flag.
159.It Cm noclusterr
160Disable read clustering.
161.It Cm noclusterw
162Disable write clustering.
163.It Cm nodev
164Do not interpret character or block special devices on the file system.
165This option is useful for a server that has file systems containing
166special devices for architectures other than its own.
167This option is set automatically when the user does not have super-user
168privileges.
169.It Cm noexec
170Do not allow execution of any binaries on the mounted file system.
171This option is useful for a server that has file systems containing
172binaries for architectures other than its own.
173.It Cm nosuid
174Do not allow set-user-identifier or set-group-identifier bits to take effect.
175Note: this option is worthless if a public available suid or sgid
176wrapper like
177.Xr suidperl 1
178is installed on your system.
179It is set automatically when the user does not have super-user privileges.
180.It Cm nosymfollow
181Do not follow symlinks
182on the mounted file system.
183.It Cm rdonly , ro , norw
184The same as
185.Fl r ;
186mount the file system read-only (even the super-user may not write it).
187.It Cm sync
188All
189.Tn I/O
190to the file system should be done synchronously.
191.It Cm trim
192If the device supports TRIM
193.Va ( kern.cam.da.X.trim_enabled
194exists) and is set,
195the file system will perform online trim for corresponding block deletions.
196Currently, only
197.Xr UFS 5
198supports this feature.
199.It Cm suiddir
200A directory on the mounted filesystem will respond to the SUID bit
201being set, by setting the owner of any new files to be the same
202as the owner of the directory.
203New directories will inherit the bit from their parents.
204Execute bits are removed from
205the file, and it will not be given to root.
206.Pp
207This feature is designed for use on fileservers serving PC users via
208ftp or SAMBA.
209It provides security holes for shell users and as
210such should not be used on shell machines, especially on home directories.
211This option requires the SUIDDIR
212option in the kernel to work.
213Only
214.Xr UFS 5
215filesystems support this option.
216See
217.Xr chmod 2
218for more information.
219.It Cm update
220The same as
221.Fl u ;
222indicate that the status of an already mounted file system should be changed.
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223.It Cm ignore
224Will be ignored by
225.Xr df 1 .
226.El
227.Pp
228Any additional options specific to a filesystem type that is not
229one of the internally known types (see the
230.Fl t
231option) may be passed as a comma separated list; these options are
232distinguished by a leading
233.Dq \&-
234(dash).
235Options that take a value are specified using the syntax -option=value.
236For example, the
237.Nm
238command:
239.Bd -literal -offset indent
240mount -t mfs -o nosuid,-N,-s=4000 /dev/da0s0b /tmp
241.Ed
242.Pp
243causes
244.Nm
245to execute the equivalent of:
246.Bd -literal -offset indent
247/sbin/mount_mfs -o nosuid -N -s 4000 /dev/da0s0b /tmp
248.Ed
249.Pp
250Additional options specific to filesystem types
251which are not internally known
252(see the description of the
253.Fl t
254option below)
255may be described in the manual pages for the associated
256.Pa /sbin/mount_ Ns Sy XXX
257utilities.
258.It Fl p
259Print mount information in
260.Xr fstab 5
261format.
262If fstab is missing or if the freq and passno fields are omitted,
263the default values as described in
264.Xr fstab 5
265are used.
266Implies also the
267.Fl v
268option.
269.It Fl r
270The file system is to be mounted read-only.
271Mount the file system read-only (even the super-user may not write it).
272The same as the
273.Cm rdonly
274argument to the
275.Fl o
276option.
277.It Fl t Ar type
278The argument following the
279.Fl t
280is used to indicate the file system type.
281The type
282.Cm ufs
283is the default.
284The
285.Fl t
286option can be used
287to indicate that the actions should only be taken on
288filesystems of the specified type.
289More than one type may be specified in a comma separated list.
290The list of filesystem types can be prefixed with
291.Dq no
292to specify the filesystem types for which action should
293.Em not
294be taken.
295For example, the
296.Nm
297command:
298.Bd -literal -offset indent
299mount -a -t nonfs,mfs
300.Ed
301.Pp
302mounts all filesystems except those of type
303.Tn NFS
304and
305.Tn MFS .
