Upgrade to OpenSSL 0.9.8h.
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129.\" ========================================================================
130.\"
131.IX Title "RSA 1"
aac4ff6f 132.TH RSA 1 "2008-09-06" "0.9.8h" "OpenSSL"
984263bc 133.SH "NAME"
e3cdf75b 134rsa \- RSA key processing tool
984263bc 135.SH "SYNOPSIS"
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136.IX Header "SYNOPSIS"
137\&\fBopenssl\fR \fBrsa\fR
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138[\fB\-inform PEM|NET|DER\fR]
139[\fB\-outform PEM|NET|DER\fR]
140[\fB\-in filename\fR]
141[\fB\-passin arg\fR]
142[\fB\-out filename\fR]
143[\fB\-passout arg\fR]
144[\fB\-sgckey\fR]
145[\fB\-des\fR]
146[\fB\-des3\fR]
147[\fB\-idea\fR]
148[\fB\-text\fR]
149[\fB\-noout\fR]
150[\fB\-modulus\fR]
151[\fB\-check\fR]
152[\fB\-pubin\fR]
153[\fB\-pubout\fR]
154[\fB\-engine id\fR]
155.SH "DESCRIPTION"
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156.IX Header "DESCRIPTION"
157The \fBrsa\fR command processes \s-1RSA\s0 keys. They can be converted between various
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158forms and their components printed out. \fBNote\fR this command uses the
159traditional SSLeay compatible format for private key encryption: newer
160applications should use the more secure PKCS#8 format using the \fBpkcs8\fR
161utility.
162.SH "COMMAND OPTIONS"
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163.IX Header "COMMAND OPTIONS"
164.IP "\fB\-inform DER|NET|PEM\fR" 4
165.IX Item "-inform DER|NET|PEM"
984263bc 166This specifies the input format. The \fB\s-1DER\s0\fR option uses an \s-1ASN1\s0 \s-1DER\s0 encoded
8b0cefbb 167form compatible with the PKCS#1 RSAPrivateKey or SubjectPublicKeyInfo format.
984263bc 168The \fB\s-1PEM\s0\fR form is the default format: it consists of the \fB\s-1DER\s0\fR format base64
8b0cefbb 169encoded with additional header and footer lines. On input PKCS#8 format private
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170keys are also accepted. The \fB\s-1NET\s0\fR form is a format is described in the \fB\s-1NOTES\s0\fR
171section.
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172.IP "\fB\-outform DER|NET|PEM\fR" 4
173.IX Item "-outform DER|NET|PEM"
984263bc 174This specifies the output format, the options have the same meaning as the
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175\&\fB\-inform\fR option.
176.IP "\fB\-in filename\fR" 4
177.IX Item "-in filename"
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178This specifies the input filename to read a key from or standard input if this
179option is not specified. If the key is encrypted a pass phrase will be
180prompted for.
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181.IP "\fB\-passin arg\fR" 4
182.IX Item "-passin arg"
984263bc 183the input file password source. For more information about the format of \fBarg\fR
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184see the \fB\s-1PASS\s0 \s-1PHRASE\s0 \s-1ARGUMENTS\s0\fR section in \fIopenssl\fR\|(1).
185.IP "\fB\-out filename\fR" 4
186.IX Item "-out filename"
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187This specifies the output filename to write a key to or standard output if this
188option is not specified. If any encryption options are set then a pass phrase
189will be prompted for. The output filename should \fBnot\fR be the same as the input
190filename.
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191.IP "\fB\-passout password\fR" 4
192.IX Item "-passout password"
984263bc 193the output file password source. For more information about the format of \fBarg\fR
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194see the \fB\s-1PASS\s0 \s-1PHRASE\s0 \s-1ARGUMENTS\s0\fR section in \fIopenssl\fR\|(1).
195.IP "\fB\-sgckey\fR" 4
196.IX Item "-sgckey"
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197use the modified \s-1NET\s0 algorithm used with some versions of Microsoft \s-1IIS\s0 and \s-1SGC\s0
198keys.
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199.IP "\fB\-des|\-des3|\-idea\fR" 4
200.IX Item "-des|-des3|-idea"
984263bc 201These options encrypt the private key with the \s-1DES\s0, triple \s-1DES\s0, or the
8b0cefbb 202\&\s-1IDEA\s0 ciphers respectively before outputting it. A pass phrase is prompted for.
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203If none of these options is specified the key is written in plain text. This
204means that using the \fBrsa\fR utility to read in an encrypted key with no
205encryption option can be used to remove the pass phrase from a key, or by
206setting the encryption options it can be use to add or change the pass phrase.
