Sync zoneinfo database with tzdata2009h from elsie.
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34850bd5 1# <pre>
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2# @(#)australasia 8.11
3# This file is in the public domain, so clarified as of
4# 2009-05-17 by Arthur David Olson.
34850bd5 5
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6# This file also includes Pacific islands.
7
8# Notes are at the end of this file
9
10###############################################################################
11
12# Australia
13
14# Please see the notes below for the controversy about "EST" versus "AEST" etc.
15
16# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
17Rule Aus 1917 only - Jan 1 0:01 1:00 -
18Rule Aus 1917 only - Mar 25 2:00 0 -
19Rule Aus 1942 only - Jan 1 2:00 1:00 -
20Rule Aus 1942 only - Mar 29 2:00 0 -
21Rule Aus 1942 only - Sep 27 2:00 1:00 -
22Rule Aus 1943 1944 - Mar lastSun 2:00 0 -
23Rule Aus 1943 only - Oct 3 2:00 1:00 -
24# Go with Whitman and the Australian National Standards Commission, which
25# says W Australia didn't use DST in 1943/1944. Ignore Whitman's claim that
26# 1944/1945 was just like 1943/1944.
27
28# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
29# Northern Territory
30Zone Australia/Darwin 8:43:20 - LMT 1895 Feb
31 9:00 - CST 1899 May
32 9:30 Aus CST
33# Western Australia
37cabc10 34#
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35# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
36Rule AW 1974 only - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 -
37Rule AW 1975 only - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
38Rule AW 1983 only - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 -
39Rule AW 1984 only - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
40Rule AW 1991 only - Nov 17 2:00s 1:00 -
41Rule AW 1992 only - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
42Rule AW 2006 only - Dec 3 2:00s 1:00 -
43Rule AW 2007 2009 - Mar lastSun 2:00s 0 -
44Rule AW 2007 2008 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 -
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45Zone Australia/Perth 7:43:24 - LMT 1895 Dec
46 8:00 Aus WST 1943 Jul
37cabc10 47 8:00 AW WST
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48Zone Australia/Eucla 8:35:28 - LMT 1895 Dec
49 8:45 Aus CWST 1943 Jul
50 8:45 AW CWST
51
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52# Queensland
53#
9ffe4b14 54# From Alex Livingston (1996-11-01):
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55# I have heard or read more than once that some resort islands off the coast
56# of Queensland chose to keep observing daylight-saving time even after
57# Queensland ceased to.
58#
59# From Paul Eggert (1996-11-22):
60# IATA SSIM (1993-02/1994-09) say that the Holiday Islands (Hayman, Lindeman,
61# Hamilton) observed DST for two years after the rest of Queensland stopped.
62# Hamilton is the largest, but there is also a Hamilton in Victoria,
63# so use Lindeman.
64#
65# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
66Rule AQ 1971 only - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 -
67Rule AQ 1972 only - Feb lastSun 2:00s 0 -
68Rule AQ 1989 1991 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 -
69Rule AQ 1990 1992 - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
70Rule Holiday 1992 1993 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 -
71Rule Holiday 1993 1994 - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
72Zone Australia/Brisbane 10:12:08 - LMT 1895
73 10:00 Aus EST 1971
74 10:00 AQ EST
75Zone Australia/Lindeman 9:55:56 - LMT 1895
76 10:00 Aus EST 1971
77 10:00 AQ EST 1992 Jul
78 10:00 Holiday EST
79
80# South Australia
81# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
82Rule AS 1971 1985 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 -
83Rule AS 1986 only - Oct 19 2:00s 1:00 -
0e49ec84 84Rule AS 1987 2007 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 -
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85Rule AS 1972 only - Feb 27 2:00s 0 -
86Rule AS 1973 1985 - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
87Rule AS 1986 1989 - Mar Sun>=15 2:00s 0 -
88Rule AS 1990 only - Mar Sun>=18 2:00s 0 -
89Rule AS 1991 only - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
90Rule AS 1992 only - Mar Sun>=18 2:00s 0 -
91Rule AS 1993 only - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
92Rule AS 1994 only - Mar Sun>=18 2:00s 0 -
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93Rule AS 1995 2005 - Mar lastSun 2:00s 0 -
94Rule AS 2006 only - Apr Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
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95Rule AS 2007 only - Mar lastSun 2:00s 0 -
96Rule AS 2008 max - Apr Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
97Rule AS 2008 max - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 1:00 -
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98# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
99Zone Australia/Adelaide 9:14:20 - LMT 1895 Feb
100 9:00 - CST 1899 May
101 9:30 Aus CST 1971
102 9:30 AS CST
103
104# Tasmania
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105#
106# From Paul Eggert (2005-08-16):
107# <http://www.bom.gov.au/climate/averages/tables/dst_times.shtml>
108# says King Island didn't observe DST from WWII until late 1971.
109#
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110# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
111Rule AT 1967 only - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 1:00 -
112Rule AT 1968 only - Mar lastSun 2:00s 0 -
113Rule AT 1968 1985 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 -
114Rule AT 1969 1971 - Mar Sun>=8 2:00s 0 -
115Rule AT 1972 only - Feb lastSun 2:00s 0 -
116Rule AT 1973 1981 - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
117Rule AT 1982 1983 - Mar lastSun 2:00s 0 -
118Rule AT 1984 1986 - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
119Rule AT 1986 only - Oct Sun>=15 2:00s 1:00 -
120Rule AT 1987 1990 - Mar Sun>=15 2:00s 0 -
121Rule AT 1987 only - Oct Sun>=22 2:00s 1:00 -
122Rule AT 1988 1990 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 -
123Rule AT 1991 1999 - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 1:00 -
9ffe4b14 124Rule AT 1991 2005 - Mar lastSun 2:00s 0 -
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125Rule AT 2000 only - Aug lastSun 2:00s 1:00 -
126Rule AT 2001 max - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 1:00 -
9ffe4b14 127Rule AT 2006 only - Apr Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
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128Rule AT 2007 only - Mar lastSun 2:00s 0 -
129Rule AT 2008 max - Apr Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
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130# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
131Zone Australia/Hobart 9:49:16 - LMT 1895 Sep
132 10:00 - EST 1916 Oct 1 2:00
133 10:00 1:00 EST 1917 Feb
134 10:00 Aus EST 1967
135 10:00 AT EST
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136Zone Australia/Currie 9:35:28 - LMT 1895 Sep
137 10:00 - EST 1916 Oct 1 2:00
138 10:00 1:00 EST 1917 Feb
139 10:00 Aus EST 1971 Jul
140 10:00 AT EST
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141
142# Victoria
143# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
144Rule AV 1971 1985 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 -
145Rule AV 1972 only - Feb lastSun 2:00s 0 -
146Rule AV 1973 1985 - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
147Rule AV 1986 1990 - Mar Sun>=15 2:00s 0 -
148Rule AV 1986 1987 - Oct Sun>=15 2:00s 1:00 -
149Rule AV 1988 1999 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 -
150Rule AV 1991 1994 - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
9ffe4b14 151Rule AV 1995 2005 - Mar lastSun 2:00s 0 -
984263bc 152Rule AV 2000 only - Aug lastSun 2:00s 1:00 -
0e49ec84 153Rule AV 2001 2007 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 -
9ffe4b14 154Rule AV 2006 only - Apr Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
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155Rule AV 2007 only - Mar lastSun 2:00s 0 -
156Rule AV 2008 max - Apr Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
157Rule AV 2008 max - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 1:00 -
