Sync zoneinfo database with tzdata2009l from elsie.
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34850bd5 1# <pre>
a931967f 2# @(#)australasia 8.12
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3# This file is in the public domain, so clarified as of
4# 2009-05-17 by Arthur David Olson.
34850bd5 5
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6# This file also includes Pacific islands.
7
8# Notes are at the end of this file
9
10###############################################################################
11
12# Australia
13
14# Please see the notes below for the controversy about "EST" versus "AEST" etc.
15
16# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
17Rule Aus 1917 only - Jan 1 0:01 1:00 -
18Rule Aus 1917 only - Mar 25 2:00 0 -
19Rule Aus 1942 only - Jan 1 2:00 1:00 -
20Rule Aus 1942 only - Mar 29 2:00 0 -
21Rule Aus 1942 only - Sep 27 2:00 1:00 -
22Rule Aus 1943 1944 - Mar lastSun 2:00 0 -
23Rule Aus 1943 only - Oct 3 2:00 1:00 -
24# Go with Whitman and the Australian National Standards Commission, which
25# says W Australia didn't use DST in 1943/1944. Ignore Whitman's claim that
26# 1944/1945 was just like 1943/1944.
27
28# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
29# Northern Territory
30Zone Australia/Darwin 8:43:20 - LMT 1895 Feb
31 9:00 - CST 1899 May
32 9:30 Aus CST
33# Western Australia
37cabc10 34#
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35# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
36Rule AW 1974 only - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 -
37Rule AW 1975 only - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
38Rule AW 1983 only - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 -
39Rule AW 1984 only - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
40Rule AW 1991 only - Nov 17 2:00s 1:00 -
41Rule AW 1992 only - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
42Rule AW 2006 only - Dec 3 2:00s 1:00 -
43Rule AW 2007 2009 - Mar lastSun 2:00s 0 -
44Rule AW 2007 2008 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 -
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45Zone Australia/Perth 7:43:24 - LMT 1895 Dec
46 8:00 Aus WST 1943 Jul
37cabc10 47 8:00 AW WST
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48Zone Australia/Eucla 8:35:28 - LMT 1895 Dec
49 8:45 Aus CWST 1943 Jul
50 8:45 AW CWST
51
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52# Queensland
53#
9ffe4b14 54# From Alex Livingston (1996-11-01):
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55# I have heard or read more than once that some resort islands off the coast
56# of Queensland chose to keep observing daylight-saving time even after
57# Queensland ceased to.
58#
59# From Paul Eggert (1996-11-22):
60# IATA SSIM (1993-02/1994-09) say that the Holiday Islands (Hayman, Lindeman,
61# Hamilton) observed DST for two years after the rest of Queensland stopped.
62# Hamilton is the largest, but there is also a Hamilton in Victoria,
63# so use Lindeman.
64#
65# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
66Rule AQ 1971 only - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 -
67Rule AQ 1972 only - Feb lastSun 2:00s 0 -
68Rule AQ 1989 1991 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 -
69Rule AQ 1990 1992 - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
70Rule Holiday 1992 1993 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 -
71Rule Holiday 1993 1994 - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
72Zone Australia/Brisbane 10:12:08 - LMT 1895
73 10:00 Aus EST 1971
74 10:00 AQ EST
75Zone Australia/Lindeman 9:55:56 - LMT 1895
76 10:00 Aus EST 1971
77 10:00 AQ EST 1992 Jul
78 10:00 Holiday EST
79
80# South Australia
81# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
82Rule AS 1971 1985 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 -
83Rule AS 1986 only - Oct 19 2:00s 1:00 -
0e49ec84 84Rule AS 1987 2007 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 -
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85Rule AS 1972 only - Feb 27 2:00s 0 -
86Rule AS 1973 1985 - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
87Rule AS 1986 1989 - Mar Sun>=15 2:00s 0 -
88Rule AS 1990 only - Mar Sun>=18 2:00s 0 -
89Rule AS 1991 only - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
90Rule AS 1992 only - Mar Sun>=18 2:00s 0 -
91Rule AS 1993 only - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
92Rule AS 1994 only - Mar Sun>=18 2:00s 0 -
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93Rule AS 1995 2005 - Mar lastSun 2:00s 0 -
94Rule AS 2006 only - Apr Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
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95Rule AS 2007 only - Mar lastSun 2:00s 0 -
96Rule AS 2008 max - Apr Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
97Rule AS 2008 max - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 1:00 -
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98# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
99Zone Australia/Adelaide 9:14:20 - LMT 1895 Feb
100 9:00 - CST 1899 May
101 9:30 Aus CST 1971
102 9:30 AS CST
103
104# Tasmania
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105#
106# From Paul Eggert (2005-08-16):
107# <http://www.bom.gov.au/climate/averages/tables/dst_times.shtml>
108# says King Island didn't observe DST from WWII until late 1971.
109#
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110# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
111Rule AT 1967 only - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 1:00 -
112Rule AT 1968 only - Mar lastSun 2:00s 0 -
113Rule AT 1968 1985 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 -
114Rule AT 1969 1971 - Mar Sun>=8 2:00s 0 -
115Rule AT 1972 only - Feb lastSun 2:00s 0 -
116Rule AT 1973 1981 - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
117Rule AT 1982 1983 - Mar lastSun 2:00s 0 -
118Rule AT 1984 1986 - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
119Rule AT 1986 only - Oct Sun>=15 2:00s 1:00 -
120Rule AT 1987 1990 - Mar Sun>=15 2:00s 0 -
121Rule AT 1987 only - Oct Sun>=22 2:00s 1:00 -
122Rule AT 1988 1990 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 -
123Rule AT 1991 1999 - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 1:00 -
9ffe4b14 124Rule AT 1991 2005 - Mar lastSun 2:00s 0 -
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125Rule AT 2000 only - Aug lastSun 2:00s 1:00 -
126Rule AT 2001 max - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 1:00 -
9ffe4b14 127Rule AT 2006 only - Apr Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
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128Rule AT 2007 only - Mar lastSun 2:00s 0 -
129Rule AT 2008 max - Apr Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
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130# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
131Zone Australia/Hobart 9:49:16 - LMT 1895 Sep
132 10:00 - EST 1916 Oct 1 2:00
133 10:00 1:00 EST 1917 Feb
134 10:00 Aus EST 1967
135 10:00 AT EST
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136Zone Australia/Currie 9:35:28 - LMT 1895 Sep
137 10:00 - EST 1916 Oct 1 2:00
138 10:00 1:00 EST 1917 Feb
139 10:00 Aus EST 1971 Jul
140 10:00 AT EST
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141
142# Victoria
143# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
144Rule AV 1971 1985 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 -
145Rule AV 1972 only - Feb lastSun 2:00s 0 -
146Rule AV 1973 1985 - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
147Rule AV 1986 1990 - Mar Sun>=15 2:00s 0 -
148Rule AV 1986 1987 - Oct Sun>=15 2:00s 1:00 -
149Rule AV 1988 1999 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 -
150Rule AV 1991 1994 - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
9ffe4b14 151Rule AV 1995 2005 - Mar lastSun 2:00s 0 -
984263bc 152Rule AV 2000 only - Aug lastSun 2:00s 1:00 -
0e49ec84 153Rule AV 2001 2007 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 -
9ffe4b14 154Rule AV 2006 only - Apr Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
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155Rule AV 2007 only - Mar lastSun 2:00s 0 -
156Rule AV 2008 max - Apr Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
157Rule AV 2008 max - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 1:00 -
