Sync zoneinfo database with tz{code,data}2009t from elsie.
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34850bd5 1# <pre>
cf207d0a 2# @(#)europe 8.25
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3# This file is in the public domain, so clarified as of
4# 2009-05-17 by Arthur David Olson.
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5
6# This data is by no means authoritative; if you think you know better,
7# go ahead and edit the file (and please send any changes to
8# tz@elsie.nci.nih.gov for general use in the future).
9
bd7414aa 10# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
984263bc 11# A good source for time zone historical data outside the U.S. is
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12# Thomas G. Shanks and Rique Pottenger, The International Atlas (6th edition),
13# San Diego: ACS Publications, Inc. (2003).
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14#
15# Gwillim Law writes that a good source
16# for recent time zone data is the International Air Transport
17# Association's Standard Schedules Information Manual (IATA SSIM),
18# published semiannually. Law sent in several helpful summaries
19# of the IATA's data after 1990.
20#
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21# Except where otherwise noted, Shanks & Pottenger is the source for
22# entries through 1991, and IATA SSIM is the source for entries afterwards.
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23#
24# Other sources occasionally used include:
25#
26# Edward W. Whitman, World Time Differences,
27# Whitman Publishing Co, 2 Niagara Av, Ealing, London (undated),
28# which I found in the UCLA library.
29#
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30# <a href="http://www.pettswoodvillage.co.uk/Daylight_Savings_William_Willett.pdf">
31# William Willett, The Waste of Daylight, 19th edition
32# </a> (1914-03)
33#
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34# Brazil's Departamento Servico da Hora (DSH),
35# <a href="http://pcdsh01.on.br/HISTHV.htm">
36# History of Summer Time
37# </a> (1998-09-21, in Portuguese)
38
39#
40# I invented the abbreviations marked `*' in the following table;
41# the rest are from earlier versions of this file, or from other sources.
42# Corrections are welcome!
43# std dst 2dst
44# LMT Local Mean Time
45# -4:00 AST ADT Atlantic
46# -3:00 WGT WGST Western Greenland*
47# -1:00 EGT EGST Eastern Greenland*
48# 0:00 GMT BST BDST Greenwich, British Summer
49# 0:00 GMT IST Greenwich, Irish Summer
50# 0:00 WET WEST WEMT Western Europe
51# 0:19:32.13 AMT NST Amsterdam, Netherlands Summer (1835-1937)*
52# 0:20 NET NEST Netherlands (1937-1940)*
53# 1:00 CET CEST CEMT Central Europe
54# 1:00:14 SET Swedish (1879-1899)*
55# 2:00 EET EEST Eastern Europe
56# 3:00 MSK MSD Moscow
57#
58# A reliable and entertaining source about time zones, especially in Britain,
59# Derek Howse, Greenwich time and longitude, Philip Wilson Publishers (1997).
60
9ffe4b14 61# From Peter Ilieve (1994-12-04),
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62# The original six [EU members]: Belgium, France, (West) Germany, Italy,
63# Luxembourg, the Netherlands.
64# Plus, from 1 Jan 73: Denmark, Ireland, United Kingdom.
65# Plus, from 1 Jan 81: Greece.
66# Plus, from 1 Jan 86: Spain, Portugal.
67# Plus, from 1 Jan 95: Austria, Finland, Sweden. (Norway negotiated terms for
68# entry but in a referendum on 28 Nov 94 the people voted No by 52.2% to 47.8%
69# on a turnout of 88.6%. This was almost the same result as Norway's previous
70# referendum in 1972, they are the only country to have said No twice.
71# Referendums in the other three countries voted Yes.)
72# ...
73# Estonia ... uses EU dates but not at 01:00 GMT, they use midnight GMT.
74# I don't think they know yet what they will do from 1996 onwards.
75# ...
76# There shouldn't be any [current members who are not using EU rules].
77# A Directive has the force of law, member states are obliged to enact
78# national law to implement it. The only contentious issue was the
79# different end date for the UK and Ireland, and this was always allowed
80# in the Directive.
81
82
83###############################################################################
84
85# Britain (United Kingdom) and Ireland (Eire)
86
9ffe4b14 87# From Peter Ilieve (1994-07-06):
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88#
89# On 17 Jan 1994 the Independent, a UK quality newspaper, had a piece about
90# historical vistas along the Thames in west London. There was a photo
91# and a sketch map showing some of the sightlines involved. One paragraph
92# of the text said:
93#
94# `An old stone obelisk marking a forgotten terrestrial meridian stands
95# beside the river at Kew. In the 18th century, before time and longitude
96# was standardised by the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, scholars observed
97# this stone and the movement of stars from Kew Observatory nearby. They
98# made their calculations and set the time for the Horse Guards and Parliament,
99# but now the stone is obscured by scrubwood and can only be seen by walking
100# along the towpath within a few yards of it.'
101#
102# I have a one inch to one mile map of London and my estimate of the stone's
103# position is 51 deg. 28' 30" N, 0 deg. 18' 45" W. The longitude should
104# be within about +-2". The Ordnance Survey grid reference is TQ172761.
105#
106# [This yields GMTOFF = -0:01:15 for London LMT in the 18th century.]
107
9ffe4b14 108# From Paul Eggert (1993-11-18):
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109#
110# Howse writes that Britain was the first country to use standard time.
111# The railways cared most about the inconsistencies of local mean time,
112# and it was they who forced a uniform time on the country.
113# The original idea was credited to Dr. William Hyde Wollaston (1766-1828)
114# and was popularized by Abraham Follett Osler (1808-1903).
115# The first railway to adopt London time was the Great Western Railway
116# in November 1840; other railways followed suit, and by 1847 most
117# (though not all) railways used London time. On 1847-09-22 the
118# Railway Clearing House, an industry standards body, recommended that GMT be
119# adopted at all stations as soon as the General Post Office permitted it.
120# The transition occurred on 12-01 for the L&NW, the Caledonian,
121# and presumably other railways; the January 1848 Bradshaw's lists many
122# railways as using GMT. By 1855 the vast majority of public
123# clocks in Britain were set to GMT (though some, like the great clock
124# on Tom Tower at Christ Church, Oxford, were fitted with two minute hands,
125# one for local time and one for GMT). The last major holdout was the legal
126# system, which stubbornly stuck to local time for many years, leading
127# to oddities like polls opening at 08:13 and closing at 16:13.
128# The legal system finally switched to GMT when the Statutes (Definition
129# of Time) Act took effect; it received the Royal Assent on 1880-08-02.
130#
131# In the tables below, we condense this complicated story into a single
132# transition date for London, namely 1847-12-01. We don't know as much
133# about Dublin, so we use 1880-08-02, the legal transition time.
134
ba5ba9da 135# From Paul Eggert (2003-09-27):
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136# Summer Time was first seriously proposed by William Willett (1857-1915),
137# a London builder and member of the Royal Astronomical Society
138# who circulated a pamphlet ``The Waste of Daylight'' (1907)
139# that proposed advancing clocks 20 minutes on each of four Sundays in April,
140# and retarding them by the same amount on four Sundays in September.
141# A bill was drafted in 1909 and introduced in Parliament several times,
142# but it met with ridicule and opposition, especially from farming interests.
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143# Later editions of the pamphlet proposed one-hour summer time, and
144# it was eventually adopted as a wartime measure in 1916.
145# See: Summer Time Arrives Early, The Times (2000-05-18).
146# A monument to Willett was unveiled on 1927-05-21, in an open space in
147# a 45-acre wood near Chislehurst, Kent that was purchased by popular
148# subscription and open to the public. On the south face of the monolith,
149# designed by G. W. Miller, is the the William Willett Memorial Sundial,
150# which is permanently set to Summer Time.
151
152# From Winston Churchill (1934-04-28):
153# It is one of the paradoxes of history that we should owe the boon of
154# summer time, which gives every year to the people of this country
155# between 160 and 170 hours more daylight leisure, to a war which
156# plunged Europe into darkness for four years, and shook the
157# foundations of civilization throughout the world.
158# -- <a href="http://www.winstonchurchill.org/fh114willett.htm">
159# "A Silent Toast to William Willett", Pictorial Weekly
160# </a>
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161
162# From Paul Eggert (1996-09-03):
163# The OED Supplement says that the English originally said ``Daylight Saving''
164# when they were debating the adoption of DST in 1908; but by 1916 this
165# term appears only in quotes taken from DST's opponents, whereas the
166# proponents (who eventually won the argument) are quoted as using ``Summer''.
167
168# From Arthur David Olson (1989-01-19):
169#
170# A source at the British Information Office in New York avers that it's
171# known as "British" Summer Time in all parts of the United Kingdom.
172
173# Date: 4 Jan 89 08:57:25 GMT (Wed)
9ffe4b14 174# From: Jonathan Leffler
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175# [British Summer Time] is fixed annually by Act of Parliament.
176# If you can predict what Parliament will do, you should be in
177# politics making a fortune, not computing.
178
9ffe4b14 179# From Chris Carrier (1996-06-14):
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180# I remember reading in various wartime issues of the London Times the
181# acronym BDST for British Double Summer Time. Look for the published
182# time of sunrise and sunset in The Times, when BDST was in effect, and
183# if you find a zone reference it will say, "All times B.D.S.T."
184
185# From Joseph S. Myers (1999-09-02):
186# ... some military cables (WO 219/4100 - this is a copy from the
187# main SHAEF archives held in the US National Archives, SHAEF/5252/8/516)
188# agree that the usage is BDST (this appears in a message dated 17 Feb 1945).
189
190# From Joseph S. Myers (2000-10-03):
191# On 18th April 1941, Sir Stephen Tallents of the BBC wrote to Sir
192# Alexander Maxwell of the Home Office asking whether there was any
193# official designation; the reply of the 21st was that there wasn't
194# but he couldn't think of anything better than the "Double British
195# Summer Time" that the BBC had been using informally.
196# http://student.cusu.cam.ac.uk/~jsm28/british-time/bbc-19410418.png
197# http://student.cusu.cam.ac.uk/~jsm28/british-time/ho-19410421.png
198
199# From Sir Alexander Maxwell in the above-mentioned letter (1941-04-21):
200# [N]o official designation has as far as I know been adopted for the time
201# which is to be introduced in May....
202# I cannot think of anything better than "Double British Summer Time"
203# which could not be said to run counter to any official description.
204
205# From Paul Eggert (2000-10-02):
206# Howse writes (p 157) `DBST' too, but `BDST' seems to have been common
207# and follows the more usual convention of putting the location name first,
208# so we use `BDST'.
209
9ffe4b14 210# Peter Ilieve (1998-04-19) described at length
984263bc 211# the history of summer time legislation in the United Kingdom.
9ffe4b14 212# Since 1998 Joseph S. Myers has been updating
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213# and extending this list, which can be found in
214# <a href="http://student.cusu.cam.ac.uk/~jsm28/british-time/">
215# History of legal time in Britain
216# </a>
217
9ffe4b14 218# From Joseph S. Myers (1998-01-06):
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219#
220# The legal time in the UK outside of summer time is definitely GMT, not UTC;
221# see Lord Tanlaw's speech
222# <a href="http://www.parliament.the-stationery-office.co.uk/pa/ld199697/ldhansrd/pdvn/lds97/text/70611-20.htm#70611-20_head0">
223# (Lords Hansard 11 June 1997 columns 964 to 976)
224# </a>.
225
bd7414aa 226# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
984263bc 227#
bd7414aa 228# For lack of other data, follow Shanks & Pottenger for Eire in 1940-1948.
