Regenerate the manual pages after the OpenSSL update to 0.9.7e.
[dragonfly.git] / secure / usr.bin / openssl / man / verify.1
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129.\" ========================================================================
130.\"
131.IX Title "VERIFY 1"
132.TH VERIFY 1 "2004-12-18" "0.9.7e" "OpenSSL"
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133.SH "NAME"
134verify \- Utility to verify certificates.
135.SH "SYNOPSIS"
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136.IX Header "SYNOPSIS"
137\&\fBopenssl\fR \fBverify\fR
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138[\fB\-CApath directory\fR]
139[\fB\-CAfile file\fR]
140[\fB\-purpose purpose\fR]
141[\fB\-untrusted file\fR]
142[\fB\-help\fR]
143[\fB\-issuer_checks\fR]
144[\fB\-verbose\fR]
e3cdf75b 145[\fB\-\fR]
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146[certificates]
147.SH "DESCRIPTION"
8b0cefbb 148.IX Header "DESCRIPTION"
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149The \fBverify\fR command verifies certificate chains.
150.SH "COMMAND OPTIONS"
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151.IX Header "COMMAND OPTIONS"
152.IP "\fB\-CApath directory\fR" 4
153.IX Item "-CApath directory"
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154A directory of trusted certificates. The certificates should have names
155of the form: hash.0 or have symbolic links to them of this
8b0cefbb 156form (\*(L"hash\*(R" is the hashed certificate subject name: see the \fB\-hash\fR option
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157of the \fBx509\fR utility). Under Unix the \fBc_rehash\fR script will automatically
158create symbolic links to a directory of certificates.
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159.IP "\fB\-CAfile file\fR" 4
160.IX Item "-CAfile file"
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161A file of trusted certificates. The file should contain multiple certificates
162in \s-1PEM\s0 format concatenated together.
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163.IP "\fB\-untrusted file\fR" 4
164.IX Item "-untrusted file"
984263bc 165A file of untrusted certificates. The file should contain multiple certificates
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166.IP "\fB\-purpose purpose\fR" 4
167.IX Item "-purpose purpose"
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168the intended use for the certificate. Without this option no chain verification
169will be done. Currently accepted uses are \fBsslclient\fR, \fBsslserver\fR,
8b0cefbb 170\&\fBnssslserver\fR, \fBsmimesign\fR, \fBsmimeencrypt\fR. See the \fB\s-1VERIFY\s0 \s-1OPERATION\s0\fR
984263bc 171section for more information.
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172.IP "\fB\-help\fR" 4
173.IX Item "-help"
984263bc 174prints out a usage message.
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175.IP "\fB\-verbose\fR" 4
176.IX Item "-verbose"
984263bc 177print extra information about the operations being performed.
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178.IP "\fB\-issuer_checks\fR" 4
179.IX Item "-issuer_checks"
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180print out diagnostics relating to searches for the issuer certificate
181of the current certificate. This shows why each candidate issuer
182certificate was rejected. However the presence of rejection messages
183does not itself imply that anything is wrong: during the normal
184verify process several rejections may take place.
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185.IP "\fB\-\fR" 4
186.IX Item "-"
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187marks the last option. All arguments following this are assumed to be
188certificate files. This is useful if the first certificate filename begins
e3cdf75b 189with a \fB\-\fR.
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190.IP "\fBcertificates\fR" 4
191.IX Item "certificates"
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192one or more certificates to verify. If no certificate filenames are included
193then an attempt is made to read a certificate from standard input. They should
194all be in \s-1PEM\s0 format.
195.SH "VERIFY OPERATION"
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196.IX Header "VERIFY OPERATION"
197The \fBverify\fR program uses the same functions as the internal \s-1SSL\s0 and S/MIME
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198verification, therefore this description applies to these verify operations
199too.
200.PP
201There is one crucial difference between the verify operations performed
202by the \fBverify\fR program: wherever possible an attempt is made to continue
203after an error whereas normally the verify operation would halt on the
204first error. This allows all the problems with a certificate chain to be
205determined.
