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138.\" ======================================================================
139.\"
140.IX Title "S_CLIENT 1"
141.TH S_CLIENT 1 "0.9.7a" "2003-02-19" "OpenSSL"
142.UC
143.SH "NAME"
144s_client \- \s-1SSL/TLS\s0 client program
145.SH "SYNOPSIS"
146.IX Header "SYNOPSIS"
147\&\fBopenssl\fR \fBs_client\fR
148[\fB\-connect\fR host:port>]
149[\fB\-verify depth\fR]
150[\fB\-cert filename\fR]
151[\fB\-key filename\fR]
152[\fB\-CApath directory\fR]
153[\fB\-CAfile filename\fR]
154[\fB\-reconnect\fR]
155[\fB\-pause\fR]
156[\fB\-showcerts\fR]
157[\fB\-debug\fR]
158[\fB\-msg\fR]
159[\fB\-nbio_test\fR]
160[\fB\-state\fR]
161[\fB\-nbio\fR]
162[\fB\-crlf\fR]
163[\fB\-ign_eof\fR]
164[\fB\-quiet\fR]
165[\fB\-ssl2\fR]
166[\fB\-ssl3\fR]
167[\fB\-tls1\fR]
168[\fB\-no_ssl2\fR]
169[\fB\-no_ssl3\fR]
170[\fB\-no_tls1\fR]
171[\fB\-bugs\fR]
172[\fB\-cipher cipherlist\fR]
173[\fB\-engine id\fR]
174[\fB\-rand \f(BIfile\fB\|(s)\fR]
175.SH "DESCRIPTION"
176.IX Header "DESCRIPTION"
177The \fBs_client\fR command implements a generic \s-1SSL/TLS\s0 client which connects
178to a remote host using \s-1SSL/TLS\s0. It is a \fIvery\fR useful diagnostic tool for
179\&\s-1SSL\s0 servers.
180.SH "OPTIONS"
181.IX Header "OPTIONS"
182.Ip "\fB\-connect host:port\fR" 4
183.IX Item "-connect host:port"
184This specifies the host and optional port to connect to. If not specified
185then an attempt is made to connect to the local host on port 4433.
186.Ip "\fB\-cert certname\fR" 4
187.IX Item "-cert certname"
188The certificate to use, if one is requested by the server. The default is
189not to use a certificate.
190.Ip "\fB\-key keyfile\fR" 4
191.IX Item "-key keyfile"
192The private key to use. If not specified then the certificate file will
193be used.
194.Ip "\fB\-verify depth\fR" 4
195.IX Item "-verify depth"
196The verify depth to use. This specifies the maximum length of the
197server certificate chain and turns on server certificate verification.
198Currently the verify operation continues after errors so all the problems
199with a certificate chain can be seen. As a side effect the connection
200will never fail due to a server certificate verify failure.
201.Ip "\fB\-CApath directory\fR" 4
202.IX Item "-CApath directory"
203The directory to use for server certificate verification. This directory
204must be in \*(L"hash format\*(R", see \fBverify\fR for more information. These are
205also used when building the client certificate chain.
206.Ip "\fB\-CAfile file\fR" 4
207.IX Item "-CAfile file"
208A file containing trusted certificates to use during server authentication
209and to use when attempting to build the client certificate chain.
210.Ip "\fB\-reconnect\fR" 4
211.IX Item "-reconnect"
212reconnects to the same server 5 times using the same session \s-1ID\s0, this can
213be used as a test that session caching is working.
214.Ip "\fB\-pause\fR" 4
215.IX Item "-pause"
216pauses 1 second between each read and write call.
217.Ip "\fB\-showcerts\fR" 4
218.IX Item "-showcerts"
219display the whole server certificate chain: normally only the server
220certificate itself is displayed.
221.Ip "\fB\-prexit\fR" 4
222.IX Item "-prexit"
223print session information when the program exits. This will always attempt
224to print out information even if the connection fails. Normally information
225will only be printed out once if the connection succeeds. This option is useful
226because the cipher in use may be renegotiated or the connection may fail
227because a client certificate is required or is requested only after an
228attempt is made to access a certain \s-1URL\s0. Note: the output produced by this
229option is not always accurate because a connection might never have been
230established.
231.Ip "\fB\-state\fR" 4
232.IX Item "-state"
233prints out the \s-1SSL\s0 session states.
234.Ip "\fB\-debug\fR" 4
235.IX Item "-debug"
236print extensive debugging information including a hex dump of all traffic.
237.Ip "\fB\-msg\fR" 4
238.IX Item "-msg"
239show all protocol messages with hex dump.
240.Ip "\fB\-nbio_test\fR" 4
241.IX Item "-nbio_test"
242tests non-blocking I/O
243.Ip "\fB\-nbio\fR" 4
244.IX Item "-nbio"
245turns on non-blocking I/O
246.Ip "\fB\-crlf\fR" 4
247.IX Item "-crlf"
248this option translated a line feed from the terminal into \s-1CR+LF\s0 as required
249by some servers.
250.Ip "\fB\-ign_eof\fR" 4
251.IX Item "-ign_eof"
252inhibit shutting down the connection when end of file is reached in the
253input.
254.Ip "\fB\-quiet\fR" 4
255.IX Item "-quiet"
256inhibit printing of session and certificate information. This implicitly
257turns on \fB\-ign_eof\fR as well.