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158# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
159Zone Australia/Melbourne 9:39:52 - LMT 1895 Feb
160 10:00 Aus EST 1971
161 10:00 AV EST
162
163# New South Wales
164# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
165Rule AN 1971 1985 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 -
166Rule AN 1972 only - Feb 27 2:00s 0 -
167Rule AN 1973 1981 - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
168Rule AN 1982 only - Apr Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
169Rule AN 1983 1985 - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
170Rule AN 1986 1989 - Mar Sun>=15 2:00s 0 -
171Rule AN 1986 only - Oct 19 2:00s 1:00 -
172Rule AN 1987 1999 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 -
173Rule AN 1990 1995 - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
9ffe4b14 174Rule AN 1996 2005 - Mar lastSun 2:00s 0 -
984263bc 175Rule AN 2000 only - Aug lastSun 2:00s 1:00 -
0e49ec84 176Rule AN 2001 2007 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 -
9ffe4b14 177Rule AN 2006 only - Apr Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
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178Rule AN 2007 only - Mar lastSun 2:00s 0 -
179Rule AN 2008 max - Apr Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
180Rule AN 2008 max - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 1:00 -
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181# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
182Zone Australia/Sydney 10:04:52 - LMT 1895 Feb
183 10:00 Aus EST 1971
184 10:00 AN EST
185Zone Australia/Broken_Hill 9:25:48 - LMT 1895 Feb
186 10:00 - EST 1896 Aug 23
187 9:00 - CST 1899 May
188 9:30 Aus CST 1971
189 9:30 AN CST 2000
190 9:30 AS CST
191
192# Lord Howe Island
193# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
194Rule LH 1981 1984 - Oct lastSun 2:00 1:00 -
195Rule LH 1982 1985 - Mar Sun>=1 2:00 0 -
196Rule LH 1985 only - Oct lastSun 2:00 0:30 -
197Rule LH 1986 1989 - Mar Sun>=15 2:00 0 -
198Rule LH 1986 only - Oct 19 2:00 0:30 -
199Rule LH 1987 1999 - Oct lastSun 2:00 0:30 -
200Rule LH 1990 1995 - Mar Sun>=1 2:00 0 -
9ffe4b14 201Rule LH 1996 2005 - Mar lastSun 2:00 0 -
984263bc 202Rule LH 2000 only - Aug lastSun 2:00 0:30 -
0e49ec84 203Rule LH 2001 2007 - Oct lastSun 2:00 0:30 -
9ffe4b14 204Rule LH 2006 only - Apr Sun>=1 2:00 0 -
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205Rule LH 2007 only - Mar lastSun 2:00 0 -
206Rule LH 2008 max - Apr Sun>=1 2:00 0 -
207Rule LH 2008 max - Oct Sun>=1 2:00 0:30 -
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208Zone Australia/Lord_Howe 10:36:20 - LMT 1895 Feb
209 10:00 - EST 1981 Mar
210 10:30 LH LHST
211
212# Australian miscellany
213#
214# Ashmore Is, Cartier
215# no indigenous inhabitants; only seasonal caretakers
880368e2 216# no times are set
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217#
218# Coral Sea Is
219# no indigenous inhabitants; only meteorologists
880368e2 220# no times are set
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221#
222# Macquarie
223# permanent occupation (scientific station) since 1948;
224# sealing and penguin oil station operated 1888/1917
880368e2 225# like Australia/Hobart
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226
227# Christmas
228# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
229Zone Indian/Christmas 7:02:52 - LMT 1895 Feb
230 7:00 - CXT # Christmas Island Time
231
232# Cook Is
bd7414aa 233# From Shanks & Pottenger:
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234# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
235Rule Cook 1978 only - Nov 12 0:00 0:30 HS
236Rule Cook 1979 1991 - Mar Sun>=1 0:00 0 -
237Rule Cook 1979 1990 - Oct lastSun 0:00 0:30 HS
238# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
239Zone Pacific/Rarotonga -10:39:04 - LMT 1901 # Avarua
240 -10:30 - CKT 1978 Nov 12 # Cook Is Time
241 -10:00 Cook CK%sT
242
243# Cocos
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244# These islands were ruled by the Ross family from about 1830 to 1978.
245# We don't know when standard time was introduced; for now, we guess 1900.
984263bc 246# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
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247Zone Indian/Cocos 6:27:40 - LMT 1900
248 6:30 - CCT # Cocos Islands Time
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249
250# Fiji
251# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
252Rule Fiji 1998 1999 - Nov Sun>=1 2:00 1:00 S
253Rule Fiji 1999 2000 - Feb lastSun 3:00 0 -
254# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
255Zone Pacific/Fiji 11:53:40 - LMT 1915 Oct 26 # Suva
256 12:00 Fiji FJ%sT # Fiji Time
257
258# French Polynesia
259# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
260Zone Pacific/Gambier -8:59:48 - LMT 1912 Oct # Rikitea
261 -9:00 - GAMT # Gambier Time
262Zone Pacific/Marquesas -9:18:00 - LMT 1912 Oct
263 -9:30 - MART # Marquesas Time
264Zone Pacific/Tahiti -9:58:16 - LMT 1912 Oct # Papeete
265 -10:00 - TAHT # Tahiti Time
266# Clipperton (near North America) is administered from French Polynesia;
267# it is uninhabited.
268
269# Guam
270# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
271Zone Pacific/Guam -14:21:00 - LMT 1844 Dec 31
272 9:39:00 - LMT 1901 # Agana
273 10:00 - GST 2000 Dec 23 # Guam
274 10:00 - ChST # Chamorro Standard Time
275
276# Kiribati
277# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
278Zone Pacific/Tarawa 11:32:04 - LMT 1901 # Bairiki
279 12:00 - GILT # Gilbert Is Time
280Zone Pacific/Enderbury -11:24:20 - LMT 1901
281 -12:00 - PHOT 1979 Oct # Phoenix Is Time
282 -11:00 - PHOT 1995
283 13:00 - PHOT
284Zone Pacific/Kiritimati -10:29:20 - LMT 1901
285 -10:40 - LINT 1979 Oct # Line Is Time
286 -10:00 - LINT 1995
287 14:00 - LINT
288
289# N Mariana Is
290# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
291Zone Pacific/Saipan -14:17:00 - LMT 1844 Dec 31
292 9:43:00 - LMT 1901
293 9:00 - MPT 1969 Oct # N Mariana Is Time
294 10:00 - MPT 2000 Dec 23
295 10:00 - ChST # Chamorro Standard Time
296
297# Marshall Is
298# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
299Zone Pacific/Majuro 11:24:48 - LMT 1901
300 11:00 - MHT 1969 Oct # Marshall Islands Time
301 12:00 - MHT
302Zone Pacific/Kwajalein 11:09:20 - LMT 1901
303 11:00 - MHT 1969 Oct
304 -12:00 - KWAT 1993 Aug 20 # Kwajalein Time
305 12:00 - MHT
306
307# Micronesia
308# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
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309Zone Pacific/Truk 10:07:08 - LMT 1901
310 10:00 - TRUT # Truk Time
311Zone Pacific/Ponape 10:32:52 - LMT 1901 # Kolonia
312 11:00 - PONT # Ponape Time
313Zone Pacific/Kosrae 10:51:56 - LMT 1901
314 11:00 - KOST 1969 Oct # Kosrae Time
315 12:00 - KOST 1999
316 11:00 - KOST
317
318# Nauru
319# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
320Zone Pacific/Nauru 11:07:40 - LMT 1921 Jan 15 # Uaobe
321 11:30 - NRT 1942 Mar 15 # Nauru Time
322 9:00 - JST 1944 Aug 15
323 11:30 - NRT 1979 May
324 12:00 - NRT
325
326# New Caledonia
327# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
328Rule NC 1977 1978 - Dec Sun>=1 0:00 1:00 S
329Rule NC 1978 1979 - Feb 27 0:00 0 -
330Rule NC 1996 only - Dec 1 2:00s 1:00 S
bd7414aa 331# Shanks & Pottenger say the following was at 2:00; go with IATA.
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332Rule NC 1997 only - Mar 2 2:00s 0 -
333# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
334Zone Pacific/Noumea 11:05:48 - LMT 1912 Jan 13
335 11:00 NC NC%sT
336
337
338###############################################################################
339
340# New Zealand
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341
342# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
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343Rule NZ 1927 only - Nov 6 2:00 1:00 S
344Rule NZ 1928 only - Mar 4 2:00 0 M
345Rule NZ 1928 1933 - Oct Sun>=8 2:00 0:30 S
346Rule NZ 1929 1933 - Mar Sun>=15 2:00 0 M
347Rule NZ 1934 1940 - Apr lastSun 2:00 0 M
348Rule NZ 1934 1940 - Sep lastSun 2:00 0:30 S
349Rule NZ 1946 only - Jan 1 0:00 0 S
350# Since 1957 Chatham has been 45 minutes ahead of NZ, but there's no
351# convenient notation for this so we must duplicate the Rule lines.