206.PP
207The verify operation consists of a number of separate steps.
208.PP
209Firstly a certificate chain is built up starting from the supplied certificate
8b0cefbb 210and ending in the root \s-1CA\s0. It is an error if the whole chain cannot be built
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211up. The chain is built up by looking up the issuers certificate of the current
212certificate. If a certificate is found which is its own issuer it is assumed
8b0cefbb 213to be the root \s-1CA\s0.
984263bc 214.PP
8b0cefbb 215The process of 'looking up the issuers certificate' itself involves a number
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216of steps. In versions of OpenSSL before 0.9.5a the first certificate whose
217subject name matched the issuer of the current certificate was assumed to be
218the issuers certificate. In OpenSSL 0.9.6 and later all certificates
219whose subject name matches the issuer name of the current certificate are
220subject to further tests. The relevant authority key identifier components
221of the current certificate (if present) must match the subject key identifier
222(if present) and issuer and serial number of the candidate issuer, in addition
223the keyUsage extension of the candidate issuer (if present) must permit
224certificate signing.
225.PP
226The lookup first looks in the list of untrusted certificates and if no match
8b0cefbb 227is found the remaining lookups are from the trusted certificates. The root \s-1CA\s0
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228is always looked up in the trusted certificate list: if the certificate to
229verify is a root certificate then an exact match must be found in the trusted
230list.
231.PP
232The second operation is to check every untrusted certificate's extensions for
233consistency with the supplied purpose. If the \fB\-purpose\fR option is not included
234then no checks are done. The supplied or \*(L"leaf\*(R" certificate must have extensions
235compatible with the supplied purpose and all other certificates must also be valid
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236\&\s-1CA\s0 certificates. The precise extensions required are described in more detail in
237the \fB\s-1CERTIFICATE\s0 \s-1EXTENSIONS\s0\fR section of the \fBx509\fR utility.
984263bc 238.PP
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239The third operation is to check the trust settings on the root \s-1CA\s0. The root
240\&\s-1CA\s0 should be trusted for the supplied purpose. For compatibility with previous
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241versions of SSLeay and OpenSSL a certificate with no trust settings is considered
242to be valid for all purposes.
243.PP
244The final operation is to check the validity of the certificate chain. The validity
245period is checked against the current system time and the notBefore and notAfter
246dates in the certificate. The certificate signatures are also checked at this
247point.
248.PP
249If all operations complete successfully then certificate is considered valid. If
250any operation fails then the certificate is not valid.
251.SH "DIAGNOSTICS"
8b0cefbb 252.IX Header "DIAGNOSTICS"
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253When a verify operation fails the output messages can be somewhat cryptic. The
254general form of the error message is:
255.PP
256.Vb 2
257\& server.pem: /C=AU/ST=Queensland/O=CryptSoft Pty Ltd/CN=Test CA (1024 bit)
258\& error 24 at 1 depth lookup:invalid CA certificate
259.Ve
8b0cefbb 260.PP
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261The first line contains the name of the certificate being verified followed by
262the subject name of the certificate. The second line contains the error number
263and the depth. The depth is number of the certificate being verified when a
264problem was detected starting with zero for the certificate being verified itself
8b0cefbb 265then 1 for the \s-1CA\s0 that signed the certificate and so on. Finally a text version
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266of the error number is presented.
267.PP
268An exhaustive list of the error codes and messages is shown below, this also
269includes the name of the error code as defined in the header file x509_vfy.h
270Some of the error codes are defined but never returned: these are described
271as \*(L"unused\*(R".
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272.IP "\fB0 X509_V_OK: ok\fR" 4
273.IX Item "0 X509_V_OK: ok"
984263bc 274the operation was successful.
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275.IP "\fB2 X509_V_ERR_UNABLE_TO_GET_ISSUER_CERT: unable to get issuer certificate\fR" 4
276.IX Item "2 X509_V_ERR_UNABLE_TO_GET_ISSUER_CERT: unable to get issuer certificate"
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277the issuer certificate could not be found: this occurs if the issuer certificate
278of an untrusted certificate cannot be found.