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158# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
159Zone Australia/Melbourne 9:39:52 - LMT 1895 Feb
160 10:00 Aus EST 1971
161 10:00 AV EST
162
163# New South Wales
164# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
165Rule AN 1971 1985 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 -
166Rule AN 1972 only - Feb 27 2:00s 0 -
167Rule AN 1973 1981 - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
168Rule AN 1982 only - Apr Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
169Rule AN 1983 1985 - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
170Rule AN 1986 1989 - Mar Sun>=15 2:00s 0 -
171Rule AN 1986 only - Oct 19 2:00s 1:00 -
172Rule AN 1987 1999 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 -
173Rule AN 1990 1995 - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
9ffe4b14 174Rule AN 1996 2005 - Mar lastSun 2:00s 0 -
984263bc 175Rule AN 2000 only - Aug lastSun 2:00s 1:00 -
0e49ec84 176Rule AN 2001 2007 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 -
9ffe4b14 177Rule AN 2006 only - Apr Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
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178Rule AN 2007 only - Mar lastSun 2:00s 0 -
179Rule AN 2008 max - Apr Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
180Rule AN 2008 max - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 1:00 -
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181# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
182Zone Australia/Sydney 10:04:52 - LMT 1895 Feb
183 10:00 Aus EST 1971
184 10:00 AN EST
185Zone Australia/Broken_Hill 9:25:48 - LMT 1895 Feb
186 10:00 - EST 1896 Aug 23
187 9:00 - CST 1899 May
188 9:30 Aus CST 1971
189 9:30 AN CST 2000
190 9:30 AS CST
191
192# Lord Howe Island
193# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
194Rule LH 1981 1984 - Oct lastSun 2:00 1:00 -
195Rule LH 1982 1985 - Mar Sun>=1 2:00 0 -
196Rule LH 1985 only - Oct lastSun 2:00 0:30 -
197Rule LH 1986 1989 - Mar Sun>=15 2:00 0 -
198Rule LH 1986 only - Oct 19 2:00 0:30 -
199Rule LH 1987 1999 - Oct lastSun 2:00 0:30 -
200Rule LH 1990 1995 - Mar Sun>=1 2:00 0 -
9ffe4b14 201Rule LH 1996 2005 - Mar lastSun 2:00 0 -
984263bc 202Rule LH 2000 only - Aug lastSun 2:00 0:30 -
0e49ec84 203Rule LH 2001 2007 - Oct lastSun 2:00 0:30 -
9ffe4b14 204Rule LH 2006 only - Apr Sun>=1 2:00 0 -
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205Rule LH 2007 only - Mar lastSun 2:00 0 -
206Rule LH 2008 max - Apr Sun>=1 2:00 0 -
207Rule LH 2008 max - Oct Sun>=1 2:00 0:30 -
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208Zone Australia/Lord_Howe 10:36:20 - LMT 1895 Feb
209 10:00 - EST 1981 Mar
210 10:30 LH LHST
211
212# Australian miscellany
213#
214# Ashmore Is, Cartier
215# no indigenous inhabitants; only seasonal caretakers
880368e2 216# no times are set
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217#
218# Coral Sea Is
219# no indigenous inhabitants; only meteorologists
880368e2 220# no times are set
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221#
222# Macquarie
223# permanent occupation (scientific station) since 1948;
224# sealing and penguin oil station operated 1888/1917
880368e2 225# like Australia/Hobart
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226
227# Christmas
228# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
229Zone Indian/Christmas 7:02:52 - LMT 1895 Feb
230 7:00 - CXT # Christmas Island Time
231
232# Cook Is
bd7414aa 233# From Shanks & Pottenger:
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234# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
235Rule Cook 1978 only - Nov 12 0:00 0:30 HS
236Rule Cook 1979 1991 - Mar Sun>=1 0:00 0 -
237Rule Cook 1979 1990 - Oct lastSun 0:00 0:30 HS
238# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
239Zone Pacific/Rarotonga -10:39:04 - LMT 1901 # Avarua
240 -10:30 - CKT 1978 Nov 12 # Cook Is Time
241 -10:00 Cook CK%sT
242
243# Cocos
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244# These islands were ruled by the Ross family from about 1830 to 1978.
245# We don't know when standard time was introduced; for now, we guess 1900.
984263bc 246# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
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247Zone Indian/Cocos 6:27:40 - LMT 1900
248 6:30 - CCT # Cocos Islands Time
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249
250# Fiji
251# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
252Rule Fiji 1998 1999 - Nov Sun>=1 2:00 1:00 S
253Rule Fiji 1999 2000 - Feb lastSun 3:00 0 -
254# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
255Zone Pacific/Fiji 11:53:40 - LMT 1915 Oct 26 # Suva
256 12:00 Fiji FJ%sT # Fiji Time
257
258# French Polynesia
259# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
260Zone Pacific/Gambier -8:59:48 - LMT 1912 Oct # Rikitea
261 -9:00 - GAMT # Gambier Time
262Zone Pacific/Marquesas -9:18:00 - LMT 1912 Oct
263 -9:30 - MART # Marquesas Time
264Zone Pacific/Tahiti -9:58:16 - LMT 1912 Oct # Papeete
265 -10:00 - TAHT # Tahiti Time
266# Clipperton (near North America) is administered from French Polynesia;
267# it is uninhabited.
268
269# Guam
270# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
271Zone Pacific/Guam -14:21:00 - LMT 1844 Dec 31
272 9:39:00 - LMT 1901 # Agana
273 10:00 - GST 2000 Dec 23 # Guam
274 10:00 - ChST # Chamorro Standard Time
275
276# Kiribati
277# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
278Zone Pacific/Tarawa 11:32:04 - LMT 1901 # Bairiki
279 12:00 - GILT # Gilbert Is Time
280Zone Pacific/Enderbury -11:24:20 - LMT 1901
281 -12:00 - PHOT 1979 Oct # Phoenix Is Time
282 -11:00 - PHOT 1995
283 13:00 - PHOT
284Zone Pacific/Kiritimati -10:29:20 - LMT 1901
285 -10:40 - LINT 1979 Oct # Line Is Time
286 -10:00 - LINT 1995
287 14:00 - LINT
288
289# N Mariana Is
290# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
291Zone Pacific/Saipan -14:17:00 - LMT 1844 Dec 31
292 9:43:00 - LMT 1901
293 9:00 - MPT 1969 Oct # N Mariana Is Time
294 10:00 - MPT 2000 Dec 23
295 10:00 - ChST # Chamorro Standard Time
296
297# Marshall Is
298# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
299Zone Pacific/Majuro 11:24:48 - LMT 1901
300 11:00 - MHT 1969 Oct # Marshall Islands Time
301 12:00 - MHT
302Zone Pacific/Kwajalein 11:09:20 - LMT 1901
303 11:00 - MHT 1969 Oct
304 -12:00 - KWAT 1993 Aug 20 # Kwajalein Time
305 12:00 - MHT
306
307# Micronesia
308# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
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309Zone Pacific/Truk 10:07:08 - LMT 1901
310 10:00 - TRUT # Truk Time
311Zone Pacific/Ponape 10:32:52 - LMT 1901 # Kolonia
312 11:00 - PONT # Ponape Time
313Zone Pacific/Kosrae 10:51:56 - LMT 1901
314 11:00 - KOST 1969 Oct # Kosrae Time
315 12:00 - KOST 1999
316 11:00 - KOST
317
318# Nauru
319# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
320Zone Pacific/Nauru 11:07:40 - LMT 1921 Jan 15 # Uaobe
321 11:30 - NRT 1942 Mar 15 # Nauru Time
322 9:00 - JST 1944 Aug 15
323 11:30 - NRT 1979 May
324 12:00 - NRT
325
326# New Caledonia
327# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
328Rule NC 1977 1978 - Dec Sun>=1 0:00 1:00 S
329Rule NC 1978 1979 - Feb 27 0:00 0 -
330Rule NC 1996 only - Dec 1 2:00s 1:00 S
bd7414aa 331# Shanks & Pottenger say the following was at 2:00; go with IATA.
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332Rule NC 1997 only - Mar 2 2:00s 0 -
333# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
334Zone Pacific/Noumea 11:05:48 - LMT 1912 Jan 13
335 11:00 NC NC%sT
336
337
338###############################################################################
339
340# New Zealand
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341
342# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
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343Rule NZ 1927 only - Nov 6 2:00 1:00 S
344Rule NZ 1928 only - Mar 4 2:00 0 M
345Rule NZ 1928 1933 - Oct Sun>=8 2:00 0:30 S
346Rule NZ 1929 1933 - Mar Sun>=15 2:00 0 M
347Rule NZ 1934 1940 - Apr lastSun 2:00 0 M
348Rule NZ 1934 1940 - Sep lastSun 2:00 0:30 S
349Rule NZ 1946 only - Jan 1 0:00 0 S
350# Since 1957 Chatham has been 45 minutes ahead of NZ, but there's no
351# convenient notation for this so we must duplicate the Rule lines.