984263bc 352Rule NZ 1974 only - Nov Sun>=1 2:00s 1:00 D
ba5ba9da 353Rule Chatham 1974 only - Nov Sun>=1 2:45s 1:00 D
984263bc 354Rule NZ 1975 only - Feb lastSun 2:00s 0 S
ba5ba9da 355Rule Chatham 1975 only - Feb lastSun 2:45s 0 S
984263bc 356Rule NZ 1975 1988 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 D
ba5ba9da 357Rule Chatham 1975 1988 - Oct lastSun 2:45s 1:00 D
984263bc 358Rule NZ 1976 1989 - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 S
ba5ba9da 359Rule Chatham 1976 1989 - Mar Sun>=1 2:45s 0 S
984263bc 360Rule NZ 1989 only - Oct Sun>=8 2:00s 1:00 D
ba5ba9da 361Rule Chatham 1989 only - Oct Sun>=8 2:45s 1:00 D
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362Rule NZ 1990 2006 - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 1:00 D
363Rule Chatham 1990 2006 - Oct Sun>=1 2:45s 1:00 D
364Rule NZ 1990 2007 - Mar Sun>=15 2:00s 0 S
365Rule Chatham 1990 2007 - Mar Sun>=15 2:45s 0 S
366Rule NZ 2007 max - Sep lastSun 2:00s 1:00 D
367Rule Chatham 2007 max - Sep lastSun 2:45s 1:00 D
368Rule NZ 2008 max - Apr Sun>=1 2:00s 0 S
369Rule Chatham 2008 max - Apr Sun>=1 2:45s 0 S
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370# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
371Zone Pacific/Auckland 11:39:04 - LMT 1868 Nov 2
ba5ba9da 372 11:30 NZ NZ%sT 1946 Jan 1
984263bc 373 12:00 NZ NZ%sT
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374Zone Pacific/Chatham 12:13:48 - LMT 1957 Jan 1
375 12:45 Chatham CHA%sT
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376
377
378# Auckland Is
379# uninhabited; Maori and Moriori, colonial settlers, pastoralists, sealers,
380# and scientific personnel have wintered
381
382# Campbell I
383# minor whaling stations operated 1909/1914
384# scientific station operated 1941/1995;
385# previously whalers, sealers, pastoralists, and scientific personnel wintered
386# was probably like Pacific/Auckland
387
388###############################################################################
389
390
391# Niue
392# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
393Zone Pacific/Niue -11:19:40 - LMT 1901 # Alofi
394 -11:20 - NUT 1951 # Niue Time
395 -11:30 - NUT 1978 Oct 1
396 -11:00 - NUT
397
398# Norfolk
399# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
400Zone Pacific/Norfolk 11:11:52 - LMT 1901 # Kingston
401 11:12 - NMT 1951 # Norfolk Mean Time
402 11:30 - NFT # Norfolk Time
403
404# Palau (Belau)
405# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
406Zone Pacific/Palau 8:57:56 - LMT 1901 # Koror
407 9:00 - PWT # Palau Time
408
409# Papua New Guinea
410# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
411Zone Pacific/Port_Moresby 9:48:40 - LMT 1880
412 9:48:32 - PMMT 1895 # Port Moresby Mean Time
413 10:00 - PGT # Papua New Guinea Time
414
415# Pitcairn
416# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
417Zone Pacific/Pitcairn -8:40:20 - LMT 1901 # Adamstown
418 -8:30 - PNT 1998 Apr 27 00:00
419 -8:00 - PST # Pitcairn Standard Time
420
421# American Samoa
422Zone Pacific/Pago_Pago 12:37:12 - LMT 1879 Jul 5
423 -11:22:48 - LMT 1911
424 -11:30 - SAMT 1950 # Samoa Time
425 -11:00 - NST 1967 Apr # N=Nome
426 -11:00 - BST 1983 Nov 30 # B=Bering
427 -11:00 - SST # S=Samoa
428
bc95ec93 429# Samoa
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430Zone Pacific/Apia 12:33:04 - LMT 1879 Jul 5
431 -11:26:56 - LMT 1911
432 -11:30 - SAMT 1950 # Samoa Time
bc95ec93 433 -11:00 - WST # Samoa Time
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434
435# Solomon Is
436# excludes Bougainville, for which see Papua New Guinea
437# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
438Zone Pacific/Guadalcanal 10:39:48 - LMT 1912 Oct # Honiara
439 11:00 - SBT # Solomon Is Time
440
441# Tokelau Is
442# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
443Zone Pacific/Fakaofo -11:24:56 - LMT 1901
444 -10:00 - TKT # Tokelau Time
445
446# Tonga
447# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
448Rule Tonga 1999 only - Oct 7 2:00s 1:00 S
449Rule Tonga 2000 only - Mar 19 2:00s 0 -
450Rule Tonga 2000 2001 - Nov Sun>=1 2:00 1:00 S
451Rule Tonga 2001 2002 - Jan lastSun 2:00 0 -
452# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
453Zone Pacific/Tongatapu 12:19:20 - LMT 1901
454 12:20 - TOT 1941 # Tonga Time
455 13:00 - TOT 1999
456 13:00 Tonga TO%sT
457
458# Tuvalu
459# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
460Zone Pacific/Funafuti 11:56:52 - LMT 1901
461 12:00 - TVT # Tuvalu Time
462
463
464# US minor outlying islands
465
466# Howland, Baker
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467# Howland was mined for guano by American companies 1857-1878 and British
468# 1886-1891; Baker was similar but exact dates are not known.
469# Inhabited by civilians 1935-1942; U.S. military bases 1943-1944;
470# uninhabited thereafter.
471# Howland observed Hawaii Standard Time (UTC-10:30) in 1937;
472# see page 206 of Elgen M. Long and Marie K. Long,
473# Amelia Earhart: the Mystery Solved, Simon & Schuster (2000).
474# So most likely Howland and Baker observed Hawaii Time from 1935
475# until they were abandoned after the war.
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476
477# Jarvis
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478# Mined for guano by American companies 1857-1879 and British 1883?-1891?.
479# Inhabited by civilians 1935-1942; IGY scientific base 1957-1958;
480# uninhabited thereafter.
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481# no information; was probably like Pacific/Kiritimati
482
483# Johnston
484# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
485Zone Pacific/Johnston -10:00 - HST
486
487# Kingman
488# uninhabited
489
490# Midway
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491#
492# From Mark Brader (2005-01-23):
493# [Fallacies and Fantasies of Air Transport History, by R.E.G. Davies,
494# published 1994 by Paladwr Press, McLean, VA, USA; ISBN 0-9626483-5-3]
495# reproduced a Pan American Airways timeables from 1936, for their weekly
496# "Orient Express" flights between San Francisco and Manila, and connecting
497# flights to Chicago and the US East Coast. As it uses some time zone
498# designations that I've never seen before:....
499# Fri. 6:30A Lv. HONOLOLU (Pearl Harbor), H.I. H.L.T. Ar. 5:30P Sun.
500# " 3:00P Ar. MIDWAY ISLAND . . . . . . . . . M.L.T. Lv. 6:00A "
501#
984263bc 502Zone Pacific/Midway -11:49:28 - LMT 1901
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503 -11:00 - NST 1956 Jun 3
504 -11:00 1:00 NDT 1956 Sep 2
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505 -11:00 - NST 1967 Apr # N=Nome
506 -11:00 - BST 1983 Nov 30 # B=Bering
507 -11:00 - SST # S=Samoa
508
509# Palmyra
510# uninhabited since World War II; was probably like Pacific/Kiritimati
511
512# Wake
513# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
514Zone Pacific/Wake 11:06:28 - LMT 1901
515 12:00 - WAKT # Wake Time
516
517
518# Vanuatu
519# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
520Rule Vanuatu 1983 only - Sep 25 0:00 1:00 S
521Rule Vanuatu 1984 1991 - Mar Sun>=23 0:00 0 -
522Rule Vanuatu 1984 only - Oct 23 0:00 1:00 S
523Rule Vanuatu 1985 1991 - Sep Sun>=23 0:00 1:00 S
524Rule Vanuatu 1992 1993 - Jan Sun>=23 0:00 0 -
525Rule Vanuatu 1992 only - Oct Sun>=23 0:00 1:00 S
526# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
527Zone Pacific/Efate 11:13:16 - LMT 1912 Jan 13 # Vila
528 11:00 Vanuatu VU%sT # Vanuatu Time
529
530# Wallis and Futuna
531# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
532Zone Pacific/Wallis 12:15:20 - LMT 1901
533 12:00 - WFT # Wallis & Futuna Time
534
535###############################################################################
536
537# NOTES
538
539# This data is by no means authoritative; if you think you know better,
540# go ahead and edit the file (and please send any changes to
541# tz@elsie.nci.nih.gov for general use in the future).
542
bd7414aa 543# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
984263bc 544# A good source for time zone historical data outside the U.S. is
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545# Thomas G. Shanks and Rique Pottenger, The International Atlas (6th edition),
546# San Diego: ACS Publications, Inc. (2003).
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547#
548# Gwillim Law writes that a good source
549# for recent time zone data is the International Air Transport
550# Association's Standard Schedules Information Manual (IATA SSIM),
551# published semiannually. Law sent in several helpful summaries
552# of the IATA's data after 1990.
553#
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554# Except where otherwise noted, Shanks & Pottenger is the source for
555# entries through 1990, and IATA SSIM is the source for entries afterwards.
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556#
557# Another source occasionally used is Edward W. Whitman, World Time Differences,
558# Whitman Publishing Co, 2 Niagara Av, Ealing, London (undated), which
559# I found in the UCLA library.