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279.IP "\fB3 X509_V_ERR_UNABLE_TO_GET_CRL unable to get certificate \s-1CRL\s0\fR" 4
280.IX Item "3 X509_V_ERR_UNABLE_TO_GET_CRL unable to get certificate CRL"
984263bc 281the \s-1CRL\s0 of a certificate could not be found. Unused.
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282.IP "\fB4 X509_V_ERR_UNABLE_TO_DECRYPT_CERT_SIGNATURE: unable to decrypt certificate's signature\fR" 4
283.IX Item "4 X509_V_ERR_UNABLE_TO_DECRYPT_CERT_SIGNATURE: unable to decrypt certificate's signature"
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284the certificate signature could not be decrypted. This means that the actual signature value
285could not be determined rather than it not matching the expected value, this is only
286meaningful for \s-1RSA\s0 keys.
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287.IP "\fB5 X509_V_ERR_UNABLE_TO_DECRYPT_CRL_SIGNATURE: unable to decrypt \s-1CRL\s0's signature\fR" 4
288.IX Item "5 X509_V_ERR_UNABLE_TO_DECRYPT_CRL_SIGNATURE: unable to decrypt CRL's signature"
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289the \s-1CRL\s0 signature could not be decrypted: this means that the actual signature value
290could not be determined rather than it not matching the expected value. Unused.
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291.IP "\fB6 X509_V_ERR_UNABLE_TO_DECODE_ISSUER_PUBLIC_KEY: unable to decode issuer public key\fR" 4
292.IX Item "6 X509_V_ERR_UNABLE_TO_DECODE_ISSUER_PUBLIC_KEY: unable to decode issuer public key"
984263bc 293the public key in the certificate SubjectPublicKeyInfo could not be read.
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294.IP "\fB7 X509_V_ERR_CERT_SIGNATURE_FAILURE: certificate signature failure\fR" 4
295.IX Item "7 X509_V_ERR_CERT_SIGNATURE_FAILURE: certificate signature failure"
984263bc 296the signature of the certificate is invalid.
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297.IP "\fB8 X509_V_ERR_CRL_SIGNATURE_FAILURE: \s-1CRL\s0 signature failure\fR" 4
298.IX Item "8 X509_V_ERR_CRL_SIGNATURE_FAILURE: CRL signature failure"
984263bc 299the signature of the certificate is invalid. Unused.
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300.IP "\fB9 X509_V_ERR_CERT_NOT_YET_VALID: certificate is not yet valid\fR" 4
301.IX Item "9 X509_V_ERR_CERT_NOT_YET_VALID: certificate is not yet valid"
984263bc 302the certificate is not yet valid: the notBefore date is after the current time.
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303.IP "\fB10 X509_V_ERR_CERT_HAS_EXPIRED: certificate has expired\fR" 4
304.IX Item "10 X509_V_ERR_CERT_HAS_EXPIRED: certificate has expired"
984263bc 305the certificate has expired: that is the notAfter date is before the current time.
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306.IP "\fB11 X509_V_ERR_CRL_NOT_YET_VALID: \s-1CRL\s0 is not yet valid\fR" 4
307.IX Item "11 X509_V_ERR_CRL_NOT_YET_VALID: CRL is not yet valid"
984263bc 308the \s-1CRL\s0 is not yet valid. Unused.
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309.IP "\fB12 X509_V_ERR_CRL_HAS_EXPIRED: \s-1CRL\s0 has expired\fR" 4
310.IX Item "12 X509_V_ERR_CRL_HAS_EXPIRED: CRL has expired"
984263bc 311the \s-1CRL\s0 has expired. Unused.
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312.IP "\fB13 X509_V_ERR_ERROR_IN_CERT_NOT_BEFORE_FIELD: format error in certificate's notBefore field\fR" 4
313.IX Item "13 X509_V_ERR_ERROR_IN_CERT_NOT_BEFORE_FIELD: format error in certificate's notBefore field"
984263bc 314the certificate notBefore field contains an invalid time.
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315.IP "\fB14 X509_V_ERR_ERROR_IN_CERT_NOT_AFTER_FIELD: format error in certificate's notAfter field\fR" 4
316.IX Item "14 X509_V_ERR_ERROR_IN_CERT_NOT_AFTER_FIELD: format error in certificate's notAfter field"
984263bc 317the certificate notAfter field contains an invalid time.
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318.IP "\fB15 X509_V_ERR_ERROR_IN_CRL_LAST_UPDATE_FIELD: format error in \s-1CRL\s0's lastUpdate field\fR" 4
319.IX Item "15 X509_V_ERR_ERROR_IN_CRL_LAST_UPDATE_FIELD: format error in CRL's lastUpdate field"
984263bc 320the \s-1CRL\s0 lastUpdate field contains an invalid time. Unused.
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321.IP "\fB16 X509_V_ERR_ERROR_IN_CRL_NEXT_UPDATE_FIELD: format error in \s-1CRL\s0's nextUpdate field\fR" 4
322.IX Item "16 X509_V_ERR_ERROR_IN_CRL_NEXT_UPDATE_FIELD: format error in CRL's nextUpdate field"
984263bc 323the \s-1CRL\s0 nextUpdate field contains an invalid time. Unused.
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324.IP "\fB17 X509_V_ERR_OUT_OF_MEM: out of memory\fR" 4
325.IX Item "17 X509_V_ERR_OUT_OF_MEM: out of memory"
984263bc 326an error occurred trying to allocate memory. This should never happen.
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327.IP "\fB18 X509_V_ERR_DEPTH_ZERO_SELF_SIGNED_CERT: self signed certificate\fR" 4
328.IX Item "18 X509_V_ERR_DEPTH_ZERO_SELF_SIGNED_CERT: self signed certificate"
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329the passed certificate is self signed and the same certificate cannot be found in the list of
330trusted certificates.
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331.IP "\fB19 X509_V_ERR_SELF_SIGNED_CERT_IN_CHAIN: self signed certificate in certificate chain\fR" 4
332.IX Item "19 X509_V_ERR_SELF_SIGNED_CERT_IN_CHAIN: self signed certificate in certificate chain"
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333the certificate chain could be built up using the untrusted certificates but the root could not
334be found locally.
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335.IP "\fB20 X509_V_ERR_UNABLE_TO_GET_ISSUER_CERT_LOCALLY: unable to get local issuer certificate\fR" 4
336.IX Item "20 X509_V_ERR_UNABLE_TO_GET_ISSUER_CERT_LOCALLY: unable to get local issuer certificate"
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337the issuer certificate of a locally looked up certificate could not be found. This normally means
338the list of trusted certificates is not complete.
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339.IP "\fB21 X509_V_ERR_UNABLE_TO_VERIFY_LEAF_SIGNATURE: unable to verify the first certificate\fR" 4
340.IX Item "21 X509_V_ERR_UNABLE_TO_VERIFY_LEAF_SIGNATURE: unable to verify the first certificate"
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341no signatures could be verified because the chain contains only one certificate and it is not
342self signed.
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343.IP "\fB22 X509_V_ERR_CERT_CHAIN_TOO_LONG: certificate chain too long\fR" 4
344.IX Item "22 X509_V_ERR_CERT_CHAIN_TOO_LONG: certificate chain too long"
984263bc 345the certificate chain length is greater than the supplied maximum depth. Unused.
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346.IP "\fB23 X509_V_ERR_CERT_REVOKED: certificate revoked\fR" 4
347.IX Item "23 X509_V_ERR_CERT_REVOKED: certificate revoked"
984263bc 348the certificate has been revoked. Unused.
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349.IP "\fB24 X509_V_ERR_INVALID_CA: invalid \s-1CA\s0 certificate\fR" 4
350.IX Item "24 X509_V_ERR_INVALID_CA: invalid CA certificate"
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351a \s-1CA\s0 certificate is invalid. Either it is not a \s-1CA\s0 or its extensions are not consistent
352with the supplied purpose.