984263bc 352Rule NZ 1974 only - Nov Sun>=1 2:00s 1:00 D
ba5ba9da 353Rule Chatham 1974 only - Nov Sun>=1 2:45s 1:00 D
984263bc 354Rule NZ 1975 only - Feb lastSun 2:00s 0 S
ba5ba9da 355Rule Chatham 1975 only - Feb lastSun 2:45s 0 S
984263bc 356Rule NZ 1975 1988 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 D
ba5ba9da 357Rule Chatham 1975 1988 - Oct lastSun 2:45s 1:00 D
984263bc 358Rule NZ 1976 1989 - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 S
ba5ba9da 359Rule Chatham 1976 1989 - Mar Sun>=1 2:45s 0 S
984263bc 360Rule NZ 1989 only - Oct Sun>=8 2:00s 1:00 D
ba5ba9da 361Rule Chatham 1989 only - Oct Sun>=8 2:45s 1:00 D
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362Rule NZ 1990 2006 - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 1:00 D
363Rule Chatham 1990 2006 - Oct Sun>=1 2:45s 1:00 D
364Rule NZ 1990 2007 - Mar Sun>=15 2:00s 0 S
365Rule Chatham 1990 2007 - Mar Sun>=15 2:45s 0 S
366Rule NZ 2007 max - Sep lastSun 2:00s 1:00 D
367Rule Chatham 2007 max - Sep lastSun 2:45s 1:00 D
368Rule NZ 2008 max - Apr Sun>=1 2:00s 0 S
369Rule Chatham 2008 max - Apr Sun>=1 2:45s 0 S
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370# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
371Zone Pacific/Auckland 11:39:04 - LMT 1868 Nov 2
ba5ba9da 372 11:30 NZ NZ%sT 1946 Jan 1
984263bc 373 12:00 NZ NZ%sT
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374Zone Pacific/Chatham 12:13:48 - LMT 1957 Jan 1
375 12:45 Chatham CHA%sT
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376
377
378# Auckland Is
379# uninhabited; Maori and Moriori, colonial settlers, pastoralists, sealers,
380# and scientific personnel have wintered
381
382# Campbell I
383# minor whaling stations operated 1909/1914
384# scientific station operated 1941/1995;
385# previously whalers, sealers, pastoralists, and scientific personnel wintered
386# was probably like Pacific/Auckland
387
388###############################################################################
389
390
391# Niue
392# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
393Zone Pacific/Niue -11:19:40 - LMT 1901 # Alofi
394 -11:20 - NUT 1951 # Niue Time
395 -11:30 - NUT 1978 Oct 1
396 -11:00 - NUT
397
398# Norfolk
399# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
400Zone Pacific/Norfolk 11:11:52 - LMT 1901 # Kingston
401 11:12 - NMT 1951 # Norfolk Mean Time
402 11:30 - NFT # Norfolk Time
403
404# Palau (Belau)
405# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
406Zone Pacific/Palau 8:57:56 - LMT 1901 # Koror
407 9:00 - PWT # Palau Time
408
409# Papua New Guinea
410# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
411Zone Pacific/Port_Moresby 9:48:40 - LMT 1880
412 9:48:32 - PMMT 1895 # Port Moresby Mean Time
413 10:00 - PGT # Papua New Guinea Time
414
415# Pitcairn
416# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
417Zone Pacific/Pitcairn -8:40:20 - LMT 1901 # Adamstown
418 -8:30 - PNT 1998 Apr 27 00:00
419 -8:00 - PST # Pitcairn Standard Time
420
421# American Samoa
422Zone Pacific/Pago_Pago 12:37:12 - LMT 1879 Jul 5
423 -11:22:48 - LMT 1911
424 -11:30 - SAMT 1950 # Samoa Time
425 -11:00 - NST 1967 Apr # N=Nome
426 -11:00 - BST 1983 Nov 30 # B=Bering
427 -11:00 - SST # S=Samoa
428
bc95ec93 429# Samoa
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430
431# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2008-12-06):
432# The Samoa government (Western Samoa) may implement DST on the first Sunday of
433# October 2009 (October 4, 2009) until the last Sunday of March 2010 (March 28,
434# 2010).
435#
436# "Selected Committee reports to Cabinet on Daylight Saving Time",
437# Government of Samoa:
438# <a href="http://www.govt.ws/pr_article.cfm?pr_id=560">
439# http://www.govt.ws/pr_article.cfm?pr_id=560
440# </a>
441# or
442# <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_samoa01.html">
443# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_samoa01.html
444# </a>
445
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446Zone Pacific/Apia 12:33:04 - LMT 1879 Jul 5
447 -11:26:56 - LMT 1911
448 -11:30 - SAMT 1950 # Samoa Time
bc95ec93 449 -11:00 - WST # Samoa Time
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450
451# Solomon Is
452# excludes Bougainville, for which see Papua New Guinea
453# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
454Zone Pacific/Guadalcanal 10:39:48 - LMT 1912 Oct # Honiara
455 11:00 - SBT # Solomon Is Time
456
457# Tokelau Is
458# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
459Zone Pacific/Fakaofo -11:24:56 - LMT 1901
460 -10:00 - TKT # Tokelau Time
461
462# Tonga
463# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
464Rule Tonga 1999 only - Oct 7 2:00s 1:00 S
465Rule Tonga 2000 only - Mar 19 2:00s 0 -
466Rule Tonga 2000 2001 - Nov Sun>=1 2:00 1:00 S
467Rule Tonga 2001 2002 - Jan lastSun 2:00 0 -
468# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
469Zone Pacific/Tongatapu 12:19:20 - LMT 1901
470 12:20 - TOT 1941 # Tonga Time
471 13:00 - TOT 1999
472 13:00 Tonga TO%sT
473
474# Tuvalu
475# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
476Zone Pacific/Funafuti 11:56:52 - LMT 1901
477 12:00 - TVT # Tuvalu Time
478
479
480# US minor outlying islands
481
482# Howland, Baker
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483# Howland was mined for guano by American companies 1857-1878 and British
484# 1886-1891; Baker was similar but exact dates are not known.
485# Inhabited by civilians 1935-1942; U.S. military bases 1943-1944;
486# uninhabited thereafter.
487# Howland observed Hawaii Standard Time (UTC-10:30) in 1937;
488# see page 206 of Elgen M. Long and Marie K. Long,
489# Amelia Earhart: the Mystery Solved, Simon & Schuster (2000).
490# So most likely Howland and Baker observed Hawaii Time from 1935
491# until they were abandoned after the war.
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492
493# Jarvis
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494# Mined for guano by American companies 1857-1879 and British 1883?-1891?.
495# Inhabited by civilians 1935-1942; IGY scientific base 1957-1958;
496# uninhabited thereafter.
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497# no information; was probably like Pacific/Kiritimati
498
499# Johnston
500# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
501Zone Pacific/Johnston -10:00 - HST
502
503# Kingman
504# uninhabited
505
506# Midway
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507#
508# From Mark Brader (2005-01-23):
509# [Fallacies and Fantasies of Air Transport History, by R.E.G. Davies,
510# published 1994 by Paladwr Press, McLean, VA, USA; ISBN 0-9626483-5-3]
511# reproduced a Pan American Airways timeables from 1936, for their weekly
512# "Orient Express" flights between San Francisco and Manila, and connecting
513# flights to Chicago and the US East Coast. As it uses some time zone
514# designations that I've never seen before:....
515# Fri. 6:30A Lv. HONOLOLU (Pearl Harbor), H.I. H.L.T. Ar. 5:30P Sun.
516# " 3:00P Ar. MIDWAY ISLAND . . . . . . . . . M.L.T. Lv. 6:00A "
517#
984263bc 518Zone Pacific/Midway -11:49:28 - LMT 1901
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519 -11:00 - NST 1956 Jun 3
520 -11:00 1:00 NDT 1956 Sep 2
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521 -11:00 - NST 1967 Apr # N=Nome
522 -11:00 - BST 1983 Nov 30 # B=Bering
523 -11:00 - SST # S=Samoa
524
525# Palmyra
526# uninhabited since World War II; was probably like Pacific/Kiritimati
527
528# Wake
529# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
530Zone Pacific/Wake 11:06:28 - LMT 1901
531 12:00 - WAKT # Wake Time
532
533
534# Vanuatu
535# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
536Rule Vanuatu 1983 only - Sep 25 0:00 1:00 S
537Rule Vanuatu 1984 1991 - Mar Sun>=23 0:00 0 -
538Rule Vanuatu 1984 only - Oct 23 0:00 1:00 S
539Rule Vanuatu 1985 1991 - Sep Sun>=23 0:00 1:00 S
540Rule Vanuatu 1992 1993 - Jan Sun>=23 0:00 0 -
541Rule Vanuatu 1992 only - Oct Sun>=23 0:00 1:00 S
542# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
543Zone Pacific/Efate 11:13:16 - LMT 1912 Jan 13 # Vila
544 11:00 Vanuatu VU%sT # Vanuatu Time
545
546# Wallis and Futuna
547# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
548Zone Pacific/Wallis 12:15:20 - LMT 1901
549 12:00 - WFT # Wallis & Futuna Time
550
551###############################################################################
552
553# NOTES
554
555# This data is by no means authoritative; if you think you know better,
556# go ahead and edit the file (and please send any changes to
557# tz@elsie.nci.nih.gov for general use in the future).
558
bd7414aa 559# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
984263bc 560# A good source for time zone historical data outside the U.S. is
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561# Thomas G. Shanks and Rique Pottenger, The International Atlas (6th edition),
562# San Diego: ACS Publications, Inc. (2003).
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563#
564# Gwillim Law writes that a good source
565# for recent time zone data is the International Air Transport
566# Association's Standard Schedules Information Manual (IATA SSIM),
567# published semiannually. Law sent in several helpful summaries
568# of the IATA's data after 1990.