984263bc 229#
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230# Given Ilieve and Myers's data, the following claims by Shanks & Pottenger
231# are incorrect:
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232# * Wales did not switch from GMT to daylight saving time until
233# 1921 Apr 3, when they began to conform with the rest of Great Britain.
234# Actually, Wales was identical after 1880.
235# * Eire had two transitions on 1916 Oct 1.
236# It actually just had one transition.
237# * Northern Ireland used single daylight saving time throughout WW II.
238# Actually, it conformed to Britain.
239# * GB-Eire changed standard time to 1 hour ahead of GMT on 1968-02-18.
240# Actually, that date saw the usual switch to summer time.
241# Standard time was not changed until 1968-10-27 (the clocks didn't change).
242#
bd7414aa 243# Here is another incorrect claim by Shanks & Pottenger:
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244# * Jersey, Guernsey, and the Isle of Man did not switch from GMT
245# to daylight saving time until 1921 Apr 3, when they began to
246# conform with Great Britain.
247# S.R.&O. 1916, No. 382 and HO 45/10811/312364 (quoted above) say otherwise.
248#
bd7414aa 249# The following claim by Shanks & Pottenger is possible though doubtful;
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250# we'll ignore it for now.
251# * Dublin's 1971-10-31 switch was at 02:00, even though London's was 03:00.
252#
253#
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254# Whitman says Dublin Mean Time was -0:25:21, which is more precise than
255# Shanks & Pottenger.
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256# Perhaps this was Dunsink Observatory Time, as Dunsink Observatory
257# (8 km NW of Dublin's center) seemingly was to Dublin as Greenwich was
258# to London. For example:
259#
260# "Timeball on the ballast office is down. Dunsink time."
261# -- James Joyce, Ulysses
262
bc95ec93 263# From Joseph S. Myers (2005-01-26):
8393cd87 264# Irish laws are available online at www.irishstatutebook.ie. These include
bc95ec93 265# various relating to legal time, for example:
8393cd87 266#
bc95ec93 267# ZZA13Y1923.html ZZA12Y1924.html ZZA8Y1925.html ZZSIV20PG1267.html
8393cd87 268#
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269# ZZSI71Y1947.html ZZSI128Y1948.html ZZSI23Y1949.html ZZSI41Y1950.html
270# ZZSI27Y1951.html ZZSI73Y1952.html
8393cd87 271#
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272# ZZSI11Y1961.html ZZSI232Y1961.html ZZSI182Y1962.html
273# ZZSI167Y1963.html ZZSI257Y1964.html ZZSI198Y1967.html
274# ZZA23Y1968.html ZZA17Y1971.html
8393cd87 275#
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276# ZZSI67Y1981.html ZZSI212Y1982.html ZZSI45Y1986.html
277# ZZSI264Y1988.html ZZSI52Y1990.html ZZSI371Y1992.html
278# ZZSI395Y1994.html ZZSI484Y1997.html ZZSI506Y2001.html
279#
280# [These are all relative to the root, e.g., the first is
281# <http://www.irishstatutebook.ie/ZZA13Y1923.html>.]
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282#
283# (These are those I found, but there could be more. In any case these
284# should allow various updates to the comments in the europe file to cover
bc95ec93 285# the laws applicable in Ireland.)
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286#
287# (Note that the time in the Republic of Ireland since 1968 has been defined
288# in terms of standard time being GMT+1 with a period of winter time when it
289# is GMT, rather than standard time being GMT with a period of summer time
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290# being GMT+1.)
291
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292# From Paul Eggert (1999-03-28):
293# Clive Feather (<news:859845706.26043.0@office.demon.net>, 1997-03-31)
294# reports that Folkestone (Cheriton) Shuttle Terminal uses Concession Time
295# (CT), equivalent to French civil time.
296# Julian Hill (<news:36118128.5A14@virgin.net>, 1998-09-30) reports that
297# trains between Dollands Moor (the freight facility next door)
298# and Frethun run in CT.
299# My admittedly uninformed guess is that the terminal has two authorities,
300# the French concession operators and the British civil authorities,
301# and that the time depends on who you're talking to.
302# If, say, the British police were called to the station for some reason,
303# I would expect the official police report to use GMT/BST and not CET/CEST.
304# This is a borderline case, but for now let's stick to GMT/BST.
305
306# From an anonymous contributor (1996-06-02):
307# The law governing time in Ireland is under Statutory Instrument SI 395/94,
308# which gives force to European Union 7th Council Directive # 94/21/EC.
309# Under this directive, the Minister for Justice in Ireland makes appropriate
310# regulations. I spoke this morning with the Secretary of the Department of
311# Justice (tel +353 1 678 9711) who confirmed to me that the correct name is
312# "Irish Summer Time", abbreviated to "IST".
313
314# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
315# Summer Time Act, 1916
316Rule GB-Eire 1916 only - May 21 2:00s 1:00 BST
317Rule GB-Eire 1916 only - Oct 1 2:00s 0 GMT
318# S.R.&O. 1917, No. 358
319Rule GB-Eire 1917 only - Apr 8 2:00s 1:00 BST
320Rule GB-Eire 1917 only - Sep 17 2:00s 0 GMT
321# S.R.&O. 1918, No. 274
322Rule GB-Eire 1918 only - Mar 24 2:00s 1:00 BST
323Rule GB-Eire 1918 only - Sep 30 2:00s 0 GMT
324# S.R.&O. 1919, No. 297
325Rule GB-Eire 1919 only - Mar 30 2:00s 1:00 BST
326Rule GB-Eire 1919 only - Sep 29 2:00s 0 GMT
327# S.R.&O. 1920, No. 458
328Rule GB-Eire 1920 only - Mar 28 2:00s 1:00 BST
329# S.R.&O. 1920, No. 1844
330Rule GB-Eire 1920 only - Oct 25 2:00s 0 GMT
331# S.R.&O. 1921, No. 363
332Rule GB-Eire 1921 only - Apr 3 2:00s 1:00 BST
333Rule GB-Eire 1921 only - Oct 3 2:00s 0 GMT
334# S.R.&O. 1922, No. 264
335Rule GB-Eire 1922 only - Mar 26 2:00s 1:00 BST
336Rule GB-Eire 1922 only - Oct 8 2:00s 0 GMT
337# The Summer Time Act, 1922
338Rule GB-Eire 1923 only - Apr Sun>=16 2:00s 1:00 BST
339Rule GB-Eire 1923 1924 - Sep Sun>=16 2:00s 0 GMT
340Rule GB-Eire 1924 only - Apr Sun>=9 2:00s 1:00 BST
341Rule GB-Eire 1925 1926 - Apr Sun>=16 2:00s 1:00 BST
342# The Summer Time Act, 1925
343Rule GB-Eire 1925 1938 - Oct Sun>=2 2:00s 0 GMT
344Rule GB-Eire 1927 only - Apr Sun>=9 2:00s 1:00 BST
345Rule GB-Eire 1928 1929 - Apr Sun>=16 2:00s 1:00 BST
346Rule GB-Eire 1930 only - Apr Sun>=9 2:00s 1:00 BST
347Rule GB-Eire 1931 1932 - Apr Sun>=16 2:00s 1:00 BST
348Rule GB-Eire 1933 only - Apr Sun>=9 2:00s 1:00 BST
349Rule GB-Eire 1934 only - Apr Sun>=16 2:00s 1:00 BST
350Rule GB-Eire 1935 only - Apr Sun>=9 2:00s 1:00 BST
351Rule GB-Eire 1936 1937 - Apr Sun>=16 2:00s 1:00 BST
352Rule GB-Eire 1938 only - Apr Sun>=9 2:00s 1:00 BST
353Rule GB-Eire 1939 only - Apr Sun>=16 2:00s 1:00 BST
354# S.R.&O. 1939, No. 1379
355Rule GB-Eire 1939 only - Nov Sun>=16 2:00s 0 GMT
356# S.R.&O. 1940, No. 172 and No. 1883
357Rule GB-Eire 1940 only - Feb Sun>=23 2:00s 1:00 BST
358# S.R.&O. 1941, No. 476
359Rule GB-Eire 1941 only - May Sun>=2 1:00s 2:00 BDST
360Rule GB-Eire 1941 1943 - Aug Sun>=9 1:00s 1:00 BST
361# S.R.&O. 1942, No. 506
362Rule GB-Eire 1942 1944 - Apr Sun>=2 1:00s 2:00 BDST
363# S.R.&O. 1944, No. 932
364Rule GB-Eire 1944 only - Sep Sun>=16 1:00s 1:00 BST
365# S.R.&O. 1945, No. 312
366Rule GB-Eire 1945 only - Apr Mon>=2 1:00s 2:00 BDST
367Rule GB-Eire 1945 only - Jul Sun>=9 1:00s 1:00 BST
368# S.R.&O. 1945, No. 1208
369Rule GB-Eire 1945 1946 - Oct Sun>=2 2:00s 0 GMT
370Rule GB-Eire 1946 only - Apr Sun>=9 2:00s 1:00 BST
371# The Summer Time Act, 1947
372Rule GB-Eire 1947 only - Mar 16 2:00s 1:00 BST
373Rule GB-Eire 1947 only - Apr 13 1:00s 2:00 BDST
374Rule GB-Eire 1947 only - Aug 10 1:00s 1:00 BST
375Rule GB-Eire 1947 only - Nov 2 2:00s 0 GMT
376# Summer Time Order, 1948 (S.I. 1948/495)
377Rule GB-Eire 1948 only - Mar 14 2:00s 1:00 BST
378Rule GB-Eire 1948 only - Oct 31 2:00s 0 GMT
379# Summer Time Order, 1949 (S.I. 1949/373)
380Rule GB-Eire 1949 only - Apr 3 2:00s 1:00 BST
381Rule GB-Eire 1949 only - Oct 30 2:00s 0 GMT
382# Summer Time Order, 1950 (S.I. 1950/518)
383# Summer Time Order, 1951 (S.I. 1951/430)
384# Summer Time Order, 1952 (S.I. 1952/451)
385Rule GB-Eire 1950 1952 - Apr Sun>=14 2:00s 1:00 BST
386Rule GB-Eire 1950 1952 - Oct Sun>=21 2:00s 0 GMT
387# revert to the rules of the Summer Time Act, 1925
388Rule GB-Eire 1953 only - Apr Sun>=16 2:00s 1:00 BST
389Rule GB-Eire 1953 1960 - Oct Sun>=2 2:00s 0 GMT
390Rule GB-Eire 1954 only - Apr Sun>=9 2:00s 1:00 BST
391Rule GB-Eire 1955 1956 - Apr Sun>=16 2:00s 1:00 BST
392Rule GB-Eire 1957 only - Apr Sun>=9 2:00s 1:00 BST
393Rule GB-Eire 1958 1959 - Apr Sun>=16 2:00s 1:00 BST
394Rule GB-Eire 1960 only - Apr Sun>=9 2:00s 1:00 BST
395# Summer Time Order, 1961 (S.I. 1961/71)
396# Summer Time (1962) Order, 1961 (S.I. 1961/2465)
397# Summer Time Order, 1963 (S.I. 1963/81)
398Rule GB-Eire 1961 1963 - Mar lastSun 2:00s 1:00 BST
399Rule GB-Eire 1961 1968 - Oct Sun>=23 2:00s 0 GMT
400# Summer Time (1964) Order, 1963 (S.I. 1963/2101)
401# Summer Time Order, 1964 (S.I. 1964/1201)
402# Summer Time Order, 1967 (S.I. 1967/1148)
403Rule GB-Eire 1964 1967 - Mar Sun>=19 2:00s 1:00 BST
404# Summer Time Order, 1968 (S.I. 1968/117)
405Rule GB-Eire 1968 only - Feb 18 2:00s 1:00 BST
406# The British Standard Time Act, 1968
407# (no summer time)
408# The Summer Time Act, 1972
409Rule GB-Eire 1972 1980 - Mar Sun>=16 2:00s 1:00 BST
410Rule GB-Eire 1972 1980 - Oct Sun>=23 2:00s 0 GMT
411# Summer Time Order, 1980 (S.I. 1980/1089)
412# Summer Time Order, 1982 (S.I. 1982/1673)
413# Summer Time Order, 1986 (S.I. 1986/223)
414# Summer Time Order, 1988 (S.I. 1988/931)
415Rule GB-Eire 1981 1995 - Mar lastSun 1:00u 1:00 BST
416Rule GB-Eire 1981 1989 - Oct Sun>=23 1:00u 0 GMT
417# Summer Time Order, 1989 (S.I. 1989/985)
418# Summer Time Order, 1992 (S.I. 1992/1729)
419# Summer Time Order 1994 (S.I. 1994/2798)
420Rule GB-Eire 1990 1995 - Oct Sun>=22 1:00u 0 GMT
421# Summer Time Order 1997 (S.I. 1997/2982)
422# See EU for rules starting in 1996.