560#
561# A reliable and entertaining source about time zones is
562# Derek Howse, Greenwich time and longitude, Philip Wilson Publishers (1997).
563#
564# I invented the abbreviations marked `*' in the following table;
565# the rest are from earlier versions of this file, or from other sources.
566# Corrections are welcome!
567# std dst
568# LMT Local Mean Time
569# 8:00 WST WST Western Australia
880368e2 570# 8:45 CWST CWST Central Western Australia*
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571# 9:00 JST Japan
572# 9:30 CST CST Central Australia
573# 10:00 EST EST Eastern Australia
574# 10:00 ChST Chamorro
575# 10:30 LHST LHST Lord Howe*
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576# 11:30 NZMT NZST New Zealand through 1945
577# 12:00 NZST NZDT New Zealand 1946-present
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578# 12:45 CHAST CHADT Chatham*
579# -11:00 SST Samoa
580# -10:00 HST Hawaii
581# - 8:00 PST Pitcairn*
582#
583# See the `northamerica' file for Hawaii.
584# See the `southamerica' file for Easter I and the Galapagos Is.
585
586###############################################################################
587
588# Australia
589
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590# From Paul Eggert (2005-12-08):
591# <a href="http://www.bom.gov.au/climate/averages/tables/dst_times.shtml">
592# Implementation Dates of Daylight Saving Time within Australia
593# </a> summarizes daylight saving issues in Australia.
594
595# From Arthur David Olson (2005-12-12):
596# <a href="http://www.lawlink.nsw.gov.au/lawlink/Corporate/ll_agdinfo.nsf/pages/community_relations_daylight_saving">
597# Lawlink NSW:Daylight Saving in New South Wales
598# </a> covers New South Wales in particular.
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599
600# From John Mackin (1991-03-06):
601# We in Australia have _never_ referred to DST as `daylight' time.
602# It is called `summer' time. Now by a happy coincidence, `summer'
603# and `standard' happen to start with the same letter; hence, the
604# abbreviation does _not_ change...
605# The legislation does not actually define abbreviations, at least
606# in this State, but the abbreviation is just commonly taken to be the
607# initials of the phrase, and the legislation here uniformly uses
608# the phrase `summer time' and does not use the phrase `daylight
609# time'.
610# Announcers on the Commonwealth radio network, the ABC (for Australian
611# Broadcasting Commission), use the phrases `Eastern Standard Time'
612# or `Eastern Summer Time'. (Note, though, that as I say in the
613# current australasia file, there is really no such thing.) Announcers
614# on its overseas service, Radio Australia, use the same phrases
615# prefixed by the word `Australian' when referring to local times;
616# time announcements on that service, naturally enough, are made in UTC.
617
618# From Arthur David Olson (1992-03-08):
619# Given the above, what's chosen for year-round use is:
620# CST for any place operating at a GMTOFF of 9:30
621# WST for any place operating at a GMTOFF of 8:00
622# EST for any place operating at a GMTOFF of 10:00
623
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624# From Chuck Soper (2006-06-01):
625# I recently found this Australian government web page on time zones:
626# <http://www.australia.gov.au/about-australia-13time>
627# And this government web page lists time zone names and abbreviations:
628# <http://www.bom.gov.au/climate/averages/tables/daysavtm.shtml>
629
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630# From Paul Eggert (2001-04-05), summarizing a long discussion about "EST"
631# versus "AEST" etc.:
632#
633# I see the following points of dispute:
634#
635# * How important are unique time zone abbreviations?
636#
637# Here I tend to agree with the point (most recently made by Chris
638# Newman) that unique abbreviations should not be essential for proper
639# operation of software. We have other instances of ambiguity
640# (e.g. "IST" denoting both "Israel Standard Time" and "Indian
641# Standard Time"), and they are not likely to go away any time soon.
642# In the old days, some software mistakenly relied on unique
643# abbreviations, but this is becoming less true with time, and I don't
644# think it's that important to cater to such software these days.
645#
646# On the other hand, there is another motivation for unambiguous
647# abbreviations: it cuts down on human confusion. This is
648# particularly true for Australia, where "EST" can mean one thing for
649# time T and a different thing for time T plus 1 second.
650#
651# * Does the relevant legislation indicate which abbreviations should be used?
652#
653# Here I tend to think that things are a mess, just as they are in
654# many other countries. We Americans are currently disagreeing about
655# which abbreviation to use for the newly legislated Chamorro Standard
656# Time, for example.
657#
658# Personally, I would prefer to use common practice; I would like to
659# refer to legislation only for examples of common practice, or as a
660# tiebreaker.
661#
662# * Do Australians more often use "Eastern Daylight Time" or "Eastern
663# Summer Time"? Do they typically prefix the time zone names with
664# the word "Australian"?
665#
666# My own impression is that both "Daylight Time" and "Summer Time" are
667# common and are widely understood, but that "Summer Time" is more
668# popular; and that the leading "A" is also common but is omitted more
669# often than not. I just used AltaVista advanced search and got the
670# following count of page hits:
671#
672# 1,103 "Eastern Summer Time" AND domain:au
673# 971 "Australian Eastern Summer Time" AND domain:au
674# 613 "Eastern Daylight Time" AND domain:au
675# 127 "Australian Eastern Daylight Time" AND domain:au
676#
677# Here "Summer" seems quite a bit more popular than "Daylight",
678# particularly when we know the time zone is Australian and not US,
679# say. The "Australian" prefix seems to be popular for Eastern Summer
680# Time, but unpopular for Eastern Daylight Time.
681#
682# For abbreviations, tools like AltaVista are less useful because of
683# ambiguity. Many hits are not really time zones, unfortunately, and
684# many hits denote US time zones and not Australian ones. But here
685# are the hit counts anyway:
686#
687# 161,304 "EST" and domain:au
688# 25,156 "EDT" and domain:au
689# 18,263 "AEST" and domain:au
690# 10,416 "AEDT" and domain:au
691#
692# 14,538 "CST" and domain:au
693# 5,728 "CDT" and domain:au
694# 176 "ACST" and domain:au
695# 29 "ACDT" and domain:au
696#
697# 7,539 "WST" and domain:au
698# 68 "AWST" and domain:au
699#
700# This data suggest that Australians tend to omit the "A" prefix in
701# practice. The situation for "ST" versus "DT" is less clear, given
702# the ambiguities involved.
703#
704# * How do Australians feel about the abbreviations in the tz database?
705#
706# If you just count Australians on this list, I count 2 in favor and 3
707# against. One of the "against" votes (David Keegel) counseled delay,
708# saying that both AEST/AEDT and EST/EST are widely used and
709# understood in Australia.
710
711# From Paul Eggert (1995-12-19):
bd7414aa 712# Shanks & Pottenger report 2:00 for all autumn changes in Australia and NZ.
9ffe4b14 713# Mark Prior writes that his newspaper
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714# reports that NSW's fall 1995 change will occur at 2:00,
715# but Robert Elz says it's been 3:00 in Victoria since 1970
716# and perhaps the newspaper's `2:00' is referring to standard time.
717# For now we'll continue to assume 2:00s for changes since 1960.
718
9ffe4b14 719# From Eric Ulevik (1998-01-05):
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720#
721# Here are some URLs to Australian time legislation. These URLs are stable,
722# and should probably be included in the data file. There are probably more
723# relevant entries in this database.
724#
725# NSW (including LHI and Broken Hill):
726# <a href="http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/nsw/consol_act/sta1987137/index.html">
727# Standard Time Act 1987 (updated 1995-04-04)
728# </a>
729# ACT
730# <a href="http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/act/consol_act/stasta1972279/index.html">
731# Standard Time and Summer Time Act 1972
732# </a>
733# SA
734# <a href="http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/sa/consol_act/sta1898137/index.html">
735# Standard Time Act, 1898
736# </a>
737
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738# From David Grosz (2005-06-13):
739# It was announced last week that Daylight Saving would be extended by
740# one week next year to allow for the 2006 Commonwealth Games.
741# Daylight Saving is now to end for next year only on the first Sunday
742# in April instead of the last Sunday in March.
743#
744# From Gwillim Law (2005-06-14):
745# I did some Googling and found that all of those states (and territory) plan
746# to extend DST together in 2006.
747# ACT: http://www.cmd.act.gov.au/mediareleases/fileread.cfm?file=86.txt
748# New South Wales: http://www.thecouriermail.news.com.au/common/story_page/0,5936,15538869%255E1702,00.html
749# South Australia: http://www.news.com.au/story/0,10117,15555031-1246,00.html
750# Tasmania: http://www.media.tas.gov.au/release.php?id=14772
751# Victoria: I wasn't able to find anything separate, but the other articles
752# allude to it.