569#
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570# Except where otherwise noted, Shanks & Pottenger is the source for
571# entries through 1990, and IATA SSIM is the source for entries afterwards.
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572#
573# Another source occasionally used is Edward W. Whitman, World Time Differences,
574# Whitman Publishing Co, 2 Niagara Av, Ealing, London (undated), which
575# I found in the UCLA library.
576#
577# A reliable and entertaining source about time zones is
578# Derek Howse, Greenwich time and longitude, Philip Wilson Publishers (1997).
579#
580# I invented the abbreviations marked `*' in the following table;
581# the rest are from earlier versions of this file, or from other sources.
582# Corrections are welcome!
583# std dst
584# LMT Local Mean Time
585# 8:00 WST WST Western Australia
880368e2 586# 8:45 CWST CWST Central Western Australia*
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587# 9:00 JST Japan
588# 9:30 CST CST Central Australia
589# 10:00 EST EST Eastern Australia
590# 10:00 ChST Chamorro
591# 10:30 LHST LHST Lord Howe*
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592# 11:30 NZMT NZST New Zealand through 1945
593# 12:00 NZST NZDT New Zealand 1946-present
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594# 12:45 CHAST CHADT Chatham*
595# -11:00 SST Samoa
596# -10:00 HST Hawaii
597# - 8:00 PST Pitcairn*
598#
599# See the `northamerica' file for Hawaii.
600# See the `southamerica' file for Easter I and the Galapagos Is.
601
602###############################################################################
603
604# Australia
605
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606# From Paul Eggert (2005-12-08):
607# <a href="http://www.bom.gov.au/climate/averages/tables/dst_times.shtml">
608# Implementation Dates of Daylight Saving Time within Australia
609# </a> summarizes daylight saving issues in Australia.
610
611# From Arthur David Olson (2005-12-12):
612# <a href="http://www.lawlink.nsw.gov.au/lawlink/Corporate/ll_agdinfo.nsf/pages/community_relations_daylight_saving">
613# Lawlink NSW:Daylight Saving in New South Wales
614# </a> covers New South Wales in particular.
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615
616# From John Mackin (1991-03-06):
617# We in Australia have _never_ referred to DST as `daylight' time.
618# It is called `summer' time. Now by a happy coincidence, `summer'
619# and `standard' happen to start with the same letter; hence, the
620# abbreviation does _not_ change...
621# The legislation does not actually define abbreviations, at least
622# in this State, but the abbreviation is just commonly taken to be the
623# initials of the phrase, and the legislation here uniformly uses
624# the phrase `summer time' and does not use the phrase `daylight
625# time'.
626# Announcers on the Commonwealth radio network, the ABC (for Australian
627# Broadcasting Commission), use the phrases `Eastern Standard Time'
628# or `Eastern Summer Time'. (Note, though, that as I say in the
629# current australasia file, there is really no such thing.) Announcers
630# on its overseas service, Radio Australia, use the same phrases
631# prefixed by the word `Australian' when referring to local times;
632# time announcements on that service, naturally enough, are made in UTC.
633
634# From Arthur David Olson (1992-03-08):
635# Given the above, what's chosen for year-round use is:
636# CST for any place operating at a GMTOFF of 9:30
637# WST for any place operating at a GMTOFF of 8:00
638# EST for any place operating at a GMTOFF of 10:00
639
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640# From Chuck Soper (2006-06-01):
641# I recently found this Australian government web page on time zones:
642# <http://www.australia.gov.au/about-australia-13time>
643# And this government web page lists time zone names and abbreviations:
644# <http://www.bom.gov.au/climate/averages/tables/daysavtm.shtml>
645
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646# From Paul Eggert (2001-04-05), summarizing a long discussion about "EST"
647# versus "AEST" etc.:
648#
649# I see the following points of dispute:
650#
651# * How important are unique time zone abbreviations?
652#
653# Here I tend to agree with the point (most recently made by Chris
654# Newman) that unique abbreviations should not be essential for proper
655# operation of software. We have other instances of ambiguity
656# (e.g. "IST" denoting both "Israel Standard Time" and "Indian
657# Standard Time"), and they are not likely to go away any time soon.
658# In the old days, some software mistakenly relied on unique
659# abbreviations, but this is becoming less true with time, and I don't
660# think it's that important to cater to such software these days.
661#
662# On the other hand, there is another motivation for unambiguous
663# abbreviations: it cuts down on human confusion. This is
664# particularly true for Australia, where "EST" can mean one thing for
665# time T and a different thing for time T plus 1 second.
666#
667# * Does the relevant legislation indicate which abbreviations should be used?
668#
669# Here I tend to think that things are a mess, just as they are in
670# many other countries. We Americans are currently disagreeing about
671# which abbreviation to use for the newly legislated Chamorro Standard
672# Time, for example.
673#
674# Personally, I would prefer to use common practice; I would like to
675# refer to legislation only for examples of common practice, or as a
676# tiebreaker.
677#
678# * Do Australians more often use "Eastern Daylight Time" or "Eastern
679# Summer Time"? Do they typically prefix the time zone names with
680# the word "Australian"?
681#
682# My own impression is that both "Daylight Time" and "Summer Time" are
683# common and are widely understood, but that "Summer Time" is more
684# popular; and that the leading "A" is also common but is omitted more
685# often than not. I just used AltaVista advanced search and got the
686# following count of page hits:
687#
688# 1,103 "Eastern Summer Time" AND domain:au
689# 971 "Australian Eastern Summer Time" AND domain:au
690# 613 "Eastern Daylight Time" AND domain:au
691# 127 "Australian Eastern Daylight Time" AND domain:au
692#
693# Here "Summer" seems quite a bit more popular than "Daylight",
694# particularly when we know the time zone is Australian and not US,
695# say. The "Australian" prefix seems to be popular for Eastern Summer
696# Time, but unpopular for Eastern Daylight Time.
697#
698# For abbreviations, tools like AltaVista are less useful because of
699# ambiguity. Many hits are not really time zones, unfortunately, and
700# many hits denote US time zones and not Australian ones. But here
701# are the hit counts anyway:
702#
703# 161,304 "EST" and domain:au
704# 25,156 "EDT" and domain:au
705# 18,263 "AEST" and domain:au
706# 10,416 "AEDT" and domain:au
707#
708# 14,538 "CST" and domain:au
709# 5,728 "CDT" and domain:au
710# 176 "ACST" and domain:au
711# 29 "ACDT" and domain:au
712#
713# 7,539 "WST" and domain:au
714# 68 "AWST" and domain:au
715#
716# This data suggest that Australians tend to omit the "A" prefix in
717# practice. The situation for "ST" versus "DT" is less clear, given
718# the ambiguities involved.
719#
720# * How do Australians feel about the abbreviations in the tz database?
721#
722# If you just count Australians on this list, I count 2 in favor and 3
723# against. One of the "against" votes (David Keegel) counseled delay,
724# saying that both AEST/AEDT and EST/EST are widely used and
725# understood in Australia.
726
727# From Paul Eggert (1995-12-19):
bd7414aa 728# Shanks & Pottenger report 2:00 for all autumn changes in Australia and NZ.
9ffe4b14 729# Mark Prior writes that his newspaper
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730# reports that NSW's fall 1995 change will occur at 2:00,
731# but Robert Elz says it's been 3:00 in Victoria since 1970
732# and perhaps the newspaper's `2:00' is referring to standard time.
733# For now we'll continue to assume 2:00s for changes since 1960.
734
9ffe4b14 735# From Eric Ulevik (1998-01-05):
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736#
737# Here are some URLs to Australian time legislation. These URLs are stable,
738# and should probably be included in the data file. There are probably more
739# relevant entries in this database.
740#
741# NSW (including LHI and Broken Hill):
742# <a href="http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/nsw/consol_act/sta1987137/index.html">
743# Standard Time Act 1987 (updated 1995-04-04)
744# </a>
745# ACT
746# <a href="http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/act/consol_act/stasta1972279/index.html">
747# Standard Time and Summer Time Act 1972
748# </a>
749# SA
750# <a href="http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/sa/consol_act/sta1898137/index.html">
751# Standard Time Act, 1898
752# </a>
753
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754# From David Grosz (2005-06-13):
755# It was announced last week that Daylight Saving would be extended by
756# one week next year to allow for the 2006 Commonwealth Games.
757# Daylight Saving is now to end for next year only on the first Sunday
758# in April instead of the last Sunday in March.
759#
760# From Gwillim Law (2005-06-14):
761# I did some Googling and found that all of those states (and territory) plan
762# to extend DST together in 2006.
763# ACT: http://www.cmd.act.gov.au/mediareleases/fileread.cfm?file=86.txt
764# New South Wales: http://www.thecouriermail.news.com.au/common/story_page/0,5936,15538869%255E1702,00.html
765# South Australia: http://www.news.com.au/story/0,10117,15555031-1246,00.html
766# Tasmania: http://www.media.tas.gov.au/release.php?id=14772
767# Victoria: I wasn't able to find anything separate, but the other articles
768# allude to it.
769# But not Queensland
770# http://www.news.com.au/story/0,10117,15564030-1248,00.html.
771
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772# Northern Territory
773
774# From George Shepherd via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06):
775# # The NORTHERN TERRITORY.. [ Courtesy N.T. Dept of the Chief Minister ]
776# # [ Nov 1990 ]
777# # N.T. have never utilised any DST due to sub-tropical/tropical location.
778# ...
779# Zone Australia/North 9:30 - CST
780
781# From Bradley White (1991-03-04):
782# A recent excerpt from an Australian newspaper...
783# the Northern Territory do[es] not have daylight saving.
784
785# Western Australia
786
787# From George Shepherd via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06):
788# # The state of WESTERN AUSTRALIA.. [ Courtesy W.A. dept Premier+Cabinet ]
789# # [ Nov 1990 ]
790# # W.A. suffers from a great deal of public and political opposition to
791# # DST in principle. A bill is brought before parliament in most years, but
792# # usually defeated either in the upper house, or in party caucus
793# # before reaching parliament.
794# ...
795# Zone Australia/West 8:00 AW %sST
796# ...
797# Rule AW 1974 only - Oct lastSun 2:00 1:00 D
798# Rule AW 1975 only - Mar Sun>=1 3:00 0 W
799# Rule AW 1983 only - Oct lastSun 2:00 1:00 D
800# Rule AW 1984 only - Mar Sun>=1 3:00 0 W
801
802# From Bradley White (1991-03-04):
803# A recent excerpt from an Australian newspaper...
804# Western Australia...do[es] not have daylight saving.
805
806# From John D. Newman via Bradley White (1991-11-02):
807# Western Australia is still on "winter time". Some DH in Sydney
808# rang me at home a few days ago at 6.00am. (He had just arrived at
809# work at 9.00am.)
810# W.A. is switching to Summer Time on Nov 17th just to confuse
811# everybody again.
812
813# From Arthur David Olson (1992-03-08):
814# The 1992 ending date used in the rules is a best guess;
815# it matches what was used in the past.
816
817# <a href="http://www.bom.gov.au/faq/faqgen.htm">
818# The Australian Bureau of Meteorology FAQ
819# </a> (1999-09-27) writes that Giles Meteorological Station uses
820# South Australian time even though it's located in Western Australia.
821
822# Queensland
823# From George Shepherd via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06):
824# # The state of QUEENSLAND.. [ Courtesy Qld. Dept Premier Econ&Trade Devel ]
825# # [ Dec 1990 ]
826# ...
827# Zone Australia/Queensland 10:00 AQ %sST
828# ...
829# Rule AQ 1971 only - Oct lastSun 2:00 1:00 D
830# Rule AQ 1972 only - Feb lastSun 3:00 0 E
831# Rule AQ 1989 max - Oct lastSun 2:00 1:00 D
832# Rule AQ 1990 max - Mar Sun>=1 3:00 0 E
833
834# From Bradley White (1989-12-24):
835# "Australia/Queensland" now observes daylight time (i.e. from
836# October 1989).
837
838# From Bradley White (1991-03-04):
839# A recent excerpt from an Australian newspaper...
840# ...Queensland...[has] agreed to end daylight saving
841# at 3am tomorrow (March 3)...
842
843# From John Mackin (1991-03-06):
844# I can certainly confirm for my part that Daylight Saving in NSW did in fact
845# end on Sunday, 3 March. I don't know at what hour, though. (It surprised
846# me.)
847
848# From Bradley White (1992-03-08):
849# ...there was recently a referendum in Queensland which resulted
850# in the experimental daylight saving system being abandoned. So, ...
851# ...
852# Rule QLD 1989 1991 - Oct lastSun 2:00 1:00 D
853# Rule QLD 1990 1992 - Mar Sun>=1 3:00 0 S
854# ...
855
856# From Arthur David Olson (1992-03-08):
857# The chosen rules the union of the 1971/1972 change and the 1989-1992 changes.
858
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859# From Christopher Hunt (2006-11-21), after an advance warning
860# from Jesper Norgaard Welen (2006-11-01):
8393cd87 861# WA are trialing DST for three years.
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862# <http://www.parliament.wa.gov.au/parliament/bills.nsf/9A1B183144403DA54825721200088DF1/$File/Bill175-1B.pdf>
863
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864# From Rives McDow (2002-04-09):
865# The most interesting region I have found consists of three towns on the
880368e2 866# southern coast.... South Australia observes daylight saving time; Western
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867# Australia does not. The two states are one and a half hours apart. The
868# residents decided to forget about this nonsense of changing the clock so
869# much and set the local time 20 hours and 45 minutes from the
870# international date line, or right in the middle of the time of South
880368e2 871# Australia and Western Australia....
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872#
873# From Paul Eggert (2002-04-09):
874# This is confirmed by the section entitled
875# "What's the deal with time zones???" in
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876# <http://www.earthsci.unimelb.edu.au/~awatkins/null.html>.
877#
878# From Alex Livingston (2006-12-07):
879# ... it was just on four years ago that I drove along the Eyre Highway,
880# which passes through eastern Western Australia close to the southern
881# coast of the continent.
882#
883# I paid particular attention to the time kept there. There can be no
884# dispute that UTC+08:45 was considered "the time" from the border
885# village just inside the border with South Australia to as far west
886# as just east of Caiguna. There can also be no dispute that Eucla is
887# the largest population centre in this zone....
888#
889# Now that Western Australia is observing daylight saving, the
890# question arose whether this part of the state would follow suit. I
891# just called the border village and confirmed that indeed they have,
892# meaning that they are now observing UTC+09:45.
8393cd87 893#
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894# (2006-12-09):
895# I personally doubt that either experimentation with daylight saving
896# in WA or its introduction in SA had anything to do with the genesis
897# of this time zone. My hunch is that it's been around since well
898# before 1975. I remember seeing it noted on road maps decades ago.
899
900# From Paul Eggert (2006-12-15):
901# For lack of better info, assume the tradition dates back to the
902# introduction of standard time in 1895.
903
984263bc 904
0e49ec84 905# southeast Australia
984263bc 906#
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907# From Paul Eggert (2007-07-23):
908# Starting autumn 2008 Victoria, NSW, South Australia, Tasmania and the ACT
909# end DST the first Sunday in April and start DST the first Sunday in October.
910# http://www.theage.com.au/news/national/daylight-savings-to-span-six-months/2007/06/27/1182623966703.html
911
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912
913# South Australia
914
915# From Bradley White (1991-03-04):
916# A recent excerpt from an Australian newspaper...
917# ...South Australia...[has] agreed to end daylight saving
918# at 3am tomorrow (March 3)...
919
920# From George Shepherd via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06):
921# # The state of SOUTH AUSTRALIA....[ Courtesy of S.A. Dept of Labour ]
922# # [ Nov 1990 ]
923# ...
924# Zone Australia/South 9:30 AS %sST
925# ...
926# Rule AS 1971 max - Oct lastSun 2:00 1:00 D
927# Rule AS 1972 1985 - Mar Sun>=1 3:00 0 C
bd7414aa 928# Rule AS 1986 1990 - Mar Sun>=15 3:00 0 C
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929# Rule AS 1991 max - Mar Sun>=1 3:00 0 C
930
931# From Bradley White (1992-03-11):
932# Recent correspondence with a friend in Adelaide
933# contained the following exchange: "Due to the Adelaide Festival,
934# South Australia delays setting back our clocks for a few weeks."
935
936# From Robert Elz (1992-03-13):
937# I heard that apparently (or at least, it appears that)
938# South Aus will have an extra 3 weeks daylight saving every even
939# numbered year (from 1990). That's when the Adelaide Festival
940# is on...
941
942# From Robert Elz (1992-03-16, 00:57:07 +1000):
943# DST didn't end in Adelaide today (yesterday)....
944# But whether it's "4th Sunday" or "2nd last Sunday" I have no idea whatever...
945# (it's just as likely to be "the Sunday we pick for this year"...).
946
947# From Bradley White (1994-04-11):
948# If Sun, 15 March, 1992 was at +1030 as kre asserts, but yet Sun, 20 March,
949# 1994 was at +0930 as John Connolly's customer seems to assert, then I can
950# only conclude that the actual rule is more complicated....
951
9ffe4b14 952# From John Warburton (1994-10-07):
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953# The new Daylight Savings dates for South Australia ...
954# was gazetted in the Government Hansard on Sep 26 1994....
955# start on last Sunday in October and end in last sunday in March.
956
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957# From Paul Eggert (2007-07-23):
958# See "southeast Australia" above for 2008 and later.
959
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960# Tasmania
961
962# The rules for 1967 through 1991 were reported by George Shepherd
963# via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06):
964# # The state of TASMANIA.. [Courtesy Tasmanian Dept of Premier + Cabinet ]
965# # [ Nov 1990 ]
966
967# From Bill Hart via Guy Harris (1991-10-10):
968# Oh yes, the new daylight savings rules are uniquely tasmanian, we have
969# 6 weeks a year now when we are out of sync with the rest of Australia
970# (but nothing new about that).
971
972# From Alex Livingston (1999-10-04):
973# I heard on the ABC (Australian Broadcasting Corporation) radio news on the
974# (long) weekend that Tasmania, which usually goes its own way in this regard,
975# has decided to join with most of NSW, the ACT, and most of Victoria
976# (Australia) and start daylight saving on the last Sunday in August in 2000
977# instead of the first Sunday in October.
978
979# Sim Alam (2000-07-03) reported a legal citation for the 2000/2001 rules:
980# http://www.thelaw.tas.gov.au/fragview/42++1968+GS3A@EN+2000070300
981
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982# From Paul Eggert (2007-07-23):
983# See "southeast Australia" above for 2008 and later.
984
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985# Victoria
986
987# The rules for 1971 through 1991 were reported by George Shepherd
988# via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06):
989# # The state of VICTORIA.. [ Courtesy of Vic. Dept of Premier + Cabinet ]
990# # [ Nov 1990 ]
991
992# From Scott Harrington (2001-08-29):
993# On KQED's "City Arts and Lectures" program last night I heard an
994# interesting story about daylight savings time. Dr. John Heilbron was
995# discussing his book "The Sun in the Church: Cathedrals as Solar
996# Observatories"[1], and in particular the Shrine of Remembrance[2] located
997# in Melbourne, Australia.
998#
999# Apparently the shrine's main purpose is a beam of sunlight which
1000# illuminates a special spot on the floor at the 11th hour of the 11th day
1001# of the 11th month (Remembrance Day) every year in memory of Australia's
1002# fallen WWI soldiers. And if you go there on Nov. 11, at 11am local time,
1003# you will indeed see the sunbeam illuminate the special spot at the
1004# expected time.
1005#
1006# However, that is only because of some special mirror contraption that had
1007# to be employed, since due to daylight savings time, the true solar time of
1008# the remembrance moment occurs one hour later (or earlier?). Perhaps
1009# someone with more information on this jury-rig can tell us more.
1010#
1011# [1] http://www.hup.harvard.edu/catalog/HEISUN.html
1012# [2] http://www.shrine.org.au
1013
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1014# From Paul Eggert (2007-07-23):
1015# See "southeast Australia" above for 2008 and later.
1016
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1017# New South Wales
1018
1019# From Arthur David Olson:
1020# New South Wales and subjurisdictions have their own ideas of a fun time.
9ffe4b14 1021# Based on law library research by John Mackin,
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1022# who notes:
1023# In Australia, time is not legislated federally, but rather by the
1024# individual states. Thus, while such terms as ``Eastern Standard Time''
1025# [I mean, of course, Australian EST, not any other kind] are in common
1026# use, _they have NO REAL MEANING_, as they are not defined in the
1027# legislation. This is very important to understand.
1028# I have researched New South Wales time only...
1029
9ffe4b14 1030# From Eric Ulevik (1999-05-26):
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1031# DST will start in NSW on the last Sunday of August, rather than the usual
1032# October in 2000. [See: Matthew Moore,
1033# <a href="http://www.smh.com.au/news/9905/26/pageone/pageone4.html">
1034# Two months more daylight saving
1035# </a>
1036# Sydney Morning Herald (1999-05-26).]
1037
1038# From Paul Eggert (1999-09-27):
1039# See the following official NSW source:
1040# <a href="http://dir.gis.nsw.gov.au/cgi-bin/genobject/document/other/daylightsaving/tigGmZ">
1041# Daylight Saving in New South Wales.
1042# </a>
1043#
1044# Narrabri Shire (NSW) council has announced it will ignore the extension of
1045# daylight saving next year. See:
1046# <a href="http://abc.net.au/news/regionals/neweng/monthly/regeng-22jul1999-1.htm">
1047# Narrabri Council to ignore daylight saving
1048# </a> (1999-07-22). For now, we'll wait to see if this really happens.
1049#
1050# Victoria will following NSW. See:
1051# <a href="http://abc.net.au/local/news/olympics/1999/07/item19990728112314_1.htm">
1052# Vic to extend daylight saving
1053# </a> (1999-07-28).
1054#
1055# However, South Australia rejected the DST request. See:
1056# <a href="http://abc.net.au/news/olympics/1999/07/item19990719151754_1.htm">
1057# South Australia rejects Olympics daylight savings request
1058# </a> (1999-07-19).
1059#
1060# Queensland also will not observe DST for the Olympics. See:
1061# <a href="http://abc.net.au/news/olympics/1999/06/item19990601114608_1.htm">
1062# Qld says no to daylight savings for Olympics
1063# </a> (1999-06-01), which quotes Queensland Premier Peter Beattie as saying
1064# ``Look you've got to remember in my family when this came up last time
1065# I voted for it, my wife voted against it and she said to me it's all very
1066# well for you, you don't have to worry about getting the children out of
1067# bed, getting them to school, getting them to sleep at night.
1068# I've been through all this argument domestically...my wife rules.''
1069#
1070# Broken Hill will stick with South Australian time in 2000. See:
1071# <a href="http://abc.net.au/news/regionals/brokenh/monthly/regbrok-21jul1999-6.htm">
1072# Broken Hill to be behind the times
1073# </a> (1999-07-21).
1074
1075# IATA SSIM (1998-09) says that the spring 2000 change for Australian
1076# Capital Territory, New South Wales except Lord Howe Island and Broken
1077# Hill, and Victoria will be August 27, presumably due to the Sydney Olympics.
1078
1079# From Eric Ulevik, referring to Sydney's Sun Herald (2000-08-13), page 29:
1080# The Queensland Premier Peter Beattie is encouraging northern NSW
1081# towns to use Queensland time.
1082
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1083# From Paul Eggert (2007-07-23):
1084# See "southeast Australia" above for 2008 and later.
1085
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1086# Yancowinna
1087
1088# From John Mackin (1989-01-04):
1089# `Broken Hill' means the County of Yancowinna.
1090
1091# From George Shepherd via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06):
1092# # YANCOWINNA.. [ Confirmation courtesy of Broken Hill Postmaster ]
1093# # [ Dec 1990 ]
1094# ...
1095# # Yancowinna uses Central Standard Time, despite [its] location on the
1096# # New South Wales side of the S.A. border. Most business and social dealings
1097# # are with CST zones, therefore CST is legislated by local government
1098# # although the switch to Summer Time occurs in line with N.S.W. There have
1099# # been years when this did not apply, but the historical data is not
1100# # presently available.
1101# Zone Australia/Yancowinna 9:30 AY %sST
1102# ...
1103# Rule AY 1971 1985 - Oct lastSun 2:00 1:00 D
1104# Rule AY 1972 only - Feb lastSun 3:00 0 C
1105# [followed by other Rules]
1106
1107# Lord Howe Island
1108
1109# From George Shepherd via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06):
34850bd5 1110# LHI... [ Courtesy of Pauline Van Winsen ]
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1111# [ Dec 1990 ]
1112# Lord Howe Island is located off the New South Wales coast, and is half an
1113# hour ahead of NSW time.
1114
1115# From James Lonergan, Secretary, Lord Howe Island Board (2000-01-27):
1116# Lord Howe Island summer time in 2000/2001 will commence on the same
1117# date as the rest of NSW (i.e. 2000-08-27). For your information the
1118# Lord Howe Island Board (controlling authority for the Island) is
1119# seeking the community's views on various options for summer time
1120# arrangements on the Island, e.g. advance clocks by 1 full hour
1121# instead of only 30 minutes. Dependant on the wishes of residents
1122# the Board may approach the NSW government to change the existing
1123# arrangements. The starting date for summer time on the Island will
1124# however always coincide with the rest of NSW.
1125
1126# From James Lonergan, Secretary, Lord Howe Island Board (2000-10-25):
1127# Lord Howe Island advances clocks by 30 minutes during DST in NSW and retards
1128# clocks by 30 minutes when DST finishes. Since DST was most recently
1129# introduced in NSW, the "changeover" time on the Island has been 02:00 as
1130# shown on clocks on LHI. I guess this means that for 30 minutes at the start
1131# of DST, LHI is actually 1 hour ahead of the rest of NSW.
1132
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1133# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
1134# For Lord Howe dates we use Shanks & Pottenger through 1989, and
1135# Lonergan thereafter. For times we use Lonergan.
984263bc 1136
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1137# From Paul Eggert (2007-07-23):
1138# See "southeast Australia" above for 2008 and later.
1139
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1140# From Steffen Thorsen (2009-04-28):
1141# According to the official press release, South Australia's extended daylight
1142# saving period will continue with the same rules as used during the 2008-2009
1143# summer (southern hemisphere).
1144#
1145# From
1146# <a href="http://www.safework.sa.gov.au/uploaded_files/DaylightDatesSet.pdf">
1147# http://www.safework.sa.gov.au/uploaded_files/DaylightDatesSet.pdf
1148# </a>
1149# The extended daylight saving period that South Australia has been trialling
1150# for over the last year is now set to be ongoing.
1151# Daylight saving will continue to start on the first Sunday in October each
1152# year and finish on the first Sunday in April the following year.
1153# Industrial Relations Minister, Paul Caica, says this provides South Australia
1154# with a consistent half hour time difference with NSW, Victoria, Tasmania and
1155# the ACT for all 52 weeks of the year...
1156#
1157# We have a wrap-up here:
1158# <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/south-australia-extends-dst.html">
1159# http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/south-australia-extends-dst.html
1160# </a>
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1161###############################################################################
1162
1163# New Zealand
1164
1165# From Mark Davies (1990-10-03):
1166# the 1989/90 year was a trial of an extended "daylight saving" period.
1167# This trial was deemed successful and the extended period adopted for
1168# subsequent years (with the addition of a further week at the start).
1169# source -- phone call to Ministry of Internal Affairs Head Office.
1170
1171# From George Shepherd via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06):
1172# # The Country of New Zealand (Australia's east island -) Gee they hate that!
1173# # or is Australia the west island of N.Z.
34850bd5 1174# # [ courtesy of Geoff Tribble.. Auckland N.Z. ]
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1175# # [ Nov 1990 ]
1176# ...
1177# Rule NZ 1974 1988 - Oct lastSun 2:00 1:00 D
1178# Rule NZ 1989 max - Oct Sun>=1 2:00 1:00 D
1179# Rule NZ 1975 1989 - Mar Sun>=1 3:00 0 S
1180# Rule NZ 1990 max - Mar lastSun 3:00 0 S
1181# ...
1182# Zone NZ 12:00 NZ NZ%sT # New Zealand
1183# Zone NZ-CHAT 12:45 - NZ-CHAT # Chatham Island
1184
1185# From Arthur David Olson (1992-03-08):
1186# The chosen rules use the Davies October 8 values for the start of DST in 1989
1187# rather than the October 1 value.
1188
1189# From Paul Eggert (1995-12-19);
bd7414aa 1190# Shank & Pottenger report 2:00 for all autumn changes in Australia and NZ.
9ffe4b14 1191# Robert Uzgalis writes that the New Zealand Daylight
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1192# Savings Time Order in Council dated 1990-06-18 specifies 2:00 standard
1193# time on both the first Sunday in October and the third Sunday in March.
1194# As with Australia, we'll assume the tradition is 2:00s, not 2:00.
1195#
bd7414aa 1196# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
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JR
1197# The Department of Internal Affairs (DIA) maintains a brief history,
1198# as does Carol Squires; see tz-link.htm for the full references.
bd7414aa 1199# Use these sources in preference to Shanks & Pottenger.
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1200#
1201# For Chatham, IATA SSIM (1991/1999) gives the NZ rules but with
1202# transitions at 2:45 local standard time; this confirms that Chatham
1203# is always exactly 45 minutes ahead of Auckland.
984263bc 1204
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1205# From Colin Sharples (2007-04-30):
1206# DST will now start on the last Sunday in September, and end on the
1207# first Sunday in April. The changes take effect this year, meaning
1208# that DST will begin on 2007-09-30 2008-04-06.
1209# http://www.dia.govt.nz/diawebsite.nsf/wpg_URL/Services-Daylight-Saving-Daylight-saving-to-be-extended
1210
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1211###############################################################################
1212
1213
1214# Fiji
1215
1216# Howse writes (p 153) that in 1879 the British governor of Fiji
1217# enacted an ordinance standardizing the islands on Antipodean Time
1218# instead of the American system (which was one day behind).
1219
1220# From Rives McDow (1998-10-08):
1221# Fiji will introduce DST effective 0200 local time, 1998-11-01
1222# until 0300 local time 1999-02-28. Each year the DST period will
1223# be from the first Sunday in November until the last Sunday in February.
1224
1225# From Paul Eggert (2000-01-08):
1226# IATA SSIM (1999-09) says DST ends 0100 local time. Go with McDow.
1227
1228# From the BBC World Service (1998-10-31 11:32 UTC):
1229# The Fijiian government says the main reasons for the time change is to
1230# improve productivity and reduce road accidents. But correspondents say it
1231# also hopes the move will boost Fiji's ability to compete with other pacific
1232# islands in the effort to attract tourists to witness the dawning of the new
1233# millenium.
1234
1235# http://www.fiji.gov.fj/press/2000_09/2000_09_13-05.shtml (2000-09-13)
1236# reports that Fiji has discontinued DST.
1237
1238# Johnston
1239
1240# Johnston data is from usno1995.
1241
1242
1243# Kiribati
1244
1245# From Paul Eggert (1996-01-22):
1246# Today's _Wall Street Journal_ (page 1) reports that Kiribati
1247# ``declared it the same day throught the country as of Jan. 1, 1995''
1248# as part of the competition to be first into the 21st century.
1249
1250
1251# Kwajalein
1252
1253# In comp.risks 14.87 (26 August 1993), Peter Neumann writes:
1254# I wonder what happened in Kwajalein, where there was NO Friday,
1255# 1993-08-20. Thursday night at midnight Kwajalein switched sides with
1256# respect to the International Date Line, to rejoin its fellow islands,
1257# going from 11:59 p.m. Thursday to 12:00 m. Saturday in a blink.
1258
1259
1260# N Mariana Is, Guam
1261
1262# Howse writes (p 153) ``The Spaniards, on the other hand, reached the
1263# Philippines and the Ladrones from America,'' and implies that the Ladrones
1264# (now called the Marianas) kept American date for quite some time.
1265# For now, we assume the Ladrones switched at the same time as the Philippines;
1266# see Asia/Manila.
1267
1268# US Public Law 106-564 (2000-12-23) made UTC+10 the official standard time,
1269# under the name "Chamorro Standard Time". There is no official abbreviation,
1270# but Congressman Robert A. Underwood, author of the bill that became law,
1271# wrote in a press release (2000-12-27) that he will seek the use of "ChST".
1272
1273
1274# Micronesia
1275
9ffe4b14 1276# Alan Eugene Davis writes (1996-03-16),
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1277# ``I am certain, having lived there for the past decade, that "Truk"
1278# (now properly known as Chuuk) ... is in the time zone GMT+10.''
1279#
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1280# Shanks & Pottenger write that Truk switched from UTC+10 to UTC+11
1281# on 1978-10-01; ignore this for now.
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1282
1283# From Paul Eggert (1999-10-29):
1284# The Federated States of Micronesia Visitors Board writes in
1285# <a href="http://www.fsmgov.org/info/clocks.html">
1286# The Federated States of Micronesia - Visitor Information
1287# </a> (1999-01-26)
1288# that Truk and Yap are UTC+10, and Ponape and Kosrae are UTC+11.
1289# We don't know when Kosrae switched from UTC+12; assume January 1 for now.
1290
1291
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1292# Midway
1293
1294# From Charles T O'Connor, KMTH DJ (1956),
1295# quoted in the KTMH section of the Radio Heritage Collection
1296# <http://radiodx.com/spdxr/KMTH.htm> (2002-12-31):
1297# For the past two months we've been on what is known as Daylight
1298# Saving Time. This time has put us on air at 5am in the morning,
1299# your time down there in New Zealand. Starting September 2, 1956
1300# we'll again go back to Standard Time. This'll mean that we'll go to
1301# air at 6am your time.
1302#
1303# From Paul Eggert (2003-03-23):
1304# We don't know the date of that quote, but we'll guess they
1305# started DST on June 3. Possibly DST was observed other years
1306# in Midway, but we have no record of it.
1307
1308
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1309# Pitcairn
1310
1311# From Rives McDow (1999-11-08):
1312# A Proclamation was signed by the Governor of Pitcairn on the 27th March 1998
1313# with regard to Pitcairn Standard Time. The Proclamation is as follows.
1314#
1315# The local time for general purposes in the Islands shall be
1316# Co-ordinated Universal time minus 8 hours and shall be known
1317# as Pitcairn Standard Time.
1318#
1319# ... I have also seen Pitcairn listed as UTC minus 9 hours in several
1320# references, and can only assume that this was an error in interpretation
1321# somehow in light of this proclamation.
1322
1323# From Rives McDow (1999-11-09):
1324# The Proclamation regarding Pitcairn time came into effect on 27 April 1998
1325# ... at midnight.
1326
1327# From Howie Phelps (1999-11-10), who talked to a Pitcairner via shortwave:
1328# Betty Christian told me yesterday that their local time is the same as
1329# Pacific Standard Time. They used to be 1/2 hour different from us here in
1330# Sacramento but it was changed a couple of years ago.
1331
1332
1333# Samoa
1334
1335# Howse writes (p 153, citing p 10 of the 1883-11-18 New York Herald)
1336# that in 1879 the King of Samoa decided to change
1337# ``the date in his kingdom from the Antipodean to the American system,
1338# ordaining -- by a masterpiece of diplomatic flattery -- that
1339# the Fourth of July should be celebrated twice in that year.''
1340
1341
1342# Tonga
1343
1344# From Paul Eggert (1996-01-22):
1345# Today's _Wall Street Journal_ (p 1) reports that ``Tonga has been plotting
1346# to sneak ahead of [New Zealanders] by introducing daylight-saving time.''
1347# Since Kiribati has moved the Date Line it's not clear what Tonga will do.
1348
1349# Don Mundell writes in the 1997-02-20 Tonga Chronicle
1350# <a href="http://www.tongatapu.net.to/tonga/homeland/timebegins.htm">
1351# How Tonga became `The Land where Time Begins'
1352# </a>:
1353
1354# Until 1941 Tonga maintained a standard time 50 minutes ahead of NZST
1355# 12 hours and 20 minutes ahead of GMT. When New Zealand adjusted its
1356# standard time in 1940s, Tonga had the choice of subtracting from its
1357# local time to come on the same standard time as New Zealand or of
1358# advancing its time to maintain the differential of 13 degrees
1359# (approximately 50 minutes ahead of New Zealand time).
1360#
1361# Because His Majesty King Taufa'ahau Tupou IV, then Crown Prince
1362# Tungi, preferred to ensure Tonga's title as the land where time
1363# begins, the Legislative Assembly approved the latter change.
1364#
1365# But some of the older, more conservative members from the outer
1366# islands objected. "If at midnight on Dec. 31, we move ahead 40
1367# minutes, as your Royal Highness wishes, what becomes of the 40
1368# minutes we have lost?"
1369#
1370# The Crown Prince, presented an unanswerable argument: "Remember that
1371# on the World Day of Prayer, you would be the first people on Earth
1372# to say your prayers in the morning."
1373
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1374# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
1375# Shanks & Pottenger say the transition was on 1968-10-01; go with Mundell.
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1376
1377# From Eric Ulevik (1999-05-03):
1378# Tonga's director of tourism, who is also secretary of the National Millenium
1379# Committee, has a plan to get Tonga back in front.
1380# He has proposed a one-off move to tropical daylight saving for Tonga from
1381# October to March, which has won approval in principle from the Tongan
1382# Government.
1383
9ffe4b14 1384# From Steffen Thorsen (1999-09-09):
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1385# * Tonga will introduce DST in November
1386#
9ffe4b14 1387# I was given this link by John Letts:
a36b983e 1388# <a href="http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/world/asia-pacific/newsid_424000/424764.stm">
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1389# http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/world/asia-pacific/newsid_424000/424764.stm
1390# </a>
1391#
1392# I have not been able to find exact dates for the transition in November
1393# yet. By reading this article it seems like Fiji will be 14 hours ahead
1394# of UTC as well, but as far as I know Fiji will only be 13 hours ahead
1395# (12 + 1 hour DST).
1396
9ffe4b14 1397# From Arthur David Olson (1999-09-20):
a36b983e 1398# According to <a href="http://www.tongaonline.com/news/sept1799.html">
984263bc
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1399# http://www.tongaonline.com/news/sept1799.html
1400# </a>:
1401# "Daylight Savings Time will take effect on Oct. 2 through April 15, 2000
1402# and annually thereafter from the first Saturday in October through the
1403# third Saturday of April. Under the system approved by Privy Council on
1404# Sept. 10, clocks must be turned ahead one hour on the opening day and
1405# set back an hour on the closing date."
1406# Alas, no indication of the time of day.
1407
1408# From Rives McDow (1999-10-06):
1409# Tonga started its Daylight Saving on Saturday morning October 2nd at 0200am.
1410# Daylight Saving ends on April 16 at 0300am which is Sunday morning.
1411
1412# From Steffen Thorsen (2000-10-31):
1413# Back in March I found a notice on the website http://www.tongaonline.com
1414# that Tonga changed back to standard time one month early, on March 19
1415# instead of the original reported date April 16. Unfortunately, the article
1416# is no longer available on the site, and I did not make a copy of the
1417# text, and I have forgotten to report it here.
1418# (Original URL was: http://www.tongaonline.com/news/march162000.htm )
1419
1420# From Rives McDow (2000-12-01):
1421# Tonga is observing DST as of 2000-11-04 and will stop on 2001-01-27.
1422
1423# From Sione Moala-Mafi (2001-09-20) via Rives McDow:
1424# At 2:00am on the first Sunday of November, the standard time in the Kingdom
1425# shall be moved forward by one hour to 3:00am. At 2:00am on the last Sunday
1426# of January the standard time in the Kingdom shall be moved backward by one
1427# hour to 1:00am.
1428
1429# From Pulu 'Anau (2002-11-05):
1430# The law was for 3 years, supposedly to get renewed. It wasn't.
1431
ba5ba9da
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1432
1433# Wake
1434
1435# From Vernice Anderson, Personal Secretary to Philip Jessup,
1436# US Ambassador At Large (oral history interview, 1971-02-02):
1437#
1438# Saturday, the 14th [of October, 1950] -- ... The time was all the
1439# more confusing at that point, because we had crossed the
1440# International Date Line, thus getting two Sundays. Furthermore, we
1441# discovered that Wake Island had two hours of daylight saving time
1442# making calculation of time in Washington difficult if not almost
1443# impossible.
1444#
1445# http://www.trumanlibrary.org/wake/meeting.htm
1446
1447# From Paul Eggert (2003-03-23):
1448# We have no other report of DST in Wake Island, so omit this info for now.
1449
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1450###############################################################################
1451
1452# The International Date Line
1453
1454# From Gwillim Law (2000-01-03):
1455#
1456# The International Date Line is not defined by any international standard,
1457# convention, or treaty. Mapmakers are free to draw it as they please.
1458# Reputable mapmakers will simply ensure that every point of land appears on
1459# the correct side of the IDL, according to the date legally observed there.
1460#
1461# When Kiribati adopted a uniform date in 1995, thereby moving the Phoenix and
1462# Line Islands to the west side of the IDL (or, if you prefer, moving the IDL
1463# to the east side of the Phoenix and Line Islands), I suppose that most
1464# mapmakers redrew the IDL following the boundary of Kiribati. Even that line
1465# has a rather arbitrary nature. The straight-line boundaries between Pacific
1466# island nations that are shown on many maps are based on an international
e1e23b59 1467# convention, but are not legally binding national borders.... The date is
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1468# governed by the IDL; therefore, even on the high seas, there may be some
1469# places as late as fourteen hours later than UTC. And, since the IDL is not
1470# an international standard, there are some places on the high seas where the
1471# correct date is ambiguous.
bc95ec93 1472
e1e23b59
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1473# From Wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Time_zone> (2005-08-31):
1474# Before 1920, all ships kept local apparent time on the high seas by setting
1475# their clocks at night or at the morning sight so that, given the ship's
1476# speed and direction, it would be 12 o'clock when the Sun crossed the ship's
1477# meridian (12 o'clock = local apparent noon). During 1917, at the
1478# Anglo-French Conference on Time-keeping at Sea, it was recommended that all
1479# ships, both military and civilian, should adopt hourly standard time zones
1480# on the high seas. Whenever a ship was within the territorial waters of any
1481# nation it would use that nation's standard time. The captain was permitted
1482# to change his ship's clocks at a time of his choice following his ship's
1483# entry into another zone time--he often chose midnight. These zones were
1484# adopted by all major fleets between 1920 and 1925 but not by many
1485# independent merchant ships until World War II.
1486
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1487# From Paul Eggert, using references suggested by Oscar van Vlijmen
1488# (2005-03-20):
1489#
1490# The American Practical Navigator (2002)
1491# <http://pollux.nss.nima.mil/pubs/pubs_j_apn_sections.html?rid=187>
1492# talks only about the 180-degree meridian with respect to ships in
1493# international waters; it ignores the international date line.