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353.IP "\fB25 X509_V_ERR_PATH_LENGTH_EXCEEDED: path length constraint exceeded\fR" 4
354.IX Item "25 X509_V_ERR_PATH_LENGTH_EXCEEDED: path length constraint exceeded"
984263bc 355the basicConstraints pathlength parameter has been exceeded.
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356.IP "\fB26 X509_V_ERR_INVALID_PURPOSE: unsupported certificate purpose\fR" 4
357.IX Item "26 X509_V_ERR_INVALID_PURPOSE: unsupported certificate purpose"
984263bc 358the supplied certificate cannot be used for the specified purpose.
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359.IP "\fB27 X509_V_ERR_CERT_UNTRUSTED: certificate not trusted\fR" 4
360.IX Item "27 X509_V_ERR_CERT_UNTRUSTED: certificate not trusted"
984263bc 361the root \s-1CA\s0 is not marked as trusted for the specified purpose.
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362.IP "\fB28 X509_V_ERR_CERT_REJECTED: certificate rejected\fR" 4
363.IX Item "28 X509_V_ERR_CERT_REJECTED: certificate rejected"
984263bc 364the root \s-1CA\s0 is marked to reject the specified purpose.
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365.IP "\fB29 X509_V_ERR_SUBJECT_ISSUER_MISMATCH: subject issuer mismatch\fR" 4
366.IX Item "29 X509_V_ERR_SUBJECT_ISSUER_MISMATCH: subject issuer mismatch"
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367the current candidate issuer certificate was rejected because its subject name
368did not match the issuer name of the current certificate. Only displayed when
369the \fB\-issuer_checks\fR option is set.
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370.IP "\fB30 X509_V_ERR_AKID_SKID_MISMATCH: authority and subject key identifier mismatch\fR" 4
371.IX Item "30 X509_V_ERR_AKID_SKID_MISMATCH: authority and subject key identifier mismatch"
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372the current candidate issuer certificate was rejected because its subject key
373identifier was present and did not match the authority key identifier current
374certificate. Only displayed when the \fB\-issuer_checks\fR option is set.
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375.IP "\fB31 X509_V_ERR_AKID_ISSUER_SERIAL_MISMATCH: authority and issuer serial number mismatch\fR" 4
376.IX Item "31 X509_V_ERR_AKID_ISSUER_SERIAL_MISMATCH: authority and issuer serial number mismatch"
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377the current candidate issuer certificate was rejected because its issuer name
378and serial number was present and did not match the authority key identifier
379of the current certificate. Only displayed when the \fB\-issuer_checks\fR option is set.
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380.IP "\fB32 X509_V_ERR_KEYUSAGE_NO_CERTSIGN:key usage does not include certificate signing\fR" 4
381.IX Item "32 X509_V_ERR_KEYUSAGE_NO_CERTSIGN:key usage does not include certificate signing"
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382the current candidate issuer certificate was rejected because its keyUsage extension
383does not permit certificate signing.
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384.IP "\fB50 X509_V_ERR_APPLICATION_VERIFICATION: application verification failure\fR" 4
385.IX Item "50 X509_V_ERR_APPLICATION_VERIFICATION: application verification failure"
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386an application specific error. Unused.
387.SH "BUGS"
8b0cefbb 388.IX Header "BUGS"
984263bc 389Although the issuer checks are a considerably improvement over the old technique they still
8b0cefbb 390suffer from limitations in the underlying X509_LOOKUP \s-1API\s0. One consequence of this is that
984263bc 391trusted certificates with matching subject name must either appear in a file (as specified by the
8b0cefbb 392\&\fB\-CAfile\fR option) or a directory (as specified by \fB\-CApath\fR. If they occur in both then only
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393the certificates in the file will be recognised.
394.PP
395Previous versions of OpenSSL assume certificates with matching subject name are identical and
396mishandled them.
397.SH "SEE ALSO"
e3cdf75b 398.IX Header "SEE ALSO"
8b0cefbb 399\&\fIx509\fR\|(1)