306.Pp
307If the type is not the internally known type,
308.Cm ufs ,
309.Nm
310will attempt to execute a program in
311.Pa /sbin/mount_ Ns Sy XXX
312where
313.Sy XXX
314is replaced by the type name.
315For example, nfs filesystems are mounted by the program
316.Pa /sbin/mount_nfs .
317.Pp
318Most filesystems will be dynamically loaded by their
319.Nm
320programs
321if not already present in the kernel, using the
322.Xr vfsload 3
323subroutine.
324Because this mechanism requires writable temporary space,
325the filesystem type containing
326.Pa /tmp
327must be compiled into the kernel, and the filesystems containing
328.Pa /tmp
329and
330.Pa /usr/bin/ld
331must be listed in
332.Pa /etc/fstab
333before any filesystems which might be dynamically loaded.
334.It Fl u
335The
336.Fl u
337flag indicates that the status of an already mounted file
338system should be changed.
339Any of the options discussed above (the
340.Fl o
341option)
342may be changed;
343also a file system can be changed from read-only to read-write
344or vice versa.
345An attempt to change from read-write to read-only will fail if any
346files on the filesystem are currently open for writing unless the
347.Fl f
348flag is also specified.
349The set of options is determined by applying the options specified
350in the argument to
351.Fl o
352and finally applying the
353.Fl r
354or
355.Fl w
356option.
357.It Fl v
358Verbose mode.
359.It Fl w
360The file system object is to be read and write.
361.El
362.Sh ENVIRONMENT
363.Bl -tag -width PATH_FSTAB
364.It Pa PATH_FSTAB
365If the environment variable
366.Pa PATH_FSTAB
367is set all operations are performed against the specified file.
368.El
369.Sh FILES
370.Bl -tag -width /etc/fstab -compact
371.It Pa /etc/fstab
372file system table
373.El
374.Sh DIAGNOSTICS
375Various, most of them are self-explanatory.
376.Pp
377.Dl XXXXX filesystem is not available
378.Pp
379The kernel does not support the respective filesystem type.
380Note that
381support for a particular filesystem might be provided either on a static
382(kernel compile-time), or dynamic basis (loaded as a kernel module by
383.Xr kldload 8 ) .
384Normally,
385.Nm
386or its subprocesses attempt to dynamically load a filesystem module if
387it has not been configured statically, using
388.Xr vfsload 3 .
389In this case, the above error message can also mean that you did not
390have permission to load the module.
391.Sh SEE ALSO
392.Xr df 1 ,
393.Xr lsvfs 1 ,
394.Xr mount 2 ,
395.Xr vfsload 3 ,
396.Xr devtab 5 ,
397.Xr fstab 5 ,
398.Xr UFS 5 ,
399.Xr kldload 8 ,
400.Xr mount_cd9660 8 ,
401.Xr mount_devfs 8 ,
402.Xr mount_ext2fs 8 ,
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403.Xr mount_hammer 8 ,
404.Xr mount_hpfs 8 ,
405.Xr mount_linprocfs 8 ,
406.Xr mount_mfs 8 ,
407.Xr mount_msdos 8 ,
408.Xr mount_nfs 8 ,
409.Xr mount_ntfs 8 ,
410.Xr mount_null 8 ,
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411.Xr mount_portal 8 ,
412.Xr mount_procfs 8 ,
413.Xr mount_smbfs 8 ,
414.Xr mount_std 8 ,
415.Xr mount_tmpfs 8 ,
416.Xr mount_udf 8 ,
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417.Xr sysctl 8 ,
418.Xr umount 8
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419.Sh HISTORY
420A
421.Nm
422utility appeared in
423.At v1 .
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424.Sh CAVEATS
425After a successful
426.Nm ,
427the permissions on the original mount point determine if
428.Pa ..\&
429is accessible from the mounted file system.
430The minimum permissions for
431the mount point for traversal across the mount point in both
432directions to be possible for all users is 0111 (execute for all).
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433.Sh BUGS
434It is possible for a corrupted file system to cause a crash.