753# But not Queensland
754# http://www.news.com.au/story/0,10117,15564030-1248,00.html.
755
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756# Northern Territory
757
758# From George Shepherd via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06):
759# # The NORTHERN TERRITORY.. [ Courtesy N.T. Dept of the Chief Minister ]
760# # [ Nov 1990 ]
761# # N.T. have never utilised any DST due to sub-tropical/tropical location.
762# ...
763# Zone Australia/North 9:30 - CST
764
765# From Bradley White (1991-03-04):
766# A recent excerpt from an Australian newspaper...
767# the Northern Territory do[es] not have daylight saving.
768
769# Western Australia
770
771# From George Shepherd via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06):
772# # The state of WESTERN AUSTRALIA.. [ Courtesy W.A. dept Premier+Cabinet ]
773# # [ Nov 1990 ]
774# # W.A. suffers from a great deal of public and political opposition to
775# # DST in principle. A bill is brought before parliament in most years, but
776# # usually defeated either in the upper house, or in party caucus
777# # before reaching parliament.
778# ...
779# Zone Australia/West 8:00 AW %sST
780# ...
781# Rule AW 1974 only - Oct lastSun 2:00 1:00 D
782# Rule AW 1975 only - Mar Sun>=1 3:00 0 W
783# Rule AW 1983 only - Oct lastSun 2:00 1:00 D
784# Rule AW 1984 only - Mar Sun>=1 3:00 0 W
785
786# From Bradley White (1991-03-04):
787# A recent excerpt from an Australian newspaper...
788# Western Australia...do[es] not have daylight saving.
789
790# From John D. Newman via Bradley White (1991-11-02):
791# Western Australia is still on "winter time". Some DH in Sydney
792# rang me at home a few days ago at 6.00am. (He had just arrived at
793# work at 9.00am.)
794# W.A. is switching to Summer Time on Nov 17th just to confuse
795# everybody again.
796
797# From Arthur David Olson (1992-03-08):
798# The 1992 ending date used in the rules is a best guess;
799# it matches what was used in the past.
800
801# <a href="http://www.bom.gov.au/faq/faqgen.htm">
802# The Australian Bureau of Meteorology FAQ
803# </a> (1999-09-27) writes that Giles Meteorological Station uses
804# South Australian time even though it's located in Western Australia.
805
806# Queensland
807# From George Shepherd via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06):
808# # The state of QUEENSLAND.. [ Courtesy Qld. Dept Premier Econ&Trade Devel ]
809# # [ Dec 1990 ]
810# ...
811# Zone Australia/Queensland 10:00 AQ %sST
812# ...
813# Rule AQ 1971 only - Oct lastSun 2:00 1:00 D
814# Rule AQ 1972 only - Feb lastSun 3:00 0 E
815# Rule AQ 1989 max - Oct lastSun 2:00 1:00 D
816# Rule AQ 1990 max - Mar Sun>=1 3:00 0 E
817
818# From Bradley White (1989-12-24):
819# "Australia/Queensland" now observes daylight time (i.e. from
820# October 1989).
821
822# From Bradley White (1991-03-04):
823# A recent excerpt from an Australian newspaper...
824# ...Queensland...[has] agreed to end daylight saving
825# at 3am tomorrow (March 3)...
826
827# From John Mackin (1991-03-06):
828# I can certainly confirm for my part that Daylight Saving in NSW did in fact
829# end on Sunday, 3 March. I don't know at what hour, though. (It surprised
830# me.)
831
832# From Bradley White (1992-03-08):
833# ...there was recently a referendum in Queensland which resulted
834# in the experimental daylight saving system being abandoned. So, ...
835# ...
836# Rule QLD 1989 1991 - Oct lastSun 2:00 1:00 D
837# Rule QLD 1990 1992 - Mar Sun>=1 3:00 0 S
838# ...
839
840# From Arthur David Olson (1992-03-08):
841# The chosen rules the union of the 1971/1972 change and the 1989-1992 changes.
842
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843# From Christopher Hunt (2006-11-21), after an advance warning
844# from Jesper Norgaard Welen (2006-11-01):
8393cd87 845# WA are trialing DST for three years.
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846# <http://www.parliament.wa.gov.au/parliament/bills.nsf/9A1B183144403DA54825721200088DF1/$File/Bill175-1B.pdf>
847
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848# From Rives McDow (2002-04-09):
849# The most interesting region I have found consists of three towns on the
880368e2 850# southern coast.... South Australia observes daylight saving time; Western
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851# Australia does not. The two states are one and a half hours apart. The
852# residents decided to forget about this nonsense of changing the clock so
853# much and set the local time 20 hours and 45 minutes from the
854# international date line, or right in the middle of the time of South
880368e2 855# Australia and Western Australia....
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856#
857# From Paul Eggert (2002-04-09):
858# This is confirmed by the section entitled
859# "What's the deal with time zones???" in
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860# <http://www.earthsci.unimelb.edu.au/~awatkins/null.html>.
861#
862# From Alex Livingston (2006-12-07):
863# ... it was just on four years ago that I drove along the Eyre Highway,
864# which passes through eastern Western Australia close to the southern
865# coast of the continent.
866#
867# I paid particular attention to the time kept there. There can be no
868# dispute that UTC+08:45 was considered "the time" from the border
869# village just inside the border with South Australia to as far west
870# as just east of Caiguna. There can also be no dispute that Eucla is
871# the largest population centre in this zone....
872#
873# Now that Western Australia is observing daylight saving, the
874# question arose whether this part of the state would follow suit. I
875# just called the border village and confirmed that indeed they have,
876# meaning that they are now observing UTC+09:45.
8393cd87 877#
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878# (2006-12-09):
879# I personally doubt that either experimentation with daylight saving
880# in WA or its introduction in SA had anything to do with the genesis
881# of this time zone. My hunch is that it's been around since well
882# before 1975. I remember seeing it noted on road maps decades ago.
883
884# From Paul Eggert (2006-12-15):
885# For lack of better info, assume the tradition dates back to the
886# introduction of standard time in 1895.
887
984263bc 888
0e49ec84 889# southeast Australia
984263bc 890#
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891# From Paul Eggert (2007-07-23):
892# Starting autumn 2008 Victoria, NSW, South Australia, Tasmania and the ACT
893# end DST the first Sunday in April and start DST the first Sunday in October.
894# http://www.theage.com.au/news/national/daylight-savings-to-span-six-months/2007/06/27/1182623966703.html
895
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896
897# South Australia
898
899# From Bradley White (1991-03-04):
900# A recent excerpt from an Australian newspaper...
901# ...South Australia...[has] agreed to end daylight saving
902# at 3am tomorrow (March 3)...
903
904# From George Shepherd via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06):
905# # The state of SOUTH AUSTRALIA....[ Courtesy of S.A. Dept of Labour ]
906# # [ Nov 1990 ]
907# ...
908# Zone Australia/South 9:30 AS %sST
909# ...
910# Rule AS 1971 max - Oct lastSun 2:00 1:00 D
911# Rule AS 1972 1985 - Mar Sun>=1 3:00 0 C
bd7414aa 912# Rule AS 1986 1990 - Mar Sun>=15 3:00 0 C
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913# Rule AS 1991 max - Mar Sun>=1 3:00 0 C
914
915# From Bradley White (1992-03-11):
916# Recent correspondence with a friend in Adelaide
917# contained the following exchange: "Due to the Adelaide Festival,
918# South Australia delays setting back our clocks for a few weeks."
919
920# From Robert Elz (1992-03-13):
921# I heard that apparently (or at least, it appears that)
922# South Aus will have an extra 3 weeks daylight saving every even
923# numbered year (from 1990). That's when the Adelaide Festival
924# is on...
925
926# From Robert Elz (1992-03-16, 00:57:07 +1000):
927# DST didn't end in Adelaide today (yesterday)....
928# But whether it's "4th Sunday" or "2nd last Sunday" I have no idea whatever...
929# (it's just as likely to be "the Sunday we pick for this year"...).
930
931# From Bradley White (1994-04-11):
932# If Sun, 15 March, 1992 was at +1030 as kre asserts, but yet Sun, 20 March,
933# 1994 was at +0930 as John Connolly's customer seems to assert, then I can
934# only conclude that the actual rule is more complicated....
935
9ffe4b14 936# From John Warburton (1994-10-07):
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937# The new Daylight Savings dates for South Australia ...
938# was gazetted in the Government Hansard on Sep 26 1994....
939# start on last Sunday in October and end in last sunday in March.
940
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941# From Paul Eggert (2007-07-23):
942# See "southeast Australia" above for 2008 and later.