423
424# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
bd7414aa 425Zone Europe/London -0:01:15 - LMT 1847 Dec 1 0:00s
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426 0:00 GB-Eire %s 1968 Oct 27
427 1:00 - BST 1971 Oct 31 2:00u
428 0:00 GB-Eire %s 1996
429 0:00 EU GMT/BST
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430Link Europe/London Europe/Jersey
431Link Europe/London Europe/Guernsey
432Link Europe/London Europe/Isle_of_Man
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433Zone Europe/Dublin -0:25:00 - LMT 1880 Aug 2
434 -0:25:21 - DMT 1916 May 21 2:00
435 -0:25:21 1:00 IST 1916 Oct 1 2:00s
436 0:00 GB-Eire %s 1921 Dec 6 # independence
437 0:00 GB-Eire GMT/IST 1940 Feb 25 2:00
438 0:00 1:00 IST 1946 Oct 6 2:00
439 0:00 - GMT 1947 Mar 16 2:00
440 0:00 1:00 IST 1947 Nov 2 2:00
441 0:00 - GMT 1948 Apr 18 2:00
442 0:00 GB-Eire GMT/IST 1968 Oct 27
443 1:00 - IST 1971 Oct 31 2:00u
444 0:00 GB-Eire GMT/IST 1996
445 0:00 EU GMT/IST
446
447###############################################################################
448
0e49ec84 449# Europe
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450
451# EU rules are for the European Union, previously known as the EC, EEC,
452# Common Market, etc.
453
454# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
455Rule EU 1977 1980 - Apr Sun>=1 1:00u 1:00 S
456Rule EU 1977 only - Sep lastSun 1:00u 0 -
457Rule EU 1978 only - Oct 1 1:00u 0 -
458Rule EU 1979 1995 - Sep lastSun 1:00u 0 -
459Rule EU 1981 max - Mar lastSun 1:00u 1:00 S
460Rule EU 1996 max - Oct lastSun 1:00u 0 -
461# The most recent directive covers the years starting in 2002. See:
ca05ab86 462# <a="http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:32000L0084:EN:NOT">
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463# Directive 2000/84/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council
464# of 19 January 2001 on summer-time arrangements.
465# </a>
466
467# W-Eur differs from EU only in that W-Eur uses standard time.
468Rule W-Eur 1977 1980 - Apr Sun>=1 1:00s 1:00 S
469Rule W-Eur 1977 only - Sep lastSun 1:00s 0 -
470Rule W-Eur 1978 only - Oct 1 1:00s 0 -
471Rule W-Eur 1979 1995 - Sep lastSun 1:00s 0 -
472Rule W-Eur 1981 max - Mar lastSun 1:00s 1:00 S
473Rule W-Eur 1996 max - Oct lastSun 1:00s 0 -
474
475# Older C-Eur rules are for convenience in the tables.
476# From 1977 on, C-Eur differs from EU only in that C-Eur uses standard time.
477Rule C-Eur 1916 only - Apr 30 23:00 1:00 S
478Rule C-Eur 1916 only - Oct 1 1:00 0 -
479Rule C-Eur 1917 1918 - Apr Mon>=15 2:00s 1:00 S
480Rule C-Eur 1917 1918 - Sep Mon>=15 2:00s 0 -
481Rule C-Eur 1940 only - Apr 1 2:00s 1:00 S
482Rule C-Eur 1942 only - Nov 2 2:00s 0 -
483Rule C-Eur 1943 only - Mar 29 2:00s 1:00 S
484Rule C-Eur 1943 only - Oct 4 2:00s 0 -
a36b983e 485Rule C-Eur 1944 1945 - Apr Mon>=1 2:00s 1:00 S
bd7414aa 486# Whitman gives 1944 Oct 7; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
984263bc 487Rule C-Eur 1944 only - Oct 2 2:00s 0 -
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488# From Jesper Norgaard Welen (2008-07-13):
489#
490# I found what is probably a typo of 2:00 which should perhaps be 2:00s
491# in the C-Eur rule from tz database version 2008d (this part was
492# corrected in version 2008d). The circumstancial evidence is simply the
493# tz database itself, as seen below:
494#
495# Zone Europe/Paris 0:09:21 - LMT 1891 Mar 15 0:01
496# 0:00 France WE%sT 1945 Sep 16 3:00
497#
498# Zone Europe/Monaco 0:29:32 - LMT 1891 Mar 15
499# 0:00 France WE%sT 1945 Sep 16 3:00
500#
501# Zone Europe/Belgrade 1:22:00 - LMT 1884
502# 1:00 1:00 CEST 1945 Sep 16 2:00s
503#
504# Rule France 1945 only - Sep 16 3:00 0 -
505# Rule Belgium 1945 only - Sep 16 2:00s 0 -
506# Rule Neth 1945 only - Sep 16 2:00s 0 -
507#
508# The rule line to be changed is:
509#
510# Rule C-Eur 1945 only - Sep 16 2:00 0 -
511#
512# It seems that Paris, Monaco, Rule France, Rule Belgium all agree on
513# 2:00 standard time, e.g. 3:00 local time. However there are no
514# countries that use C-Eur rules in September 1945, so the only items
515# affected are apparently these ficticious zones that translates acronyms
516# CET and MET:
517#
518# Zone CET 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT
519# Zone MET 1:00 C-Eur ME%sT
520#
521# It this is right then the corrected version would look like:
522#
523# Rule C-Eur 1945 only - Sep 16 2:00s 0 -
524#
525# A small step for mankind though 8-)
526Rule C-Eur 1945 only - Sep 16 2:00s 0 -
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527Rule C-Eur 1977 1980 - Apr Sun>=1 2:00s 1:00 S
528Rule C-Eur 1977 only - Sep lastSun 2:00s 0 -
529Rule C-Eur 1978 only - Oct 1 2:00s 0 -
530Rule C-Eur 1979 1995 - Sep lastSun 2:00s 0 -
531Rule C-Eur 1981 max - Mar lastSun 2:00s 1:00 S
532Rule C-Eur 1996 max - Oct lastSun 2:00s 0 -
533
534# E-Eur differs from EU only in that E-Eur switches at midnight local time.
535Rule E-Eur 1977 1980 - Apr Sun>=1 0:00 1:00 S
536Rule E-Eur 1977 only - Sep lastSun 0:00 0 -
537Rule E-Eur 1978 only - Oct 1 0:00 0 -
538Rule E-Eur 1979 1995 - Sep lastSun 0:00 0 -
539Rule E-Eur 1981 max - Mar lastSun 0:00 1:00 S
540Rule E-Eur 1996 max - Oct lastSun 0:00 0 -
541
542# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
543Rule Russia 1917 only - Jul 1 23:00 1:00 MST # Moscow Summer Time
544Rule Russia 1917 only - Dec 28 0:00 0 MMT # Moscow Mean Time
545Rule Russia 1918 only - May 31 22:00 2:00 MDST # Moscow Double Summer Time
546Rule Russia 1918 only - Sep 16 1:00 1:00 MST
547Rule Russia 1919 only - May 31 23:00 2:00 MDST
548Rule Russia 1919 only - Jul 1 2:00 1:00 S
549Rule Russia 1919 only - Aug 16 0:00 0 -
550Rule Russia 1921 only - Feb 14 23:00 1:00 S
551Rule Russia 1921 only - Mar 20 23:00 2:00 M # Midsummer
552Rule Russia 1921 only - Sep 1 0:00 1:00 S
553Rule Russia 1921 only - Oct 1 0:00 0 -
554# Act No.925 of the Council of Ministers of the USSR (1980-10-24):
555Rule Russia 1981 1984 - Apr 1 0:00 1:00 S
556Rule Russia 1981 1983 - Oct 1 0:00 0 -
557# Act No.967 of the Council of Ministers of the USSR (1984-09-13), repeated in
558# Act No.227 of the Council of Ministers of the USSR (1989-03-14):
559Rule Russia 1984 1991 - Sep lastSun 2:00s 0 -
560Rule Russia 1985 1991 - Mar lastSun 2:00s 1:00 S
561#
562Rule Russia 1992 only - Mar lastSat 23:00 1:00 S
563Rule Russia 1992 only - Sep lastSat 23:00 0 -
564Rule Russia 1993 max - Mar lastSun 2:00s 1:00 S
565Rule Russia 1993 1995 - Sep lastSun 2:00s 0 -
566Rule Russia 1996 max - Oct lastSun 2:00s 0 -
567
568# These are for backward compatibility with older versions.
569
570# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
571Zone WET 0:00 EU WE%sT
572Zone CET 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT
573Zone MET 1:00 C-Eur ME%sT
574Zone EET 2:00 EU EE%sT
575
576# Previous editions of this database used abbreviations like MET DST
577# for Central European Summer Time, but this didn't agree with common usage.
578
9ffe4b14 579# From Markus Kuhn (1996-07-12):
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580# The official German names ... are
581#
582# Mitteleuropaeische Zeit (MEZ) = UTC+01:00
583# Mitteleuropaeische Sommerzeit (MESZ) = UTC+02:00
584#
585# as defined in the German Time Act (Gesetz ueber die Zeitbestimmung (ZeitG),
586# 1978-07-25, Bundesgesetzblatt, Jahrgang 1978, Teil I, S. 1110-1111)....