258.Ip "\fB\-ssl2\fR, \fB\-ssl3\fR, \fB\-tls1\fR, \fB\-no_ssl2\fR, \fB\-no_ssl3\fR, \fB\-no_tls1\fR" 4
259.IX Item "-ssl2, -ssl3, -tls1, -no_ssl2, -no_ssl3, -no_tls1"
260these options disable the use of certain \s-1SSL\s0 or \s-1TLS\s0 protocols. By default
261the initial handshake uses a method which should be compatible with all
262servers and permit them to use \s-1SSL\s0 v3, \s-1SSL\s0 v2 or \s-1TLS\s0 as appropriate.
263.Sp
264Unfortunately there are a lot of ancient and broken servers in use which
265cannot handle this technique and will fail to connect. Some servers only
266work if \s-1TLS\s0 is turned off with the \fB\-no_tls\fR option others will only
267support \s-1SSL\s0 v2 and may need the \fB\-ssl2\fR option.
268.Ip "\fB\-bugs\fR" 4
269.IX Item "-bugs"
270there are several known bug in \s-1SSL\s0 and \s-1TLS\s0 implementations. Adding this
271option enables various workarounds.
272.Ip "\fB\-cipher cipherlist\fR" 4
273.IX Item "-cipher cipherlist"
274this allows the cipher list sent by the client to be modified. Although
275the server determines which cipher suite is used it should take the first
276supported cipher in the list sent by the client. See the \fBciphers\fR
277command for more information.
278.Ip "\fB\-engine id\fR" 4
279.IX Item "-engine id"
280specifying an engine (by it's unique \fBid\fR string) will cause \fBs_client\fR
281to attempt to obtain a functional reference to the specified engine,
282thus initialising it if needed. The engine will then be set as the default
283for all available algorithms.
284.Ip "\fB\-rand \f(BIfile\fB\|(s)\fR" 4
285.IX Item "-rand file"
286a file or files containing random data used to seed the random number
287generator, or an \s-1EGD\s0 socket (see RAND_egd(3)).
288Multiple files can be specified separated by a OS-dependent character.
289The separator is \fB;\fR for MS-Windows, \fB,\fR for OpenVMS, and \fB:\fR for
290all others.
291.SH "CONNECTED COMMANDS"
292.IX Header "CONNECTED COMMANDS"
293If a connection is established with an \s-1SSL\s0 server then any data received
294from the server is displayed and any key presses will be sent to the
295server. When used interactively (which means neither \fB\-quiet\fR nor \fB\-ign_eof\fR
296have been given), the session will be renegotiated if the line begins with an
297\&\fBR\fR, and if the line begins with a \fBQ\fR or if end of file is reached, the
298connection will be closed down.
299.SH "NOTES"
300.IX Header "NOTES"
301\&\fBs_client\fR can be used to debug \s-1SSL\s0 servers. To connect to an \s-1SSL\s0 \s-1HTTP\s0
302server the command:
303.PP
304.Vb 1
305\& openssl s_client -connect servername:443
306.Ve
307would typically be used (https uses port 443). If the connection succeeds
308then an \s-1HTTP\s0 command can be given such as \*(L"\s-1GET\s0 /\*(R" to retrieve a web page.
309.PP
310If the handshake fails then there are several possible causes, if it is
311nothing obvious like no client certificate then the \fB\-bugs\fR, \fB\-ssl2\fR,
312\&\fB\-ssl3\fR, \fB\-tls1\fR, \fB\-no_ssl2\fR, \fB\-no_ssl3\fR, \fB\-no_tls1\fR can be tried
313in case it is a buggy server. In particular you should play with these
314options \fBbefore\fR submitting a bug report to an OpenSSL mailing list.
315.PP
316A frequent problem when attempting to get client certificates working
317is that a web client complains it has no certificates or gives an empty
318list to choose from. This is normally because the server is not sending
319the clients certificate authority in its \*(L"acceptable \s-1CA\s0 list\*(R" when it
320requests a certificate. By using \fBs_client\fR the \s-1CA\s0 list can be viewed
321and checked. However some servers only request client authentication
322after a specific \s-1URL\s0 is requested. To obtain the list in this case it
323is necessary to use the \fB\-prexit\fR command and send an \s-1HTTP\s0 request
324for an appropriate page.
325.PP
326If a certificate is specified on the command line using the \fB\-cert\fR
327option it will not be used unless the server specifically requests
328a client certificate. Therefor merely including a client certificate
329on the command line is no guarantee that the certificate works.
330.PP
331If there are problems verifying a server certificate then the
332\&\fB\-showcerts\fR option can be used to show the whole chain.
333.SH "BUGS"
334.IX Header "BUGS"
335Because this program has a lot of options and also because some of
336the techniques used are rather old, the C source of s_client is rather
337hard to read and not a model of how things should be done. A typical
338\&\s-1SSL\s0 client program would be much simpler.
339.PP
340The \fB\-verify\fR option should really exit if the server verification
341fails.
342.PP
343The \fB\-prexit\fR option is a bit of a hack. We should really report
344information whenever a session is renegotiated.
345.SH "SEE ALSO"
346.IX Header "SEE ALSO"
347sess_id(1), s_server(1), ciphers(1)