943
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944# Tasmania
945
946# The rules for 1967 through 1991 were reported by George Shepherd
947# via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06):
948# # The state of TASMANIA.. [Courtesy Tasmanian Dept of Premier + Cabinet ]
949# # [ Nov 1990 ]
950
951# From Bill Hart via Guy Harris (1991-10-10):
952# Oh yes, the new daylight savings rules are uniquely tasmanian, we have
953# 6 weeks a year now when we are out of sync with the rest of Australia
954# (but nothing new about that).
955
956# From Alex Livingston (1999-10-04):
957# I heard on the ABC (Australian Broadcasting Corporation) radio news on the
958# (long) weekend that Tasmania, which usually goes its own way in this regard,
959# has decided to join with most of NSW, the ACT, and most of Victoria
960# (Australia) and start daylight saving on the last Sunday in August in 2000
961# instead of the first Sunday in October.
962
963# Sim Alam (2000-07-03) reported a legal citation for the 2000/2001 rules:
964# http://www.thelaw.tas.gov.au/fragview/42++1968+GS3A@EN+2000070300
965
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966# From Paul Eggert (2007-07-23):
967# See "southeast Australia" above for 2008 and later.
968
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969# Victoria
970
971# The rules for 1971 through 1991 were reported by George Shepherd
972# via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06):
973# # The state of VICTORIA.. [ Courtesy of Vic. Dept of Premier + Cabinet ]
974# # [ Nov 1990 ]
975
976# From Scott Harrington (2001-08-29):
977# On KQED's "City Arts and Lectures" program last night I heard an
978# interesting story about daylight savings time. Dr. John Heilbron was
979# discussing his book "The Sun in the Church: Cathedrals as Solar
980# Observatories"[1], and in particular the Shrine of Remembrance[2] located
981# in Melbourne, Australia.
982#
983# Apparently the shrine's main purpose is a beam of sunlight which
984# illuminates a special spot on the floor at the 11th hour of the 11th day
985# of the 11th month (Remembrance Day) every year in memory of Australia's
986# fallen WWI soldiers. And if you go there on Nov. 11, at 11am local time,
987# you will indeed see the sunbeam illuminate the special spot at the
988# expected time.
989#
990# However, that is only because of some special mirror contraption that had
991# to be employed, since due to daylight savings time, the true solar time of
992# the remembrance moment occurs one hour later (or earlier?). Perhaps
993# someone with more information on this jury-rig can tell us more.
994#
995# [1] http://www.hup.harvard.edu/catalog/HEISUN.html
996# [2] http://www.shrine.org.au
997
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998# From Paul Eggert (2007-07-23):
999# See "southeast Australia" above for 2008 and later.
1000
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1001# New South Wales
1002
1003# From Arthur David Olson:
1004# New South Wales and subjurisdictions have their own ideas of a fun time.
9ffe4b14 1005# Based on law library research by John Mackin,
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1006# who notes:
1007# In Australia, time is not legislated federally, but rather by the
1008# individual states. Thus, while such terms as ``Eastern Standard Time''
1009# [I mean, of course, Australian EST, not any other kind] are in common
1010# use, _they have NO REAL MEANING_, as they are not defined in the
1011# legislation. This is very important to understand.
1012# I have researched New South Wales time only...
1013
9ffe4b14 1014# From Eric Ulevik (1999-05-26):
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1015# DST will start in NSW on the last Sunday of August, rather than the usual
1016# October in 2000. [See: Matthew Moore,
1017# <a href="http://www.smh.com.au/news/9905/26/pageone/pageone4.html">
1018# Two months more daylight saving
1019# </a>
1020# Sydney Morning Herald (1999-05-26).]
1021
1022# From Paul Eggert (1999-09-27):
1023# See the following official NSW source:
1024# <a href="http://dir.gis.nsw.gov.au/cgi-bin/genobject/document/other/daylightsaving/tigGmZ">
1025# Daylight Saving in New South Wales.
1026# </a>
1027#
1028# Narrabri Shire (NSW) council has announced it will ignore the extension of
1029# daylight saving next year. See:
1030# <a href="http://abc.net.au/news/regionals/neweng/monthly/regeng-22jul1999-1.htm">
1031# Narrabri Council to ignore daylight saving
1032# </a> (1999-07-22). For now, we'll wait to see if this really happens.
1033#
1034# Victoria will following NSW. See:
1035# <a href="http://abc.net.au/local/news/olympics/1999/07/item19990728112314_1.htm">
1036# Vic to extend daylight saving
1037# </a> (1999-07-28).
1038#
1039# However, South Australia rejected the DST request. See:
1040# <a href="http://abc.net.au/news/olympics/1999/07/item19990719151754_1.htm">
1041# South Australia rejects Olympics daylight savings request
1042# </a> (1999-07-19).
1043#
1044# Queensland also will not observe DST for the Olympics. See:
1045# <a href="http://abc.net.au/news/olympics/1999/06/item19990601114608_1.htm">
1046# Qld says no to daylight savings for Olympics
1047# </a> (1999-06-01), which quotes Queensland Premier Peter Beattie as saying
1048# ``Look you've got to remember in my family when this came up last time
1049# I voted for it, my wife voted against it and she said to me it's all very
1050# well for you, you don't have to worry about getting the children out of
1051# bed, getting them to school, getting them to sleep at night.
1052# I've been through all this argument domestically...my wife rules.''
1053#
1054# Broken Hill will stick with South Australian time in 2000. See:
1055# <a href="http://abc.net.au/news/regionals/brokenh/monthly/regbrok-21jul1999-6.htm">
1056# Broken Hill to be behind the times
1057# </a> (1999-07-21).
1058
1059# IATA SSIM (1998-09) says that the spring 2000 change for Australian
1060# Capital Territory, New South Wales except Lord Howe Island and Broken
1061# Hill, and Victoria will be August 27, presumably due to the Sydney Olympics.
1062
1063# From Eric Ulevik, referring to Sydney's Sun Herald (2000-08-13), page 29:
1064# The Queensland Premier Peter Beattie is encouraging northern NSW
1065# towns to use Queensland time.
1066
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1067# From Paul Eggert (2007-07-23):
1068# See "southeast Australia" above for 2008 and later.
1069
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1070# Yancowinna
1071
1072# From John Mackin (1989-01-04):
1073# `Broken Hill' means the County of Yancowinna.
1074
1075# From George Shepherd via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06):
1076# # YANCOWINNA.. [ Confirmation courtesy of Broken Hill Postmaster ]
1077# # [ Dec 1990 ]
1078# ...
1079# # Yancowinna uses Central Standard Time, despite [its] location on the
1080# # New South Wales side of the S.A. border. Most business and social dealings
1081# # are with CST zones, therefore CST is legislated by local government
1082# # although the switch to Summer Time occurs in line with N.S.W. There have
1083# # been years when this did not apply, but the historical data is not
1084# # presently available.
1085# Zone Australia/Yancowinna 9:30 AY %sST
1086# ...
1087# Rule AY 1971 1985 - Oct lastSun 2:00 1:00 D
1088# Rule AY 1972 only - Feb lastSun 3:00 0 C
1089# [followed by other Rules]
1090
1091# Lord Howe Island
1092
1093# From George Shepherd via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06):
34850bd5 1094# LHI... [ Courtesy of Pauline Van Winsen ]
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1095# [ Dec 1990 ]
1096# Lord Howe Island is located off the New South Wales coast, and is half an
1097# hour ahead of NSW time.
1098
1099# From James Lonergan, Secretary, Lord Howe Island Board (2000-01-27):
1100# Lord Howe Island summer time in 2000/2001 will commence on the same
1101# date as the rest of NSW (i.e. 2000-08-27). For your information the
1102# Lord Howe Island Board (controlling authority for the Island) is
1103# seeking the community's views on various options for summer time
1104# arrangements on the Island, e.g. advance clocks by 1 full hour
1105# instead of only 30 minutes. Dependant on the wishes of residents
1106# the Board may approach the NSW government to change the existing
1107# arrangements. The starting date for summer time on the Island will
1108# however always coincide with the rest of NSW.
1109
1110# From James Lonergan, Secretary, Lord Howe Island Board (2000-10-25):
1111# Lord Howe Island advances clocks by 30 minutes during DST in NSW and retards
1112# clocks by 30 minutes when DST finishes. Since DST was most recently
1113# introduced in NSW, the "changeover" time on the Island has been 02:00 as
1114# shown on clocks on LHI. I guess this means that for 30 minutes at the start
1115# of DST, LHI is actually 1 hour ahead of the rest of NSW.
1116
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1117# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
1118# For Lord Howe dates we use Shanks & Pottenger through 1989, and
1119# Lonergan thereafter. For times we use Lonergan.
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1121# From Paul Eggert (2007-07-23):
1122# See "southeast Australia" above for 2008 and later.
1123
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1124# From Steffen Thorsen (2009-04-28):
1125# According to the official press release, South Australia's extended daylight
1126# saving period will continue with the same rules as used during the 2008-2009
1127# summer (southern hemisphere).
1128#
1129# From
1130# <a href="http://www.safework.sa.gov.au/uploaded_files/DaylightDatesSet.pdf">
1131# http://www.safework.sa.gov.au/uploaded_files/DaylightDatesSet.pdf
1132# </a>
1133# The extended daylight saving period that South Australia has been trialling
1134# for over the last year is now set to be ongoing.
1135# Daylight saving will continue to start on the first Sunday in October each
1136# year and finish on the first Sunday in April the following year.
1137# Industrial Relations Minister, Paul Caica, says this provides South Australia
1138# with a consistent half hour time difference with NSW, Victoria, Tasmania and
1139# the ACT for all 52 weeks of the year...
1140#
1141# We have a wrap-up here:
1142# <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/south-australia-extends-dst.html">
1143# http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/south-australia-extends-dst.html
1144# </a>
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1145###############################################################################
1146
1147# New Zealand
1148
1149# From Mark Davies (1990-10-03):
1150# the 1989/90 year was a trial of an extended "daylight saving" period.
1151# This trial was deemed successful and the extended period adopted for
1152# subsequent years (with the addition of a further week at the start).
1153# source -- phone call to Ministry of Internal Affairs Head Office.
1154
1155# From George Shepherd via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06):
1156# # The Country of New Zealand (Australia's east island -) Gee they hate that!
1157# # or is Australia the west island of N.Z.
34850bd5 1158# # [ courtesy of Geoff Tribble.. Auckland N.Z. ]
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1159# # [ Nov 1990 ]
1160# ...
1161# Rule NZ 1974 1988 - Oct lastSun 2:00 1:00 D
1162# Rule NZ 1989 max - Oct Sun>=1 2:00 1:00 D
1163# Rule NZ 1975 1989 - Mar Sun>=1 3:00 0 S
1164# Rule NZ 1990 max - Mar lastSun 3:00 0 S
1165# ...
1166# Zone NZ 12:00 NZ NZ%sT # New Zealand
1167# Zone NZ-CHAT 12:45 - NZ-CHAT # Chatham Island
1168
1169# From Arthur David Olson (1992-03-08):
1170# The chosen rules use the Davies October 8 values for the start of DST in 1989
1171# rather than the October 1 value.
1172
1173# From Paul Eggert (1995-12-19);
bd7414aa 1174# Shank & Pottenger report 2:00 for all autumn changes in Australia and NZ.
9ffe4b14 1175# Robert Uzgalis writes that the New Zealand Daylight
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1176# Savings Time Order in Council dated 1990-06-18 specifies 2:00 standard
1177# time on both the first Sunday in October and the third Sunday in March.
1178# As with Australia, we'll assume the tradition is 2:00s, not 2:00.
1179#
bd7414aa 1180# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
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1181# The Department of Internal Affairs (DIA) maintains a brief history,
1182# as does Carol Squires; see tz-link.htm for the full references.
bd7414aa 1183# Use these sources in preference to Shanks & Pottenger.
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1184#
1185# For Chatham, IATA SSIM (1991/1999) gives the NZ rules but with
1186# transitions at 2:45 local standard time; this confirms that Chatham
1187# is always exactly 45 minutes ahead of Auckland.
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1189# From Colin Sharples (2007-04-30):
1190# DST will now start on the last Sunday in September, and end on the
1191# first Sunday in April. The changes take effect this year, meaning
1192# that DST will begin on 2007-09-30 2008-04-06.
1193# http://www.dia.govt.nz/diawebsite.nsf/wpg_URL/Services-Daylight-Saving-Daylight-saving-to-be-extended
1194
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1195###############################################################################
1196
1197
1198# Fiji
1199
1200# Howse writes (p 153) that in 1879 the British governor of Fiji
1201# enacted an ordinance standardizing the islands on Antipodean Time
1202# instead of the American system (which was one day behind).
1203
1204# From Rives McDow (1998-10-08):
1205# Fiji will introduce DST effective 0200 local time, 1998-11-01
1206# until 0300 local time 1999-02-28. Each year the DST period will
1207# be from the first Sunday in November until the last Sunday in February.
1208
1209# From Paul Eggert (2000-01-08):
1210# IATA SSIM (1999-09) says DST ends 0100 local time. Go with McDow.
1211
1212# From the BBC World Service (1998-10-31 11:32 UTC):
1213# The Fijiian government says the main reasons for the time change is to
1214# improve productivity and reduce road accidents. But correspondents say it
1215# also hopes the move will boost Fiji's ability to compete with other pacific
1216# islands in the effort to attract tourists to witness the dawning of the new
1217# millenium.
1218
1219# http://www.fiji.gov.fj/press/2000_09/2000_09_13-05.shtml (2000-09-13)
1220# reports that Fiji has discontinued DST.
1221
1222# Johnston
1223
1224# Johnston data is from usno1995.
1225
1226
1227# Kiribati
1228
1229# From Paul Eggert (1996-01-22):
1230# Today's _Wall Street Journal_ (page 1) reports that Kiribati
1231# ``declared it the same day throught the country as of Jan. 1, 1995''
1232# as part of the competition to be first into the 21st century.
1233
1234
1235# Kwajalein
1236
1237# In comp.risks 14.87 (26 August 1993), Peter Neumann writes:
1238# I wonder what happened in Kwajalein, where there was NO Friday,
1239# 1993-08-20. Thursday night at midnight Kwajalein switched sides with
1240# respect to the International Date Line, to rejoin its fellow islands,
1241# going from 11:59 p.m. Thursday to 12:00 m. Saturday in a blink.
1242
1243
1244# N Mariana Is, Guam
1245
1246# Howse writes (p 153) ``The Spaniards, on the other hand, reached the
1247# Philippines and the Ladrones from America,'' and implies that the Ladrones
1248# (now called the Marianas) kept American date for quite some time.
1249# For now, we assume the Ladrones switched at the same time as the Philippines;
1250# see Asia/Manila.
1251
1252# US Public Law 106-564 (2000-12-23) made UTC+10 the official standard time,
1253# under the name "Chamorro Standard Time". There is no official abbreviation,
1254# but Congressman Robert A. Underwood, author of the bill that became law,
1255# wrote in a press release (2000-12-27) that he will seek the use of "ChST".
1256
1257
1258# Micronesia
1259
9ffe4b14 1260# Alan Eugene Davis writes (1996-03-16),
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1261# ``I am certain, having lived there for the past decade, that "Truk"
1262# (now properly known as Chuuk) ... is in the time zone GMT+10.''
1263#
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1264# Shanks & Pottenger write that Truk switched from UTC+10 to UTC+11
1265# on 1978-10-01; ignore this for now.
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1266
1267# From Paul Eggert (1999-10-29):
1268# The Federated States of Micronesia Visitors Board writes in
1269# <a href="http://www.fsmgov.org/info/clocks.html">
1270# The Federated States of Micronesia - Visitor Information
1271# </a> (1999-01-26)
1272# that Truk and Yap are UTC+10, and Ponape and Kosrae are UTC+11.
1273# We don't know when Kosrae switched from UTC+12; assume January 1 for now.
1274
1275
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1276# Midway
1277
1278# From Charles T O'Connor, KMTH DJ (1956),
1279# quoted in the KTMH section of the Radio Heritage Collection
1280# <http://radiodx.com/spdxr/KMTH.htm> (2002-12-31):
1281# For the past two months we've been on what is known as Daylight
1282# Saving Time. This time has put us on air at 5am in the morning,
1283# your time down there in New Zealand. Starting September 2, 1956
1284# we'll again go back to Standard Time. This'll mean that we'll go to
1285# air at 6am your time.
1286#
1287# From Paul Eggert (2003-03-23):
1288# We don't know the date of that quote, but we'll guess they
1289# started DST on June 3. Possibly DST was observed other years
1290# in Midway, but we have no record of it.
1291
1292
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1293# Pitcairn
1294
1295# From Rives McDow (1999-11-08):
1296# A Proclamation was signed by the Governor of Pitcairn on the 27th March 1998
1297# with regard to Pitcairn Standard Time. The Proclamation is as follows.
1298#
1299# The local time for general purposes in the Islands shall be
1300# Co-ordinated Universal time minus 8 hours and shall be known
1301# as Pitcairn Standard Time.
1302#
1303# ... I have also seen Pitcairn listed as UTC minus 9 hours in several
1304# references, and can only assume that this was an error in interpretation
1305# somehow in light of this proclamation.
1306
1307# From Rives McDow (1999-11-09):
1308# The Proclamation regarding Pitcairn time came into effect on 27 April 1998
1309# ... at midnight.
1310
1311# From Howie Phelps (1999-11-10), who talked to a Pitcairner via shortwave:
1312# Betty Christian told me yesterday that their local time is the same as
1313# Pacific Standard Time. They used to be 1/2 hour different from us here in
1314# Sacramento but it was changed a couple of years ago.
1315
1316
1317# Samoa
1318
1319# Howse writes (p 153, citing p 10 of the 1883-11-18 New York Herald)
1320# that in 1879 the King of Samoa decided to change
1321# ``the date in his kingdom from the Antipodean to the American system,
1322# ordaining -- by a masterpiece of diplomatic flattery -- that
1323# the Fourth of July should be celebrated twice in that year.''
1324
1325
1326# Tonga
1327
1328# From Paul Eggert (1996-01-22):
1329# Today's _Wall Street Journal_ (p 1) reports that ``Tonga has been plotting
1330# to sneak ahead of [New Zealanders] by introducing daylight-saving time.''
1331# Since Kiribati has moved the Date Line it's not clear what Tonga will do.
1332
1333# Don Mundell writes in the 1997-02-20 Tonga Chronicle
1334# <a href="http://www.tongatapu.net.to/tonga/homeland/timebegins.htm">
1335# How Tonga became `The Land where Time Begins'
1336# </a>:
1337
1338# Until 1941 Tonga maintained a standard time 50 minutes ahead of NZST
1339# 12 hours and 20 minutes ahead of GMT. When New Zealand adjusted its
1340# standard time in 1940s, Tonga had the choice of subtracting from its
1341# local time to come on the same standard time as New Zealand or of
1342# advancing its time to maintain the differential of 13 degrees
1343# (approximately 50 minutes ahead of New Zealand time).
1344#
1345# Because His Majesty King Taufa'ahau Tupou IV, then Crown Prince
1346# Tungi, preferred to ensure Tonga's title as the land where time
1347# begins, the Legislative Assembly approved the latter change.
1348#
1349# But some of the older, more conservative members from the outer
1350# islands objected. "If at midnight on Dec. 31, we move ahead 40
1351# minutes, as your Royal Highness wishes, what becomes of the 40
1352# minutes we have lost?"
1353#
1354# The Crown Prince, presented an unanswerable argument: "Remember that
1355# on the World Day of Prayer, you would be the first people on Earth
1356# to say your prayers in the morning."
1357
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1358# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
1359# Shanks & Pottenger say the transition was on 1968-10-01; go with Mundell.
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1360
1361# From Eric Ulevik (1999-05-03):
1362# Tonga's director of tourism, who is also secretary of the National Millenium
1363# Committee, has a plan to get Tonga back in front.
1364# He has proposed a one-off move to tropical daylight saving for Tonga from
1365# October to March, which has won approval in principle from the Tongan
1366# Government.
1367
9ffe4b14 1368# From Steffen Thorsen (1999-09-09):
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1369# * Tonga will introduce DST in November
1370#
9ffe4b14 1371# I was given this link by John Letts:
a36b983e 1372# <a href="http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/world/asia-pacific/newsid_424000/424764.stm">
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1373# http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/world/asia-pacific/newsid_424000/424764.stm
1374# </a>
1375#
1376# I have not been able to find exact dates for the transition in November
1377# yet. By reading this article it seems like Fiji will be 14 hours ahead
1378# of UTC as well, but as far as I know Fiji will only be 13 hours ahead
1379# (12 + 1 hour DST).
1380
9ffe4b14 1381# From Arthur David Olson (1999-09-20):
a36b983e 1382# According to <a href="http://www.tongaonline.com/news/sept1799.html">
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1383# http://www.tongaonline.com/news/sept1799.html
1384# </a>:
1385# "Daylight Savings Time will take effect on Oct. 2 through April 15, 2000
1386# and annually thereafter from the first Saturday in October through the
1387# third Saturday of April. Under the system approved by Privy Council on
1388# Sept. 10, clocks must be turned ahead one hour on the opening day and
1389# set back an hour on the closing date."
1390# Alas, no indication of the time of day.
1391
1392# From Rives McDow (1999-10-06):
1393# Tonga started its Daylight Saving on Saturday morning October 2nd at 0200am.
1394# Daylight Saving ends on April 16 at 0300am which is Sunday morning.
1395
1396# From Steffen Thorsen (2000-10-31):
1397# Back in March I found a notice on the website http://www.tongaonline.com
1398# that Tonga changed back to standard time one month early, on March 19
1399# instead of the original reported date April 16. Unfortunately, the article
1400# is no longer available on the site, and I did not make a copy of the
1401# text, and I have forgotten to report it here.
1402# (Original URL was: http://www.tongaonline.com/news/march162000.htm )
1403
1404# From Rives McDow (2000-12-01):
1405# Tonga is observing DST as of 2000-11-04 and will stop on 2001-01-27.
1406
1407# From Sione Moala-Mafi (2001-09-20) via Rives McDow:
1408# At 2:00am on the first Sunday of November, the standard time in the Kingdom
1409# shall be moved forward by one hour to 3:00am. At 2:00am on the last Sunday
1410# of January the standard time in the Kingdom shall be moved backward by one
1411# hour to 1:00am.
1412
1413# From Pulu 'Anau (2002-11-05):
1414# The law was for 3 years, supposedly to get renewed. It wasn't.
1415
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1416
1417# Wake
1418
1419# From Vernice Anderson, Personal Secretary to Philip Jessup,
1420# US Ambassador At Large (oral history interview, 1971-02-02):
1421#
1422# Saturday, the 14th [of October, 1950] -- ... The time was all the
1423# more confusing at that point, because we had crossed the
1424# International Date Line, thus getting two Sundays. Furthermore, we
1425# discovered that Wake Island had two hours of daylight saving time
1426# making calculation of time in Washington difficult if not almost
1427# impossible.
1428#
1429# http://www.trumanlibrary.org/wake/meeting.htm
1430
1431# From Paul Eggert (2003-03-23):
1432# We have no other report of DST in Wake Island, so omit this info for now.
1433
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1434###############################################################################
1435
1436# The International Date Line
1437
1438# From Gwillim Law (2000-01-03):
1439#
1440# The International Date Line is not defined by any international standard,
1441# convention, or treaty. Mapmakers are free to draw it as they please.
1442# Reputable mapmakers will simply ensure that every point of land appears on
1443# the correct side of the IDL, according to the date legally observed there.
1444#
1445# When Kiribati adopted a uniform date in 1995, thereby moving the Phoenix and
1446# Line Islands to the west side of the IDL (or, if you prefer, moving the IDL
1447# to the east side of the Phoenix and Line Islands), I suppose that most
1448# mapmakers redrew the IDL following the boundary of Kiribati. Even that line
1449# has a rather arbitrary nature. The straight-line boundaries between Pacific
1450# island nations that are shown on many maps are based on an international
e1e23b59 1451# convention, but are not legally binding national borders.... The date is
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1452# governed by the IDL; therefore, even on the high seas, there may be some
1453# places as late as fourteen hours later than UTC. And, since the IDL is not
1454# an international standard, there are some places on the high seas where the
1455# correct date is ambiguous.
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e1e23b59
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1457# From Wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Time_zone> (2005-08-31):
1458# Before 1920, all ships kept local apparent time on the high seas by setting
1459# their clocks at night or at the morning sight so that, given the ship's
1460# speed and direction, it would be 12 o'clock when the Sun crossed the ship's
1461# meridian (12 o'clock = local apparent noon). During 1917, at the
1462# Anglo-French Conference on Time-keeping at Sea, it was recommended that all
1463# ships, both military and civilian, should adopt hourly standard time zones
1464# on the high seas. Whenever a ship was within the territorial waters of any
1465# nation it would use that nation's standard time. The captain was permitted
1466# to change his ship's clocks at a time of his choice following his ship's
1467# entry into another zone time--he often chose midnight. These zones were
1468# adopted by all major fleets between 1920 and 1925 but not by many
1469# independent merchant ships until World War II.
1470
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1471# From Paul Eggert, using references suggested by Oscar van Vlijmen
1472# (2005-03-20):
1473#
1474# The American Practical Navigator (2002)
1475# <http://pollux.nss.nima.mil/pubs/pubs_j_apn_sections.html?rid=187>
1476# talks only about the 180-degree meridian with respect to ships in
1477# international waters; it ignores the international date line.