587# I wrote ... to the German Federal Physical-Technical Institution
588#
589# Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB)
590# Laboratorium 4.41 "Zeiteinheit"
591# Postfach 3345
592# D-38023 Braunschweig
593# phone: +49 531 592-0
594#
595# ... I received today an answer letter from Dr. Peter Hetzel, head of the PTB
596# department for time and frequency transmission. He explained that the
597# PTB translates MEZ and MESZ into English as
598#
599# Central European Time (CET) = UTC+01:00
600# Central European Summer Time (CEST) = UTC+02:00
601
602
603# Albania
604# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
605Rule Albania 1940 only - Jun 16 0:00 1:00 S
606Rule Albania 1942 only - Nov 2 3:00 0 -
607Rule Albania 1943 only - Mar 29 2:00 1:00 S
608Rule Albania 1943 only - Apr 10 3:00 0 -
609Rule Albania 1974 only - May 4 0:00 1:00 S
610Rule Albania 1974 only - Oct 2 0:00 0 -
611Rule Albania 1975 only - May 1 0:00 1:00 S
612Rule Albania 1975 only - Oct 2 0:00 0 -
613Rule Albania 1976 only - May 2 0:00 1:00 S
614Rule Albania 1976 only - Oct 3 0:00 0 -
615Rule Albania 1977 only - May 8 0:00 1:00 S
616Rule Albania 1977 only - Oct 2 0:00 0 -
617Rule Albania 1978 only - May 6 0:00 1:00 S
618Rule Albania 1978 only - Oct 1 0:00 0 -
619Rule Albania 1979 only - May 5 0:00 1:00 S
620Rule Albania 1979 only - Sep 30 0:00 0 -
621Rule Albania 1980 only - May 3 0:00 1:00 S
622Rule Albania 1980 only - Oct 4 0:00 0 -
623Rule Albania 1981 only - Apr 26 0:00 1:00 S
624Rule Albania 1981 only - Sep 27 0:00 0 -
625Rule Albania 1982 only - May 2 0:00 1:00 S
626Rule Albania 1982 only - Oct 3 0:00 0 -
627Rule Albania 1983 only - Apr 18 0:00 1:00 S
628Rule Albania 1983 only - Oct 1 0:00 0 -
629Rule Albania 1984 only - Apr 1 0:00 1:00 S
630# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
631Zone Europe/Tirane 1:19:20 - LMT 1914
632 1:00 - CET 1940 Jun 16
633 1:00 Albania CE%sT 1984 Jul
634 1:00 EU CE%sT
635
636# Andorra
637# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
638Zone Europe/Andorra 0:06:04 - LMT 1901
639 0:00 - WET 1946 Sep 30
640 1:00 - CET 1985 Mar 31 2:00
641 1:00 EU CE%sT
642
643# Austria
644
bd7414aa 645# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22): Shanks & Pottenger give 1918-06-16 and
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646# 1945-11-18, but the Austrian Federal Office of Metrology and
647# Surveying (BEV) gives 1918-09-16 and for Vienna gives the "alleged"
648# date of 1945-04-12 with no time. For the 1980-04-06 transition
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649# Shanks & Pottenger give 02:00, the BEV 00:00. Go with the BEV,
650# and guess 02:00 for 1945-04-12.
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651
652# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
653Rule Austria 1920 only - Apr 5 2:00s 1:00 S
654Rule Austria 1920 only - Sep 13 2:00s 0 -
655Rule Austria 1946 only - Apr 14 2:00s 1:00 S
656Rule Austria 1946 1948 - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
657Rule Austria 1947 only - Apr 6 2:00s 1:00 S
658Rule Austria 1948 only - Apr 18 2:00s 1:00 S
659Rule Austria 1980 only - Apr 6 0:00 1:00 S
660Rule Austria 1980 only - Sep 28 0:00 0 -
661# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
662Zone Europe/Vienna 1:05:20 - LMT 1893 Apr
663 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1920
664 1:00 Austria CE%sT 1940 Apr 1 2:00s
665 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945 Apr 2 2:00s
666 1:00 1:00 CEST 1945 Apr 12 2:00s
667 1:00 - CET 1946
668 1:00 Austria CE%sT 1981
669 1:00 EU CE%sT
670
671# Belarus
672# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
673Zone Europe/Minsk 1:50:16 - LMT 1880
674 1:50 - MMT 1924 May 2 # Minsk Mean Time
675 2:00 - EET 1930 Jun 21
676 3:00 - MSK 1941 Jun 28
677 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Jul 3
678 3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1990
679 3:00 - MSK 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
680 2:00 1:00 EEST 1991 Sep 29 2:00s
681 2:00 - EET 1992 Mar 29 0:00s
682 2:00 1:00 EEST 1992 Sep 27 0:00s
683 2:00 Russia EE%sT
684
685# Belgium
686#
687# From Paul Eggert (1997-07-02):
688# Entries from 1918 through 1991 are taken from:
689# Annuaire de L'Observatoire Royal de Belgique,
690# Avenue Circulaire, 3, B-1180 BRUXELLES, CLVIIe annee, 1991
691# (Imprimerie HAYEZ, s.p.r.l., Rue Fin, 4, 1080 BRUXELLES, MCMXC),
692# pp 8-9.
693# LMT before 1892 was 0:17:30, according to the official journal of Belgium:
694# Moniteur Belge, Samedi 30 Avril 1892, N.121.
9ffe4b14 695# Thanks to Pascal Delmoitie for these references.
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696# The 1918 rules are listed for completeness; they apply to unoccupied Belgium.
697# Assume Brussels switched to WET in 1918 when the armistice took effect.
698#
699# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
700Rule Belgium 1918 only - Mar 9 0:00s 1:00 S
701Rule Belgium 1918 1919 - Oct Sat>=1 23:00s 0 -
702Rule Belgium 1919 only - Mar 1 23:00s 1:00 S
703Rule Belgium 1920 only - Feb 14 23:00s 1:00 S
704Rule Belgium 1920 only - Oct 23 23:00s 0 -
705Rule Belgium 1921 only - Mar 14 23:00s 1:00 S
706Rule Belgium 1921 only - Oct 25 23:00s 0 -
707Rule Belgium 1922 only - Mar 25 23:00s 1:00 S
708Rule Belgium 1922 1927 - Oct Sat>=1 23:00s 0 -
709Rule Belgium 1923 only - Apr 21 23:00s 1:00 S
710Rule Belgium 1924 only - Mar 29 23:00s 1:00 S
711Rule Belgium 1925 only - Apr 4 23:00s 1:00 S
712# DSH writes that a royal decree of 1926-02-22 specified the Sun following 3rd
713# Sat in Apr (except if it's Easter, in which case it's one Sunday earlier),
714# to Sun following 1st Sat in Oct, and that a royal decree of 1928-09-15
715# changed the transition times to 02:00 GMT.
716Rule Belgium 1926 only - Apr 17 23:00s 1:00 S
717Rule Belgium 1927 only - Apr 9 23:00s 1:00 S
718Rule Belgium 1928 only - Apr 14 23:00s 1:00 S
719Rule Belgium 1928 1938 - Oct Sun>=2 2:00s 0 -
720Rule Belgium 1929 only - Apr 21 2:00s 1:00 S
721Rule Belgium 1930 only - Apr 13 2:00s 1:00 S
722Rule Belgium 1931 only - Apr 19 2:00s 1:00 S
723Rule Belgium 1932 only - Apr 3 2:00s 1:00 S
724Rule Belgium 1933 only - Mar 26 2:00s 1:00 S
725Rule Belgium 1934 only - Apr 8 2:00s 1:00 S
726Rule Belgium 1935 only - Mar 31 2:00s 1:00 S
727Rule Belgium 1936 only - Apr 19 2:00s 1:00 S
728Rule Belgium 1937 only - Apr 4 2:00s 1:00 S
729Rule Belgium 1938 only - Mar 27 2:00s 1:00 S
730Rule Belgium 1939 only - Apr 16 2:00s 1:00 S
731Rule Belgium 1939 only - Nov 19 2:00s 0 -
732Rule Belgium 1940 only - Feb 25 2:00s 1:00 S
733Rule Belgium 1944 only - Sep 17 2:00s 0 -
734Rule Belgium 1945 only - Apr 2 2:00s 1:00 S
735Rule Belgium 1945 only - Sep 16 2:00s 0 -
736Rule Belgium 1946 only - May 19 2:00s 1:00 S
737Rule Belgium 1946 only - Oct 7 2:00s 0 -
738# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
739Zone Europe/Brussels 0:17:30 - LMT 1880
740 0:17:30 - BMT 1892 May 1 12:00 # Brussels MT
741 0:00 - WET 1914 Nov 8
742 1:00 - CET 1916 May 1 0:00
743 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1918 Nov 11 11:00u
744 0:00 Belgium WE%sT 1940 May 20 2:00s
745 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Sep 3
746 1:00 Belgium CE%sT 1977
747 1:00 EU CE%sT
748
749# Bosnia and Herzegovina
17f48456 750# see Serbia
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751
752# Bulgaria
753#
9ffe4b14 754# From Plamen Simenov via Steffen Thorsen (1999-09-09):
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755# A document of Government of Bulgaria (No.94/1997) says:
756# EET --> EETDST is in 03:00 Local time in last Sunday of March ...
757# EETDST --> EET is in 04:00 Local time in last Sunday of October
758#
759# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
760Rule Bulg 1979 only - Mar 31 23:00 1:00 S
761Rule Bulg 1979 only - Oct 1 1:00 0 -
bd7414aa 762Rule Bulg 1980 1982 - Apr Sat>=1 23:00 1:00 S
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763Rule Bulg 1980 only - Sep 29 1:00 0 -
764Rule Bulg 1981 only - Sep 27 2:00 0 -
765# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
766Zone Europe/Sofia 1:33:16 - LMT 1880
767 1:56:56 - IMT 1894 Nov 30 # Istanbul MT?
768 2:00 - EET 1942 Nov 2 3:00
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SW
769 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945
770 1:00 - CET 1945 Apr 2 3:00
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771 2:00 - EET 1979 Mar 31 23:00
772 2:00 Bulg EE%sT 1982 Sep 26 2:00
773 2:00 C-Eur EE%sT 1991
774 2:00 E-Eur EE%sT 1997
775 2:00 EU EE%sT
776
777# Croatia
17f48456 778# see Serbia
984263bc 779
ba5ba9da 780# Cyprus
bc95ec93 781# Please see the `asia' file for Asia/Nicosia.
ba5ba9da 782
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783# Czech Republic
784# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
785Rule Czech 1945 only - Apr 8 2:00s 1:00 S
786Rule Czech 1945 only - Nov 18 2:00s 0 -
787Rule Czech 1946 only - May 6 2:00s 1:00 S
788Rule Czech 1946 1949 - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
789Rule Czech 1947 only - Apr 20 2:00s 1:00 S
790Rule Czech 1948 only - Apr 18 2:00s 1:00 S
791Rule Czech 1949 only - Apr 9 2:00s 1:00 S
792# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
793Zone Europe/Prague 0:57:44 - LMT 1850
794 0:57:44 - PMT 1891 Oct # Prague Mean Time
795 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Sep 17 2:00s
796 1:00 Czech CE%sT 1979
797 1:00 EU CE%sT
798
880368e2 799# Denmark, Faroe Islands, and Greenland
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SW
800
801# From Jesper Norgaard Welen (2005-04-26):
802# http://www.hum.aau.dk/~poe/tid/tine/DanskTid.htm says that the law
803# [introducing standard time] was in effect from 1894-01-01....
804# The page http://www.retsinfo.dk/_GETDOCI_/ACCN/A18930008330-REGL
805# confirms this, and states that the law was put forth 1893-03-29.
806#
807# The EU treaty with effect from 1973:
808# http://www.retsinfo.dk/_GETDOCI_/ACCN/A19722110030-REGL
809#
810# This provoked a new law from 1974 to make possible summer time changes
811# in subsequenet decrees with the law
812# http://www.retsinfo.dk/_GETDOCI_/ACCN/A19740022330-REGL
813#
814# It seems however that no decree was set forward until 1980. I have
815# not found any decree, but in another related law, the effecting DST
816# changes are stated explicitly to be from 1980-04-06 at 02:00 to
817# 1980-09-28 at 02:00. If this is true, this differs slightly from
818# the EU rule in that DST runs to 02:00, not 03:00. We don't know
819# when Denmark began using the EU rule correctly, but we have only
820# confirmation of the 1980-time, so I presume it was correct in 1981:
821# The law is about the management of the extra hour, concerning
822# working hours reported and effect on obligatory-rest rules (which
823# was suspended on that night):
824# http://www.retsinfo.dk/_GETDOCI_/ACCN/C19801120554-REGL
825
826# From Jesper Norgaard Welen (2005-06-11):
827# The Herning Folkeblad (1980-09-26) reported that the night between
828# Saturday and Sunday the clock is set back from three to two.
829
830# From Paul Eggert (2005-06-11):
831# Hence the "02:00" of the 1980 law refers to standard time, not
832# wall-clock time, and so the EU rules were in effect in 1980.
833
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834# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
835Rule Denmark 1916 only - May 14 23:00 1:00 S
836Rule Denmark 1916 only - Sep 30 23:00 0 -
837Rule Denmark 1940 only - May 15 0:00 1:00 S
838Rule Denmark 1945 only - Apr 2 2:00s 1:00 S
839Rule Denmark 1945 only - Aug 15 2:00s 0 -
840Rule Denmark 1946 only - May 1 2:00s 1:00 S
841Rule Denmark 1946 only - Sep 1 2:00s 0 -
842Rule Denmark 1947 only - May 4 2:00s 1:00 S
843Rule Denmark 1947 only - Aug 10 2:00s 0 -
844Rule Denmark 1948 only - May 9 2:00s 1:00 S
845Rule Denmark 1948 only - Aug 8 2:00s 0 -
984263bc 846#
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847# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
848Zone Europe/Copenhagen 0:50:20 - LMT 1890
9ffe4b14 849 0:50:20 - CMT 1894 Jan 1 # Copenhagen MT
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850 1:00 Denmark CE%sT 1942 Nov 2 2:00s
851 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945 Apr 2 2:00
852 1:00 Denmark CE%sT 1980
853 1:00 EU CE%sT
880368e2 854Zone Atlantic/Faroe -0:27:04 - LMT 1908 Jan 11 # Torshavn
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855 0:00 - WET 1981
856 0:00 EU WE%sT
857#
bc95ec93
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858# From Paul Eggert (2004-10-31):
859# During World War II, Germany maintained secret manned weather stations in
860# East Greenland and Franz Josef Land, but we don't know their time zones.
861# My source for this is Wilhelm Dege's book mentioned under Svalbard.
862#
bd7414aa 863# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
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864# Greenland joined the EU as part of Denmark, obtained home rule on 1979-05-01,
865# and left the EU on 1985-02-01. It therefore should have been using EU
bd7414aa 866# rules at least through 1984. Shanks & Pottenger say Scoresbysund and Godthab
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MD
867# used C-Eur rules after 1980, but IATA SSIM (1991/1996) says they use EU
868# rules since at least 1991. Assume EU rules since 1980.
869
870# From Gwillin Law (2001-06-06), citing
871# <http://www.statkart.no/efs/efshefter/2001/efs5-2001.pdf> (2001-03-15),
872# and with translations corrected by Steffen Thorsen:
873#
874# Greenland has four local times, and the relation to UTC
875# is according to the following time line:
876#
877# The military zone near Thule UTC-4
878# Standard Greenland time UTC-3
879# Scoresbysund UTC-1
880# Danmarkshavn UTC
881#
882# In the military area near Thule and in Danmarkshavn DST will not be
883# introduced.
884
885# From Rives McDow (2001-11-01):
886#
887# I correspond regularly with the Dansk Polarcenter, and wrote them at
888# the time to clarify the situation in Thule. Unfortunately, I have
889# not heard back from them regarding my recent letter. [But I have
890# info from earlier correspondence.]
891#
892# According to the center, a very small local time zone around Thule
893# Air Base keeps the time according to UTC-4, implementing daylight
894# savings using North America rules, changing the time at 02:00 local time....
895#
896# The east coast of Greenland north of the community of Scoresbysund
897# uses UTC in the same way as in Iceland, year round, with no dst.
898# There are just a few stations on this coast, including the
899# Danmarkshavn ICAO weather station mentioned in your September 29th
900# email. The other stations are two sledge patrol stations in
901# Mestersvig and Daneborg, the air force base at Station Nord, and the
902# DPC research station at Zackenberg.
903#
904# Scoresbysund and two small villages nearby keep time UTC-1 and use
905# the same daylight savings time period as in West Greenland (Godthab).
906#
907# The rest of Greenland, including Godthab (this area, although it
908# includes central Greenland, is known as west Greenland), keeps time
909# UTC-3, with daylight savings methods according to European rules.
910#
911# It is common procedure to use UTC 0 in the wilderness of East and
912# North Greenland, because it is mainly Icelandic aircraft operators
913# maintaining traffic in these areas. However, the official status of
914# this area is that it sticks with Godthab time. This area might be
915# considered a dual time zone in some respects because of this.
916
917# From Rives McDow (2001-11-19):
918# I heard back from someone stationed at Thule; the time change took place
919# there at 2:00 AM.
920
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921# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
922# From 1997 on the CIA map shows Danmarkshavn on GMT;
923# the 1995 map as like Godthab.
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924# For lack of better info, assume they were like Godthab before 1996.
925# startkart.no says Thule does not observe DST, but this is clearly an error,
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926# so go with Shanks & Pottenger for Thule transitions until this year.
927# For 2007 on assume Thule will stay in sync with US DST rules.
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928#
929# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
930Rule Thule 1991 1992 - Mar lastSun 2:00 1:00 D
931Rule Thule 1991 1992 - Sep lastSun 2:00 0 S
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932Rule Thule 1993 2006 - Apr Sun>=1 2:00 1:00 D
933Rule Thule 1993 2006 - Oct lastSun 2:00 0 S
934Rule Thule 2007 max - Mar Sun>=8 2:00 1:00 D
935Rule Thule 2007 max - Nov Sun>=1 2:00 0 S
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936#
937# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
938Zone America/Danmarkshavn -1:14:40 - LMT 1916 Jul 28
939 -3:00 - WGT 1980 Apr 6 2:00
940 -3:00 EU WG%sT 1996
941 0:00 - GMT
bd7414aa 942Zone America/Scoresbysund -1:27:52 - LMT 1916 Jul 28 # Ittoqqortoormiit
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943 -2:00 - CGT 1980 Apr 6 2:00
944 -2:00 C-Eur CG%sT 1981 Mar 29
945 -1:00 EU EG%sT
946Zone America/Godthab -3:26:56 - LMT 1916 Jul 28 # Nuuk
947 -3:00 - WGT 1980 Apr 6 2:00
948 -3:00 EU WG%sT
949Zone America/Thule -4:35:08 - LMT 1916 Jul 28 # Pituffik air base
950 -4:00 Thule A%sT
951
952# Estonia
9ffe4b14 953# From Peter Ilieve (1994-10-15):
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954# A relative in Tallinn confirms the accuracy of the data for 1989 onwards
955# [through 1994] and gives the legal authority for it,
956# a regulation of the Government of Estonia, No. 111 of 1989....
957#
9ffe4b14 958# From Peter Ilieve (1996-10-28):
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959# [IATA SSIM (1992/1996) claims that the Baltic republics switch at 01:00s,
960# but a relative confirms that Estonia still switches at 02:00s, writing:]
961# ``I do not [know] exactly but there are some little different
962# (confusing) rules for International Air and Railway Transport Schedules
963# conversion in Sunday connected with end of summer time in Estonia....
964# A discussion is running about the summer time efficiency and effect on
965# human physiology. It seems that Estonia maybe will not change to
966# summer time next spring.''
967
9ffe4b14 968# From Peter Ilieve (1998-11-04), heavily edited:
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969# <a href="http://trip.rk.ee/cgi-bin/thw?${BASE}=akt&${OOHTML}=rtd&TA=1998&TO=1&AN=1390">
970# The 1998-09-22 Estonian time law
971# </a>
972# refers to the Eighth Directive and cites the association agreement between
973# the EU and Estonia, ratified by the Estonian law (RT II 1995, 22--27, 120).
974#
975# I also asked [my relative] whether they use any standard abbreviation
976# for their standard and summer times. He says no, they use "suveaeg"
977# (summer time) and "talveaeg" (winter time).
978
979# From <a href="http://www.baltictimes.com/">The Baltic Times</a> (1999-09-09)
980# via Steffen Thorsen:
981# This year will mark the last time Estonia shifts to summer time,
982# a council of the ruling coalition announced Sept. 6....
983# But what this could mean for Estonia's chances of joining the European
984# Union are still unclear. In 1994, the EU declared summer time compulsory
985# for all member states until 2001. Brussels has yet to decide what to do
986# after that.
987
988# From Mart Oruaas (2000-01-29):
989# Regulation no. 301 (1999-10-12) obsoletes previous regulation
990# no. 206 (1998-09-22) and thus sticks Estonia to +02:00 GMT for all
991# the year round. The regulation is effective 1999-11-01.
992
993# From Toomas Soome (2002-02-21):
994# The Estonian government has changed once again timezone politics.
995# Now we are using again EU rules.
996#
997# From Urmet Jaanes (2002-03-28):
998# The legislative reference is Government decree No. 84 on 2002-02-21.
999
1000# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
1001Zone Europe/Tallinn 1:39:00 - LMT 1880
1002 1:39:00 - TMT 1918 Feb # Tallinn Mean Time
1003 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1919 Jul
1004 1:39:00 - TMT 1921 May
1005 2:00 - EET 1940 Aug 6
1006 3:00 - MSK 1941 Sep 15
1007 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Sep 22
1008 3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1989 Mar 26 2:00s
1009 2:00 1:00 EEST 1989 Sep 24 2:00s
1010 2:00 C-Eur EE%sT 1998 Sep 22
1011 2:00 EU EE%sT 1999 Nov 1
1012 2:00 - EET 2002 Feb 21
1013 2:00 EU EE%sT
1014
1015# Finland
1016#
bd7414aa 1017# From Hannu Strang (1994-09-25 06:03:37 UTC):
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MD
1018# Well, here in Helsinki we're just changing from summer time to regular one,
1019# and it's supposed to change at 4am...
1020#
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SW
1021# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
1022# Shanks & Pottenger say Finland has switched at 02:00 standard time
1023# since 1981. Go with Strang instead.
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MD
1024#
1025# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
1026Rule Finland 1942 only - Apr 3 0:00 1:00 S
1027Rule Finland 1942 only - Oct 3 0:00 0 -
1028# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
1029Zone Europe/Helsinki 1:39:52 - LMT 1878 May 31
1030 1:39:52 - HMT 1921 May # Helsinki Mean Time
1031 2:00 Finland EE%sT 1981 Mar 29 2:00
1032 2:00 EU EE%sT
1033
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JR
1034# Aaland Is
1035Link Europe/Helsinki Europe/Mariehamn
1036
1037
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MD
1038# France
1039
1040# From Ciro Discepolo (2000-12-20):
1041#
1042# Henri Le Corre, Regimes Horaires pour le monde entier, Editions
1043# Traditionnelles - Paris 2 books, 1993
1044#
1045# Gabriel, Traite de l'heure dans le monde, Guy Tredaniel editeur,
1046# Paris, 1991
1047#
1048# Francoise Gauquelin, Problemes de l'heure resolus en astrologie,
1049# Guy tredaniel, Paris 1987
1050
1051
1052#
bd7414aa 1053# Shank & Pottenger seem to use `24:00' ambiguously; resolve it with Whitman.
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MD
1054# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
1055Rule France 1916 only - Jun 14 23:00s 1:00 S
1056Rule France 1916 1919 - Oct Sun>=1 23:00s 0 -
1057Rule France 1917 only - Mar 24 23:00s 1:00 S
1058Rule France 1918 only - Mar 9 23:00s 1:00 S
1059Rule France 1919 only - Mar 1 23:00s 1:00 S
1060Rule France 1920 only - Feb 14 23:00s 1:00 S
1061Rule France 1920 only - Oct 23 23:00s 0 -
1062Rule France 1921 only - Mar 14 23:00s 1:00 S
1063Rule France 1921 only - Oct 25 23:00s 0 -
1064Rule France 1922 only - Mar 25 23:00s 1:00 S
1065# DSH writes that a law of 1923-05-24 specified 3rd Sat in Apr at 23:00 to 1st
1066# Sat in Oct at 24:00; and that in 1930, because of Easter, the transitions
bd7414aa 1067# were Apr 12 and Oct 5. Go with Shanks & Pottenger.
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1068Rule France 1922 1938 - Oct Sat>=1 23:00s 0 -
1069Rule France 1923 only - May 26 23:00s 1:00 S
1070Rule France 1924 only - Mar 29 23:00s 1:00 S
1071Rule France 1925 only - Apr 4 23:00s 1:00 S
1072Rule France 1926 only - Apr 17 23:00s 1:00 S
1073Rule France 1927 only - Apr 9 23:00s 1:00 S
1074Rule France 1928 only - Apr 14 23:00s 1:00 S
1075Rule France 1929 only - Apr 20 23:00s 1:00 S
1076Rule France 1930 only - Apr 12 23:00s 1:00 S
1077Rule France 1931 only - Apr 18 23:00s 1:00 S
1078Rule France 1932 only - Apr 2 23:00s 1:00 S
1079Rule France 1933 only - Mar 25 23:00s 1:00 S
1080Rule France 1934 only - Apr 7 23:00s 1:00 S
1081Rule France 1935 only - Mar 30 23:00s 1:00 S
1082Rule France 1936 only - Apr 18 23:00s 1:00 S
1083Rule France 1937 only - Apr 3 23:00s 1:00 S
1084Rule France 1938 only - Mar 26 23:00s 1:00 S
1085Rule France 1939 only - Apr 15 23:00s 1:00 S
1086Rule France 1939 only - Nov 18 23:00s 0 -
1087Rule France 1940 only - Feb 25 2:00 1:00 S
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1088# The French rules for 1941-1944 were not used in Paris, but Shanks & Pottenger
1089# write that they were used in Monaco and in many French locations.
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MD
1090# Le Corre writes that the upper limit of the free zone was Arneguy, Orthez,
1091# Mont-de-Marsan, Bazas, Langon, Lamotte-Montravel, Marouil, La
1092# Rochefoucault, Champagne-Mouton, La Roche-Posay, La Haye-Decartes,
1093# Loches, Montrichard, Vierzon, Bourges, Moulins, Digoin,
1094# Paray-le-Monial, Montceau-les-Mines, Chalons-sur-Saone, Arbois,
1095# Dole, Morez, St-Claude, and Collognes (Haute-Savioe).
1096Rule France 1941 only - May 5 0:00 2:00 M # Midsummer
bd7414aa 1097# Shanks & Pottenger say this transition occurred at Oct 6 1:00,
9ffe4b14 1098# but go with Denis Excoffier (1997-12-12),
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MD
1099# who quotes the Ephemerides Astronomiques for 1998 from Bureau des Longitudes
1100# as saying 5/10/41 22hUT.
1101Rule France 1941 only - Oct 6 0:00 1:00 S
1102Rule France 1942 only - Mar 9 0:00 2:00 M
1103Rule France 1942 only - Nov 2 3:00 1:00 S
1104Rule France 1943 only - Mar 29 2:00 2:00 M
1105Rule France 1943 only - Oct 4 3:00 1:00 S
1106Rule France 1944 only - Apr 3 2:00 2:00 M
1107Rule France 1944 only - Oct 8 1:00 1:00 S
1108Rule France 1945 only - Apr 2 2:00 2:00 M
1109Rule France 1945 only - Sep 16 3:00 0 -
bd7414aa 1110# Shanks & Pottenger give Mar 28 2:00 and Sep 26 3:00;
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MD
1111# go with Excoffier's 28/3/76 0hUT and 25/9/76 23hUT.
1112Rule France 1976 only - Mar 28 1:00 1:00 S
1113Rule France 1976 only - Sep 26 1:00 0 -
bd7414aa 1114# Shanks & Pottenger give 0:09:20 for Paris Mean Time, and Whitman 0:09:05,
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MD
1115# but Howse quotes the actual French legislation as saying 0:09:21.
1116# Go with Howse. Howse writes that the time in France was officially based
1117# on PMT-0:09:21 until 1978-08-09, when the time base finally switched to UTC.
1118# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
1119Zone Europe/Paris 0:09:21 - LMT 1891 Mar 15 0:01
1120 0:09:21 - PMT 1911 Mar 11 0:01 # Paris MT
bd7414aa 1121# Shanks & Pottenger give 1940 Jun 14 0:00; go with Excoffier and Le Corre.
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MD
1122 0:00 France WE%sT 1940 Jun 14 23:00
1123# Le Corre says Paris stuck with occupied-France time after the liberation;
bd7414aa 1124# go with Shanks & Pottenger.
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1125 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Aug 25
1126 0:00 France WE%sT 1945 Sep 16 3:00
1127 1:00 France CE%sT 1977
1128 1:00 EU CE%sT
1129
1130# Germany
1131
9ffe4b14 1132# From Markus Kuhn (1998-09-29):
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1133# The German time zone web site by the Physikalisch-Technische
1134# Bundesanstalt contains DST information back to 1916.
1135# [See tz-link.htm for the URL.]
1136
1137# From Joerg Schilling (2002-10-23):
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SW
1138# In 1945, Berlin was switched to Moscow Summer time (GMT+4) by
1139# <a href="http://www.dhm.de/lemo/html/biografien/BersarinNikolai/">
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MD
1140# General [Nikolai] Bersarin</a>.
1141
1142# From Paul Eggert (2003-03-08):
1143# <a href="http://www.parlament-berlin.de/pds-fraktion.nsf/727459127c8b66ee8525662300459099/defc77cb784f180ac1256c2b0030274b/$FILE/bersarint.pdf">
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1144# http://www.parlament-berlin.de/pds-fraktion.nsf/727459127c8b66ee8525662300459099/defc77cb784f180ac1256c2b0030274b/$FILE/bersarint.pdf
1145# </a>
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MD
1146# says that Bersarin issued an order to use Moscow time on May 20.
1147# However, Moscow did not observe daylight saving in 1945, so
1148# this was equivalent to CEMT (GMT+3), not GMT+4.
1149
1150
1151# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
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MD
1152Rule Germany 1946 only - Apr 14 2:00s 1:00 S
1153Rule Germany 1946 only - Oct 7 2:00s 0 -
1154Rule Germany 1947 1949 - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
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SW
1155# http://www.ptb.de/de/org/4/44/441/salt.htm says the following transition
1156# occurred at 3:00 MEZ, not the 2:00 MEZ given in Shanks & Pottenger.
1157# Go with the PTB.
1158Rule Germany 1947 only - Apr 6 3:00s 1:00 S
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MD
1159Rule Germany 1947 only - May 11 2:00s 2:00 M
1160Rule Germany 1947 only - Jun 29 3:00 1:00 S
1161Rule Germany 1948 only - Apr 18 2:00s 1:00 S
1162Rule Germany 1949 only - Apr 10 2:00s 1:00 S
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1163
1164Rule SovietZone 1945 only - May 24 2:00 2:00 M # Midsummer
1165Rule SovietZone 1945 only - Sep 24 3:00 1:00 S
1166Rule SovietZone 1945 only - Nov 18 2:00s 0 -
1167
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1168# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
1169Zone Europe/Berlin 0:53:28 - LMT 1893 Apr
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SW
1170 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945 May 24 2:00
1171 1:00 SovietZone CE%sT 1946
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MD
1172 1:00 Germany CE%sT 1980
1173 1:00 EU CE%sT
1174
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SW
1175# Georgia
1176# Please see the "asia" file for Asia/Tbilisi.
1177# Herodotus (Histories, IV.45) says Georgia north of the Phasis (now Rioni)
1178# is in Europe. Our reference location Tbilisi is in the Asian part.
1179
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1180# Gibraltar
1181# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
bd7414aa 1182Zone Europe/Gibraltar -0:21:24 - LMT 1880 Aug 2 0:00s
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MD
1183 0:00 GB-Eire %s 1957 Apr 14 2:00
1184 1:00 - CET 1982
1185 1:00 EU CE%sT
1186
1187# Greece
1188# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
bd7414aa 1189# Whitman gives 1932 Jul 5 - Nov 1; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
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MD
1190Rule Greece 1932 only - Jul 7 0:00 1:00 S
1191Rule Greece 1932 only - Sep 1 0:00 0 -
bd7414aa 1192# Whitman gives 1941 Apr 25 - ?; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
984263bc 1193Rule Greece 1941 only - Apr 7 0:00 1:00 S
bd7414aa 1194# Whitman gives 1942 Feb 2 - ?; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
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MD
1195Rule Greece 1942 only - Nov 2 3:00 0 -
1196Rule Greece 1943 only - Mar 30 0:00 1:00 S
1197Rule Greece 1943 only - Oct 4 0:00 0 -
bd7414aa 1198# Whitman gives 1944 Oct 3 - Oct 31; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
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1199Rule Greece 1952 only - Jul 1 0:00 1:00 S
1200Rule Greece 1952 only - Nov 2 0:00 0 -
1201Rule Greece 1975 only - Apr 12 0:00s 1:00 S
1202Rule Greece 1975 only - Nov 26 0:00s 0 -
1203Rule Greece 1976 only - Apr 11 2:00s 1:00 S
1204Rule Greece 1976 only - Oct 10 2:00s 0 -
1205Rule Greece 1977 1978 - Apr Sun>=1 2:00s 1:00 S
1206Rule Greece 1977 only - Sep 26 2:00s 0 -
1207Rule Greece 1978 only - Sep 24 4:00 0 -
1208Rule Greece 1979 only - Apr 1 9:00 1:00 S
1209Rule Greece 1979 only - Sep 29 2:00 0 -
1210Rule Greece 1980 only - Apr 1 0:00 1:00 S
1211Rule Greece 1980 only - Sep 28 0:00 0 -
1212# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
1213Zone Europe/Athens 1:34:52 - LMT 1895 Sep 14
1214 1:34:52 - AMT 1916 Jul 28 0:01 # Athens MT
1215 2:00 Greece EE%sT 1941 Apr 30
1216 1:00 Greece CE%sT 1944 Apr 4
1217 2:00 Greece EE%sT 1981
bd7414aa 1218 # Shanks & Pottenger say it switched to C-Eur in 1981;
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MD
1219 # go with EU instead, since Greece joined it on Jan 1.
1220 2:00 EU EE%sT
1221
1222# Hungary
1223# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
1224Rule Hungary 1918 only - Apr 1 3:00 1:00 S
1225Rule Hungary 1918 only - Sep 29 3:00 0 -
1226Rule Hungary 1919 only - Apr 15 3:00 1:00 S
1227Rule Hungary 1919 only - Sep 15 3:00 0 -
1228Rule Hungary 1920 only - Apr 5 3:00 1:00 S
1229Rule Hungary 1920 only - Sep 30 3:00 0 -
1230Rule Hungary 1945 only - May 1 23:00 1:00 S
1231Rule Hungary 1945 only - Nov 3 0:00 0 -
1232Rule Hungary 1946 only - Mar 31 2:00s 1:00 S
1233Rule Hungary 1946 1949 - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
1234Rule Hungary 1947 1949 - Apr Sun>=4 2:00s 1:00 S
1235Rule Hungary 1950 only - Apr 17 2:00s 1:00 S
1236Rule Hungary 1950 only - Oct 23 2:00s 0 -
1237Rule Hungary 1954 1955 - May 23 0:00 1:00 S
1238Rule Hungary 1954 1955 - Oct 3 0:00 0 -
1239Rule Hungary 1956 only - Jun Sun>=1 0:00 1:00 S
1240Rule Hungary 1956 only - Sep lastSun 0:00 0 -
1241Rule Hungary 1957 only - Jun Sun>=1 1:00 1:00 S
1242Rule Hungary 1957 only - Sep lastSun 3:00 0 -
1243Rule Hungary 1980 only - Apr 6 1:00 1:00 S
1244# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
1245Zone Europe/Budapest 1:16:20 - LMT 1890 Oct
1246 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1918
1247 1:00 Hungary CE%sT 1941 Apr 6 2:00
3f249718 1248 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945
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MD
1249 1:00 Hungary CE%sT 1980 Sep 28 2:00s
1250 1:00 EU CE%sT
1251
1252# Iceland
1253#
9ffe4b14 1254# From Adam David (1993-11-06):
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MD
1255# The name of the timezone in Iceland for system / mail / news purposes is GMT.
1256#
1257# (1993-12-05):
1258# This material is paraphrased from the 1988 edition of the University of
1259# Iceland Almanak.
1260#
1261# From January 1st, 1908 the whole of Iceland was standardised at 1 hour
1262# behind GMT. Previously, local mean solar time was used in different parts
1263# of Iceland, the almanak had been based on Reykjavik mean solar time which
1264# was 1 hour and 28 minutes behind GMT.
1265#
1266# "first day of winter" referred to [below] means the first day of the 26 weeks
1267# of winter, according to the old icelandic calendar that dates back to the
1268# time the norsemen first settled Iceland. The first day of winter is always
1269# Saturday, but is not dependent on the Julian or Gregorian calendars.
1270#
1271# (1993-12-10):
1272# I have a reference from the Oxford Icelandic-English dictionary for the
1273# beginning of winter, which ties it to the ecclesiastical calendar (and thus
1274# to the julian/gregorian calendar) over the period in question.
1275# the winter begins on the Saturday next before St. Luke's day
1276# (old style), or on St. Luke's day, if a Saturday.
1277# St. Luke's day ought to be traceable from ecclesiastical sources. "old style"
1278# might be a reference to the Julian calendar as opposed to Gregorian, or it
1279# might mean something else (???).
1280#
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SW
1281# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
1282# The Iceland Almanak, Shanks & Pottenger, and Whitman disagree on many points.
1283# We go with the Almanak, except for one claim from Shanks & Pottenger, namely
1284# that Reykavik was 21W57 from 1837 to 1908, local mean time before that.
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MD
1285#
1286# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
1287Rule Iceland 1917 1918 - Feb 19 23:00 1:00 S
1288Rule Iceland 1917 only - Oct 21 1:00 0 -
1289Rule Iceland 1918 only - Nov 16 1:00 0 -
1290Rule Iceland 1939 only - Apr 29 23:00 1:00 S
1291Rule Iceland 1939 only - Nov 29 2:00 0 -
1292Rule Iceland 1940 only - Feb 25 2:00 1:00 S
1293Rule Iceland 1940 only - Nov 3 2:00 0 -
1294Rule Iceland 1941 only - Mar 2 1:00s 1:00 S
1295Rule Iceland 1941 only - Nov 2 1:00s 0 -
1296Rule Iceland 1942 only - Mar 8 1:00s 1:00 S
1297Rule Iceland 1942 only - Oct 25 1:00s 0 -
1298# 1943-1946 - first Sunday in March until first Sunday in winter
1299Rule Iceland 1943 1946 - Mar Sun>=1 1:00s 1:00 S
1300Rule Iceland 1943 1948 - Oct Sun>=22 1:00s 0 -
1301# 1947-1967 - first Sunday in April until first Sunday in winter
1302Rule Iceland 1947 1967 - Apr Sun>=1 1:00s 1:00 S
1303# 1949 Oct transition delayed by 1 week
1304Rule Iceland 1949 only - Oct 30 1:00s 0 -
1305Rule Iceland 1950 1966 - Oct Sun>=22 1:00s 0 -
1306Rule Iceland 1967 only - Oct 29 1:00s 0 -
1307# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
1308Zone Atlantic/Reykjavik -1:27:24 - LMT 1837
1309 -1:27:48 - RMT 1908 # Reykjavik Mean Time?
1310 -1:00 Iceland IS%sT 1968 Apr 7 1:00s
1311 0:00 - GMT
1312
1313# Italy
1314#
1315# From Paul Eggert (2001-03-06):
1316# Sicily and Sardinia each had their own time zones from 1866 to 1893,
1317# called Palermo Time (+00:53:28) and Cagliari Time (+00:36:32).
1318# During World War II, German-controlled Italy used German time.
1319# But these events all occurred before the 1970 cutoff,
1320# so record only the time in Rome.
1321#
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SW
1322# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
1323# For Italian DST we have three sources: Shanks & Pottenger, Whitman, and
1324# F. Pollastri
984263bc 1325# <a href="http://toi.iriti.cnr.it/uk/ienitlt.html">
bd7414aa 1326# Day-light Saving Time in Italy (2006-02-03)
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MD
1327# </a>
1328# (`FP' below), taken from an Italian National Electrotechnical Institute
1329# publication. When the three sources disagree, guess who's right, as follows:
1330#
bd7414aa 1331# year FP Shanks&P. (S) Whitman (W) Go with:
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MD
1332# 1916 06-03 06-03 24:00 06-03 00:00 FP & W
1333# 09-30 09-30 24:00 09-30 01:00 FP; guess 24:00s
1334# 1917 04-01 03-31 24:00 03-31 00:00 FP & S
1335# 09-30 09-29 24:00 09-30 01:00 FP & W
1336# 1918 03-09 03-09 24:00 03-09 00:00 FP & S
1337# 10-06 10-05 24:00 10-06 01:00 FP & W
1338# 1919 03-01 03-01 24:00 03-01 00:00 FP & S
1339# 10-04 10-04 24:00 10-04 01:00 FP; guess 24:00s
1340# 1920 03-20 03-20 24:00 03-20 00:00 FP & S
1341# 09-18 09-18 24:00 10-01 01:00 FP; guess 24:00s
1342# 1944 04-02 04-03 02:00 S (see C-Eur)
1343# 09-16 10-02 03:00 FP; guess 24:00s
1344# 1945 09-14 09-16 24:00 FP; guess 24:00s
1345# 1970 05-21 05-31 00:00 S
1346# 09-20 09-27 00:00 S
1347#
1348# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
1349Rule Italy 1916 only - Jun 3 0:00s 1:00 S
1350Rule Italy 1916 only - Oct 1 0:00s 0 -
1351Rule Italy 1917 only - Apr 1 0:00s 1:00 S
1352Rule Italy 1917 only - Sep 30 0:00s 0 -
1353Rule Italy 1918 only - Mar 10 0:00s 1:00 S
1354Rule Italy 1918 1919 - Oct Sun>=1 0:00s 0 -
1355Rule Italy 1919 only - Mar 2 0:00s 1:00 S
1356Rule Italy 1920 only - Mar 21 0:00s 1:00 S
1357Rule Italy 1920 only - Sep 19 0:00s 0 -
1358Rule Italy 1940 only - Jun 15 0:00s 1:00 S
1359Rule Italy 1944 only - Sep 17 0:00s 0 -
1360Rule Italy 1945 only - Apr 2 2:00 1:00 S
1361Rule Italy 1945 only - Sep 15 0:00s 0 -
1362Rule Italy 1946 only - Mar 17 2:00s 1:00 S
1363Rule Italy 1946 only - Oct 6 2:00s 0 -
1364Rule Italy 1947 only - Mar 16 0:00s 1:00 S
1365Rule Italy 1947 only - Oct 5 0:00s 0 -
1366Rule Italy 1948 only - Feb 29 2:00s 1:00 S
1367Rule Italy 1948 only - Oct 3 2:00s 0 -
1368Rule Italy 1966 1968 - May Sun>=22 0:00 1:00 S
1369Rule Italy 1966 1969 - Sep Sun>=22 0:00 0 -
1370Rule Italy 1969 only - Jun 1 0:00 1:00 S
1371Rule Italy 1970 only - May 31 0:00 1:00 S
1372Rule Italy 1970 only - Sep lastSun 0:00 0 -
1373Rule Italy 1971 1972 - May Sun>=22 0:00 1:00 S
1374Rule Italy 1971 only - Sep lastSun 1:00 0 -
1375Rule Italy 1972 only - Oct 1 0:00 0 -
1376Rule Italy 1973 only - Jun 3 0:00 1:00 S
1377Rule Italy 1973 1974 - Sep lastSun 0:00 0 -
1378Rule Italy 1974 only - May 26 0:00 1:00 S
1379Rule Italy 1975 only - Jun 1 0:00s 1:00 S
1380Rule Italy 1975 1977 - Sep lastSun 0:00s 0 -
1381Rule Italy 1976 only - May 30 0:00s 1:00 S
1382Rule Italy 1977 1979 - May Sun>=22 0:00s 1:00 S
1383Rule Italy 1978 only - Oct 1 0:00s 0 -
1384Rule Italy 1979 only - Sep 30 0:00s 0 -
1385# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
1386Zone Europe/Rome 0:49:56 - LMT 1866 Sep 22
bd7414aa 1387 0:49:56 - RMT 1893 Nov 1 0:00s # Rome Mean
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MD
1388 1:00 Italy CE%sT 1942 Nov 2 2:00s
1389 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Jul
1390 1:00 Italy CE%sT 1980
1391 1:00 EU CE%sT
1392
1393Link Europe/Rome Europe/Vatican
1394Link Europe/Rome Europe/San_Marino
1395
1396# Latvia
1397
9ffe4b14 1398# From Liene Kanepe (1998-09-17):
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MD
1399
1400# I asked about this matter Scientific Secretary of the Institute of Astronomy
1401# of The University of Latvia Dr. paed Mr. Ilgonis Vilks. I also searched the
1402# correct data in juridical acts and I found some juridical documents about
1403# changes in the counting of time in Latvia from 1981....
1404#
1405# Act No.35 of the Council of Ministers of Latvian SSR of 1981-01-22 ...
1406# according to the Act No.925 of the Council of Ministers of USSR of 1980-10-24
1407# ...: all year round the time of 2nd time zone + 1 hour, in addition turning
1408# the hands of the clock 1 hour forward on 1 April at 00:00 (GMT 31 March 21:00)
1409# and 1 hour backward on the 1 October at 00:00 (GMT 30 September 20:00).
1410#
1411# Act No.592 of the Council of Ministers of Latvian SSR of 1984-09-24 ...
1412# according to the Act No.967 of the Council of Ministers of USSR of 1984-09-13
1413# ...: all year round the time of 2nd time zone + 1 hour, in addition turning
1414# the hands of the clock 1 hour forward on the last Sunday of March at 02:00
1415# (GMT 23:00 on the previous day) and 1 hour backward on the last Sunday of
1416# September at 03:00 (GMT 23:00 on the previous day).
1417#
1418# Act No.81 of the Council of Ministers of Latvian SSR of 1989-03-22 ...
1419# according to the Act No.227 of the Council of Ministers of USSR of 1989-03-14
1420# ...: since the last Sunday of March 1989 in Lithuanian SSR, Latvian SSR,
1421# Estonian SSR and Kaliningrad region of Russian Federation all year round the
1422# time of 2nd time zone (Moscow time minus one hour). On the territory of Latvia
1423# transition to summer time is performed on the last Sunday of March at 02:00
1424# (GMT 00:00), turning the hands of the clock 1 hour forward. The end of
1425# daylight saving time is performed on the last Sunday of September at 03:00
1426# (GMT 00:00), turning the hands of the clock 1 hour backward. Exception is
1427# 1989-03-26, when we must not turn the hands of the clock....
1428#
1429# The Regulations of the Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Latvia of
1430# 1997-01-21 on transition to Summer time ... established the same order of
1431# daylight savings time settings as in the States of the European Union.
1432
1433# From Andrei Ivanov (2000-03-06):
1434# This year Latvia will not switch to Daylight Savings Time (as specified in
1435# <a href="http://www.lv-laiks.lv/wwwraksti/2000/071072/vd4.htm">
1436# The Regulations of the Cabinet of Ministers of the Rep. of Latvia of
1437# 29-Feb-2000 (#79)</a>, in Latvian for subscribers only).
1438
1439# <a href="http://www.rferl.org/newsline/2001/01/3-CEE/cee-030101.html">
1440# From RFE/RL Newsline (2001-01-03), noted after a heads-up by Rives McDow:
1441# </a>
1442# The Latvian government on 2 January decided that the country will
1443# institute daylight-saving time this spring, LETA reported.
1444# Last February the three Baltic states decided not to turn back their
1445# clocks one hour in the spring....
1446# Minister of Economy Aigars Kalvitis noted that Latvia had too few
1447# daylight hours and thus decided to comply with a draft European
1448# Commission directive that provides for instituting daylight-saving
1449# time in EU countries between 2002 and 2006. The Latvian government
1450# urged Lithuania and Estonia to adopt a similar time policy, but it
1451# appears that they will not do so....
1452
1453# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
1454Rule Latvia 1989 1996 - Mar lastSun 2:00s 1:00 S
1455Rule Latvia 1989 1996 - Sep lastSun 2:00s 0 -
1456# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
1457Zone Europe/Riga 1:36:24 - LMT 1880
1458 1:36:24 - RMT 1918 Apr 15 2:00 #Riga Mean Time
1459 1:36:24 1:00 LST 1918 Sep 16 3:00 #Latvian Summer
1460 1:36:24 - RMT 1919 Apr 1 2:00
1461 1:36:24 1:00 LST 1919 May 22 3:00
1462 1:36:24 - RMT 1926 May 11
1463 2:00 - EET 1940 Aug 5
1464 3:00 - MSK 1941 Jul
1465 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Oct 13
1466 3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1989 Mar lastSun 2:00s
1467 2:00 1:00 EEST 1989 Sep lastSun 2:00s
1468 2:00 Latvia EE%sT 1997 Jan 21
1469 2:00 EU EE%sT 2000 Feb 29
ba5ba9da 1470 2:00 - EET 2001 Jan 2
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1471 2:00 EU EE%sT
1472
1473# Liechtenstein
1474# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
1475Zone Europe/Vaduz 0:38:04 - LMT 1894 Jun
1476 1:00 - CET 1981
1477 1:00 EU CE%sT
1478
1479# Lithuania
1480
1481# From Paul Eggert (1996-11-22):
1482# IATA SSIM (1992/1996) says Lithuania uses W-Eur rules, but since it is
1483# known to be wrong about Estonia and Latvia, assume it's wrong here too.
1484
9ffe4b14 1485# From Marius Gedminas (1998-08-07):
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MD
1486# I would like to inform that in this year Lithuanian time zone
1487# (Europe/Vilnius) was changed.
1488
1489# From <a href="http://www.elta.lt/">ELTA</a> No. 972 (2582) (1999-09-29),
1490# via Steffen Thorsen:
1491# Lithuania has shifted back to the second time zone (GMT plus two hours)
1492# to be valid here starting from October 31,
1493# as decided by the national government on Wednesday....
1494# The Lithuanian government also announced plans to consider a
1495# motion to give up shifting to summer time in spring, as it was
1496# already done by Estonia.
1497
1498# From the <a href="http://www.tourism.lt/informa/ff.htm">
1499# Fact File, Lithuanian State Department of Tourism
1500# </a> (2000-03-27): Local time is GMT+2 hours ..., no daylight saving.
1501
1502# From a user via Klaus Marten (2003-02-07):
1503# As a candidate for membership of the European Union, Lithuania will
1504# observe Summer Time in 2003, changing its clocks at the times laid
1505# down in EU Directive 2000/84 of 19.I.01 (i.e. at the same times as its
1506# neighbour Latvia). The text of the Lithuanian government Order of
1507# 7.XI.02 to this effect can be found at
1508# http://www.lrvk.lt/nut/11/n1749.htm
1509
1510
1511# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
1512Zone Europe/Vilnius 1:41:16 - LMT 1880
1513 1:24:00 - WMT 1917 # Warsaw Mean Time
1514 1:35:36 - KMT 1919 Oct 10 # Kaunas Mean Time
1515 1:00 - CET 1920 Jul 12
1516 2:00 - EET 1920 Oct 9
1517 1:00 - CET 1940 Aug 3
1518 3:00 - MSK 1941 Jun 24
1519 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Aug
1520 3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
1521 2:00 1:00 EEST 1991 Sep 29 2:00s
1522 2:00 C-Eur EE%sT 1998
1523 2:00 - EET 1998 Mar 29 1:00u
1524 1:00 EU CE%sT 1999 Oct 31 1:00u
1525 2:00 - EET 2003 Jan 1
1526 2:00 EU EE%sT
1527
1528# Luxembourg
bd7414aa
SW
1529# Whitman disagrees with most of these dates in minor ways;
1530# go with Shanks & Pottenger.
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1531# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
1532Rule Lux 1916 only - May 14 23:00 1:00 S
1533Rule Lux 1916 only - Oct 1 1:00 0 -
1534Rule Lux 1917 only - Apr 28 23:00 1:00 S
1535Rule Lux 1917 only - Sep 17 1:00 0 -
1536Rule Lux 1918 only - Apr Mon>=15 2:00s 1:00 S
1537Rule Lux 1918 only - Sep Mon>=15 2:00s 0 -
1538Rule Lux 1919 only - Mar 1 23:00 1:00 S
1539Rule Lux 1919 only - Oct 5 3:00 0 -
1540Rule Lux 1920 only - Feb 14 23:00 1:00 S
1541Rule Lux 1920 only - Oct 24 2:00 0 -
1542Rule Lux 1921 only - Mar 14 23:00 1:00 S
1543Rule Lux 1921 only - Oct 26 2:00 0 -
1544Rule Lux 1922 only - Mar 25 23:00 1:00 S
1545Rule Lux 1922 only - Oct Sun>=2 1:00 0 -
1546Rule Lux 1923 only - Apr 21 23:00 1:00 S
1547Rule Lux 1923 only - Oct Sun>=2 2:00 0 -
1548Rule Lux 1924 only - Mar 29 23:00 1:00 S
1549Rule Lux 1924 1928 - Oct Sun>=2 1:00 0 -
1550Rule Lux 1925 only - Apr 5 23:00 1:00 S
1551Rule Lux 1926 only - Apr 17 23:00 1:00 S
1552Rule Lux 1927 only - Apr 9 23:00 1:00 S
1553Rule Lux 1928 only - Apr 14 23:00 1:00 S
1554Rule Lux 1929 only - Apr 20 23:00 1:00 S
1555# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
1556Zone Europe/Luxembourg 0:24:36 - LMT 1904 Jun
1557 1:00 Lux CE%sT 1918 Nov 25
1558 0:00 Lux WE%sT 1929 Oct 6 2:00s
1559 0:00 Belgium WE%sT 1940 May 14 3:00
1560 1:00 C-Eur WE%sT 1944 Sep 18 3:00
1561 1:00 Belgium CE%sT 1977
1562 1:00 EU CE%sT
1563
1564# Macedonia
17f48456 1565# see Serbia
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1566
1567# Malta
1568# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
1569Rule Malta 1973 only - Mar 31 0:00s 1:00 S
1570Rule Malta 1973 only - Sep 29 0:00s 0 -
1571Rule Malta 1974 only - Apr 21 0:00s 1:00 S
1572Rule Malta 1974 only - Sep 16 0:00s 0 -
1573Rule Malta 1975 1979 - Apr Sun>=15 2:00 1:00 S
1574Rule Malta 1975 1980 - Sep Sun>=15 2:00 0 -
1575Rule Malta 1980 only - Mar 31 2:00 1:00 S
1576# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
bd7414aa 1577Zone Europe/Malta 0:58:04 - LMT 1893 Nov 2 0:00s # Valletta
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MD
1578 1:00 Italy CE%sT 1942 Nov 2 2:00s
1579 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945 Apr 2 2:00s
1580 1:00 Italy CE%sT 1973 Mar 31
1581 1:00 Malta CE%sT 1981
1582 1:00 EU CE%sT
1583
1584# Moldova
1585
bd7414aa
SW
1586# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
1587# A previous version of this database followed Shanks & Pottenger, who write
1588# that Tiraspol switched to Moscow time on 1992-01-19 at 02:00.
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MD
1589# However, this is most likely an error, as Moldova declared independence
1590# on 1991-08-27 (the 1992-01-19 date is that of a Russian decree).
1591# In early 1992 there was large-scale interethnic violence in the area
1592# and it's possible that some Russophones continued to observe Moscow time.
9ffe4b14 1593# But [two people] separately reported via
984263bc
MD
1594# Jesper Norgaard that as of 2001-01-24 Tiraspol was like Chisinau.
1595# The Tiraspol entry has therefore been removed for now.
1596
1597# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
1598Zone Europe/Chisinau 1:55:20 - LMT 1880
1599 1:55 - CMT 1918 Feb 15 # Chisinau MT
1600 1:44:24 - BMT 1931 Jul 24 # Bucharest MT
1601 2:00 Romania EE%sT 1940 Aug 15
1602 2:00 1:00 EEST 1941 Jul 17
1603 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Aug 24
1604 3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1990
1605 3:00 - MSK 1990 May 6
1606 2:00 - EET 1991
1607 2:00 Russia EE%sT 1992
1608 2:00 E-Eur EE%sT 1997
1609# See Romania commentary for the guessed 1997 transition to EU rules.
1610 2:00 EU EE%sT
1611
1612# Monaco
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SW
1613# Shanks & Pottenger give 0:09:20 for Paris Mean Time; go with Howse's
1614# more precise 0:09:21.
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MD
1615# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
1616Zone Europe/Monaco 0:29:32 - LMT 1891 Mar 15
1617 0:09:21 - PMT 1911 Mar 11 # