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138.\" ======================================================================
139.\"
140.IX Title "VERIFY 1"
141.TH VERIFY 1 "0.9.7a" "2003-02-19" "OpenSSL"
142.UC
143.SH "NAME"
144verify \- Utility to verify certificates.
145.SH "SYNOPSIS"
146.IX Header "SYNOPSIS"
147\&\fBopenssl\fR \fBverify\fR
148[\fB\-CApath directory\fR]
149[\fB\-CAfile file\fR]
150[\fB\-purpose purpose\fR]
151[\fB\-untrusted file\fR]
152[\fB\-help\fR]
153[\fB\-issuer_checks\fR]
154[\fB\-verbose\fR]
155[\fB-\fR]
156[certificates]
157.SH "DESCRIPTION"
158.IX Header "DESCRIPTION"
159The \fBverify\fR command verifies certificate chains.
160.SH "COMMAND OPTIONS"
161.IX Header "COMMAND OPTIONS"
162.Ip "\fB\-CApath directory\fR" 4
163.IX Item "-CApath directory"
164A directory of trusted certificates. The certificates should have names
165of the form: hash.0 or have symbolic links to them of this
166form (\*(L"hash\*(R" is the hashed certificate subject name: see the \fB\-hash\fR option
167of the \fBx509\fR utility). Under Unix the \fBc_rehash\fR script will automatically
168create symbolic links to a directory of certificates.
169.Ip "\fB\-CAfile file\fR" 4
170.IX Item "-CAfile file"
171A file of trusted certificates. The file should contain multiple certificates
172in \s-1PEM\s0 format concatenated together.
173.Ip "\fB\-untrusted file\fR" 4
174.IX Item "-untrusted file"
175A file of untrusted certificates. The file should contain multiple certificates
176.Ip "\fB\-purpose purpose\fR" 4
177.IX Item "-purpose purpose"
178the intended use for the certificate. Without this option no chain verification
179will be done. Currently accepted uses are \fBsslclient\fR, \fBsslserver\fR,
180\&\fBnssslserver\fR, \fBsmimesign\fR, \fBsmimeencrypt\fR. See the \fB\s-1VERIFY\s0 \s-1OPERATION\s0\fR
181section for more information.
182.Ip "\fB\-help\fR" 4
183.IX Item "-help"
184prints out a usage message.
185.Ip "\fB\-verbose\fR" 4
186.IX Item "-verbose"
187print extra information about the operations being performed.
188.Ip "\fB\-issuer_checks\fR" 4
189.IX Item "-issuer_checks"
190print out diagnostics relating to searches for the issuer certificate
191of the current certificate. This shows why each candidate issuer
192certificate was rejected. However the presence of rejection messages
193does not itself imply that anything is wrong: during the normal
194verify process several rejections may take place.
195.Ip "\fB-\fR" 4
196.IX Item "-"
197marks the last option. All arguments following this are assumed to be
198certificate files. This is useful if the first certificate filename begins
199with a \fB-\fR.
200.Ip "\fBcertificates\fR" 4
201.IX Item "certificates"
202one or more certificates to verify. If no certificate filenames are included
203then an attempt is made to read a certificate from standard input. They should
204all be in \s-1PEM\s0 format.
205.SH "VERIFY OPERATION"
206.IX Header "VERIFY OPERATION"
207The \fBverify\fR program uses the same functions as the internal \s-1SSL\s0 and S/MIME
208verification, therefore this description applies to these verify operations
209too.
210.PP
211There is one crucial difference between the verify operations performed
212by the \fBverify\fR program: wherever possible an attempt is made to continue
213after an error whereas normally the verify operation would halt on the
214first error. This allows all the problems with a certificate chain to be
215determined.
216.PP
217The verify operation consists of a number of separate steps.
218.PP
219Firstly a certificate chain is built up starting from the supplied certificate
220and ending in the root \s-1CA\s0. It is an error if the whole chain cannot be built
221up. The chain is built up by looking up the issuers certificate of the current
222certificate. If a certificate is found which is its own issuer it is assumed
223to be the root \s-1CA\s0.
224.PP
225The process of 'looking up the issuers certificate' itself involves a number
226of steps. In versions of OpenSSL before 0.9.5a the first certificate whose
227subject name matched the issuer of the current certificate was assumed to be
228the issuers certificate. In OpenSSL 0.9.6 and later all certificates
229whose subject name matches the issuer name of the current certificate are
230subject to further tests. The relevant authority key identifier components
231of the current certificate (if present) must match the subject key identifier
232(if present) and issuer and serial number of the candidate issuer, in addition
233the keyUsage extension of the candidate issuer (if present) must permit
234certificate signing.
235.PP
236The lookup first looks in the list of untrusted certificates and if no match
237is found the remaining lookups are from the trusted certificates. The root \s-1CA\s0
238is always looked up in the trusted certificate list: if the certificate to
239verify is a root certificate then an exact match must be found in the trusted
240list.
241.PP
242The second operation is to check every untrusted certificate's extensions for
243consistency with the supplied purpose. If the \fB\-purpose\fR option is not included
244then no checks are done. The supplied or \*(L"leaf\*(R" certificate must have extensions
245compatible with the supplied purpose and all other certificates must also be valid
246\&\s-1CA\s0 certificates. The precise extensions required are described in more detail in
247the \fB\s-1CERTIFICATE\s0 \s-1EXTENSIONS\s0\fR section of the \fBx509\fR utility.
248.PP
249The third operation is to check the trust settings on the root \s-1CA\s0. The root
250\&\s-1CA\s0 should be trusted for the supplied purpose. For compatibility with previous
251versions of SSLeay and OpenSSL a certificate with no trust settings is considered
252to be valid for all purposes.
253.PP
254The final operation is to check the validity of the certificate chain. The validity
255period is checked against the current system time and the notBefore and notAfter
256dates in the certificate. The certificate signatures are also checked at this
257point.
258.PP
259If all operations complete successfully then certificate is considered valid. If
260any operation fails then the certificate is not valid.
261.SH "DIAGNOSTICS"
262.IX Header "DIAGNOSTICS"
263When a verify operation fails the output messages can be somewhat cryptic. The
264general form of the error message is:
265.PP
266.Vb 2
267\& server.pem: /C=AU/ST=Queensland/O=CryptSoft Pty Ltd/CN=Test CA (1024 bit)
268\& error 24 at 1 depth lookup:invalid CA certificate
269.Ve
270The first line contains the name of the certificate being verified followed by
271the subject name of the certificate. The second line contains the error number
272and the depth. The depth is number of the certificate being verified when a
273problem was detected starting with zero for the certificate being verified itself
274then 1 for the \s-1CA\s0 that signed the certificate and so on. Finally a text version
275of the error number is presented.
276.PP
277An exhaustive list of the error codes and messages is shown below, this also
278includes the name of the error code as defined in the header file x509_vfy.h
279Some of the error codes are defined but never returned: these are described
280as \*(L"unused\*(R".
281.Ip "\fB0 X509_V_OK: ok\fR" 4
282.IX Item "0 X509_V_OK: ok"
283the operation was successful.
284.Ip "\fB2 X509_V_ERR_UNABLE_TO_GET_ISSUER_CERT: unable to get issuer certificate\fR" 4
285.IX Item "2 X509_V_ERR_UNABLE_TO_GET_ISSUER_CERT: unable to get issuer certificate"
286the issuer certificate could not be found: this occurs if the issuer certificate
287of an untrusted certificate cannot be found.
288.Ip "\fB3 X509_V_ERR_UNABLE_TO_GET_CRL unable to get certificate \s-1CRL\s0\fR" 4
289.IX Item "3 X509_V_ERR_UNABLE_TO_GET_CRL unable to get certificate CRL"
290the \s-1CRL\s0 of a certificate could not be found. Unused.
291.Ip "\fB4 X509_V_ERR_UNABLE_TO_DECRYPT_CERT_SIGNATURE: unable to decrypt certificate's signature\fR" 4
292.IX Item "4 X509_V_ERR_UNABLE_TO_DECRYPT_CERT_SIGNATURE: unable to decrypt certificate's signature"
293the certificate signature could not be decrypted. This means that the actual signature value
294could not be determined rather than it not matching the expected value, this is only
295meaningful for \s-1RSA\s0 keys.
296.Ip "\fB5 X509_V_ERR_UNABLE_TO_DECRYPT_CRL_SIGNATURE: unable to decrypt \s-1CRL\s0's signature\fR" 4
297.IX Item "5 X509_V_ERR_UNABLE_TO_DECRYPT_CRL_SIGNATURE: unable to decrypt CRL's signature"
298the \s-1CRL\s0 signature could not be decrypted: this means that the actual signature value
299could not be determined rather than it not matching the expected value. Unused.
300.Ip "\fB6 X509_V_ERR_UNABLE_TO_DECODE_ISSUER_PUBLIC_KEY: unable to decode issuer public key\fR" 4
301.IX Item "6 X509_V_ERR_UNABLE_TO_DECODE_ISSUER_PUBLIC_KEY: unable to decode issuer public key"
302the public key in the certificate SubjectPublicKeyInfo could not be read.
303.Ip "\fB7 X509_V_ERR_CERT_SIGNATURE_FAILURE: certificate signature failure\fR" 4
304.IX Item "7 X509_V_ERR_CERT_SIGNATURE_FAILURE: certificate signature failure"
305the signature of the certificate is invalid.
306.Ip "\fB8 X509_V_ERR_CRL_SIGNATURE_FAILURE: \s-1CRL\s0 signature failure\fR" 4
307.IX Item "8 X509_V_ERR_CRL_SIGNATURE_FAILURE: CRL signature failure"
308the signature of the certificate is invalid. Unused.
309.Ip "\fB9 X509_V_ERR_CERT_NOT_YET_VALID: certificate is not yet valid\fR" 4
310.IX Item "9 X509_V_ERR_CERT_NOT_YET_VALID: certificate is not yet valid"
311the certificate is not yet valid: the notBefore date is after the current time.
312.Ip "\fB10 X509_V_ERR_CERT_HAS_EXPIRED: certificate has expired\fR" 4
313.IX Item "10 X509_V_ERR_CERT_HAS_EXPIRED: certificate has expired"
314the certificate has expired: that is the notAfter date is before the current time.
315.Ip "\fB11 X509_V_ERR_CRL_NOT_YET_VALID: \s-1CRL\s0 is not yet valid\fR" 4
316.IX Item "11 X509_V_ERR_CRL_NOT_YET_VALID: CRL is not yet valid"
317the \s-1CRL\s0 is not yet valid. Unused.
318.Ip "\fB12 X509_V_ERR_CRL_HAS_EXPIRED: \s-1CRL\s0 has expired\fR" 4
319.IX Item "12 X509_V_ERR_CRL_HAS_EXPIRED: CRL has expired"
320the \s-1CRL\s0 has expired. Unused.
321.Ip "\fB13 X509_V_ERR_ERROR_IN_CERT_NOT_BEFORE_FIELD: format error in certificate's notBefore field\fR" 4
322.IX Item "13 X509_V_ERR_ERROR_IN_CERT_NOT_BEFORE_FIELD: format error in certificate's notBefore field"
323the certificate notBefore field contains an invalid time.
324.Ip "\fB14 X509_V_ERR_ERROR_IN_CERT_NOT_AFTER_FIELD: format error in certificate's notAfter field\fR" 4
325.IX Item "14 X509_V_ERR_ERROR_IN_CERT_NOT_AFTER_FIELD: format error in certificate's notAfter field"
326the certificate notAfter field contains an invalid time.
327.Ip "\fB15 X509_V_ERR_ERROR_IN_CRL_LAST_UPDATE_FIELD: format error in \s-1CRL\s0's lastUpdate field\fR" 4
328.IX Item "15 X509_V_ERR_ERROR_IN_CRL_LAST_UPDATE_FIELD: format error in CRL's lastUpdate field"
329the \s-1CRL\s0 lastUpdate field contains an invalid time. Unused.
330.Ip "\fB16 X509_V_ERR_ERROR_IN_CRL_NEXT_UPDATE_FIELD: format error in \s-1CRL\s0's nextUpdate field\fR" 4
331.IX Item "16 X509_V_ERR_ERROR_IN_CRL_NEXT_UPDATE_FIELD: format error in CRL's nextUpdate field"
332the \s-1CRL\s0 nextUpdate field contains an invalid time. Unused.
333.Ip "\fB17 X509_V_ERR_OUT_OF_MEM: out of memory\fR" 4
334.IX Item "17 X509_V_ERR_OUT_OF_MEM: out of memory"
335an error occurred trying to allocate memory. This should never happen.
336.Ip "\fB18 X509_V_ERR_DEPTH_ZERO_SELF_SIGNED_CERT: self signed certificate\fR" 4
337.IX Item "18 X509_V_ERR_DEPTH_ZERO_SELF_SIGNED_CERT: self signed certificate"
338the passed certificate is self signed and the same certificate cannot be found in the list of
339trusted certificates.
340.Ip "\fB19 X509_V_ERR_SELF_SIGNED_CERT_IN_CHAIN: self signed certificate in certificate chain\fR" 4
341.IX Item "19 X509_V_ERR_SELF_SIGNED_CERT_IN_CHAIN: self signed certificate in certificate chain"
342the certificate chain could be built up using the untrusted certificates but the root could not
343be found locally.
344.Ip "\fB20 X509_V_ERR_UNABLE_TO_GET_ISSUER_CERT_LOCALLY: unable to get local issuer certificate\fR" 4
345.IX Item "20 X509_V_ERR_UNABLE_TO_GET_ISSUER_CERT_LOCALLY: unable to get local issuer certificate"
346the issuer certificate of a locally looked up certificate could not be found. This normally means
347the list of trusted certificates is not complete.
348.Ip "\fB21 X509_V_ERR_UNABLE_TO_VERIFY_LEAF_SIGNATURE: unable to verify the first certificate\fR" 4
349.IX Item "21 X509_V_ERR_UNABLE_TO_VERIFY_LEAF_SIGNATURE: unable to verify the first certificate"
350no signatures could be verified because the chain contains only one certificate and it is not
351self signed.
352.Ip "\fB22 X509_V_ERR_CERT_CHAIN_TOO_LONG: certificate chain too long\fR" 4
353.IX Item "22 X509_V_ERR_CERT_CHAIN_TOO_LONG: certificate chain too long"
354the certificate chain length is greater than the supplied maximum depth. Unused.
355.Ip "\fB23 X509_V_ERR_CERT_REVOKED: certificate revoked\fR" 4
356.IX Item "23 X509_V_ERR_CERT_REVOKED: certificate revoked"
357the certificate has been revoked. Unused.
358.Ip "\fB24 X509_V_ERR_INVALID_CA: invalid \s-1CA\s0 certificate\fR" 4
359.IX Item "24 X509_V_ERR_INVALID_CA: invalid CA certificate"
360a \s-1CA\s0 certificate is invalid. Either it is not a \s-1CA\s0 or its extensions are not consistent
361with the supplied purpose.
362.Ip "\fB25 X509_V_ERR_PATH_LENGTH_EXCEEDED: path length constraint exceeded\fR" 4
363.IX Item "25 X509_V_ERR_PATH_LENGTH_EXCEEDED: path length constraint exceeded"
364the basicConstraints pathlength parameter has been exceeded.
365.Ip "\fB26 X509_V_ERR_INVALID_PURPOSE: unsupported certificate purpose\fR" 4
366.IX Item "26 X509_V_ERR_INVALID_PURPOSE: unsupported certificate purpose"
367the supplied certificate cannot be used for the specified purpose.
368.Ip "\fB27 X509_V_ERR_CERT_UNTRUSTED: certificate not trusted\fR" 4
369.IX Item "27 X509_V_ERR_CERT_UNTRUSTED: certificate not trusted"
370the root \s-1CA\s0 is not marked as trusted for the specified purpose.
371.Ip "\fB28 X509_V_ERR_CERT_REJECTED: certificate rejected\fR" 4
372.IX Item "28 X509_V_ERR_CERT_REJECTED: certificate rejected"
373the root \s-1CA\s0 is marked to reject the specified purpose.
374.Ip "\fB29 X509_V_ERR_SUBJECT_ISSUER_MISMATCH: subject issuer mismatch\fR" 4
375.IX Item "29 X509_V_ERR_SUBJECT_ISSUER_MISMATCH: subject issuer mismatch"
376the current candidate issuer certificate was rejected because its subject name
377did not match the issuer name of the current certificate. Only displayed when
378the \fB\-issuer_checks\fR option is set.
379.Ip "\fB30 X509_V_ERR_AKID_SKID_MISMATCH: authority and subject key identifier mismatch\fR" 4
380.IX Item "30 X509_V_ERR_AKID_SKID_MISMATCH: authority and subject key identifier mismatch"
381the current candidate issuer certificate was rejected because its subject key
382identifier was present and did not match the authority key identifier current
383certificate. Only displayed when the \fB\-issuer_checks\fR option is set.
384.Ip "\fB31 X509_V_ERR_AKID_ISSUER_SERIAL_MISMATCH: authority and issuer serial number mismatch\fR" 4
385.IX Item "31 X509_V_ERR_AKID_ISSUER_SERIAL_MISMATCH: authority and issuer serial number mismatch"
386the current candidate issuer certificate was rejected because its issuer name
387and serial number was present and did not match the authority key identifier
388of the current certificate. Only displayed when the \fB\-issuer_checks\fR option is set.
389.Ip "\fB32 X509_V_ERR_KEYUSAGE_NO_CERTSIGN:key usage does not include certificate signing\fR" 4
390.IX Item "32 X509_V_ERR_KEYUSAGE_NO_CERTSIGN:key usage does not include certificate signing"
391the current candidate issuer certificate was rejected because its keyUsage extension
392does not permit certificate signing.
393.Ip "\fB50 X509_V_ERR_APPLICATION_VERIFICATION: application verification failure\fR" 4
394.IX Item "50 X509_V_ERR_APPLICATION_VERIFICATION: application verification failure"
395an application specific error. Unused.
396.SH "BUGS"
397.IX Header "BUGS"
398Although the issuer checks are a considerably improvement over the old technique they still
399suffer from limitations in the underlying X509_LOOKUP \s-1API\s0. One consequence of this is that
400trusted certificates with matching subject name must either appear in a file (as specified by the
401\&\fB\-CAfile\fR option) or a directory (as specified by \fB\-CApath\fR. If they occur in both then only
402the certificates in the file will be recognised.
403.PP
404Previous versions of OpenSSL assume certificates with matching subject name are identical and
405mishandled them.
406.SH "SEE ALSO"
407.IX Header "SEE ALSO"
408x509(1)