207These options can only be used with \s-1PEM\s0 format output files.
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208.IP "\fB\-text\fR" 4
209.IX Item "-text"
984263bc 210prints out the various public or private key components in
aac4ff6f 211plain text in addition to the encoded version.
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212.IP "\fB\-noout\fR" 4
213.IX Item "-noout"
984263bc 214this option prevents output of the encoded version of the key.
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215.IP "\fB\-modulus\fR" 4
216.IX Item "-modulus"
984263bc 217this option prints out the value of the modulus of the key.
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218.IP "\fB\-check\fR" 4
219.IX Item "-check"
984263bc 220this option checks the consistency of an \s-1RSA\s0 private key.
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221.IP "\fB\-pubin\fR" 4
222.IX Item "-pubin"
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223by default a private key is read from the input file: with this
224option a public key is read instead.
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225.IP "\fB\-pubout\fR" 4
226.IX Item "-pubout"
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227by default a private key is output: with this option a public
228key will be output instead. This option is automatically set if
229the input is a public key.
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230.IP "\fB\-engine id\fR" 4
231.IX Item "-engine id"
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232specifying an engine (by it's unique \fBid\fR string) will cause \fBreq\fR
233to attempt to obtain a functional reference to the specified engine,
234thus initialising it if needed. The engine will then be set as the default
235for all available algorithms.
236.SH "NOTES"
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237.IX Header "NOTES"
238The \s-1PEM\s0 private key format uses the header and footer lines:
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239.PP
240.Vb 2
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241\& -----BEGIN RSA PRIVATE KEY-----
242\& -----END RSA PRIVATE KEY-----
984263bc 243.Ve
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244.PP
245The \s-1PEM\s0 public key format uses the header and footer lines:
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246.PP
247.Vb 2
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248\& -----BEGIN PUBLIC KEY-----
249\& -----END PUBLIC KEY-----
984263bc 250.Ve
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251.PP
252The \fB\s-1NET\s0\fR form is a format compatible with older Netscape servers
253and Microsoft \s-1IIS\s0 .key files, this uses unsalted \s-1RC4\s0 for its encryption.
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254It is not very secure and so should only be used when necessary.
255.PP
8b0cefbb 256Some newer version of \s-1IIS\s0 have additional data in the exported .key
984263bc 257files. To use these with the utility, view the file with a binary editor
aac4ff6f 258and look for the string \*(L"private\-key\*(R", then trace back to the byte
8b0cefbb 259sequence 0x30, 0x82 (this is an \s-1ASN1\s0 \s-1SEQUENCE\s0). Copy all the data
984263bc 260from this point onwards to another file and use that as the input
8b0cefbb 261to the \fBrsa\fR utility with the \fB\-inform \s-1NET\s0\fR option. If you get
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262an error after entering the password try the \fB\-sgckey\fR option.
263.SH "EXAMPLES"
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264.IX Header "EXAMPLES"
265To remove the pass phrase on an \s-1RSA\s0 private key:
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266.PP
267.Vb 1
aac4ff6f 268\& openssl rsa -in key.pem -out keyout.pem
984263bc 269.Ve
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270.PP
271To encrypt a private key using triple \s-1DES:\s0
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272.PP
273.Vb 1
aac4ff6f 274\& openssl rsa -in key.pem -des3 -out keyout.pem
984263bc 275.Ve
8b0cefbb 276.PP
aac4ff6f 277To convert a private key from \s-1PEM\s0 to \s-1DER\s0 format:
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278.PP
279.Vb 1
aac4ff6f 280\& openssl rsa -in key.pem -outform DER -out keyout.der
984263bc 281.Ve
8b0cefbb 282.PP
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283To print out the components of a private key to standard output:
284.PP
285.Vb 1
aac4ff6f 286\& openssl rsa -in key.pem -text -noout
984263bc 287.Ve
8b0cefbb 288.PP
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289To just output the public part of a private key:
290.PP
291.Vb 1
aac4ff6f 292\& openssl rsa -in key.pem -pubout -out pubkey.pem
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293.Ve
294.SH "BUGS"
8b0cefbb 295.IX Header "BUGS"
984263bc 296The command line password arguments don't currently work with
8b0cefbb 297\&\fB\s-1NET\s0\fR format.
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298.PP
299There should be an option that automatically handles .key files,
300without having to manually edit them.
301.SH "SEE ALSO"
e3cdf75b 302.IX Header "SEE ALSO"
8b0cefbb 303\&\fIpkcs8\fR\|(1), \fIdsa\fR\|(1), \fIgenrsa\fR\|(1),
aac4ff6f 304\&\fIgendsa\fR\|(1)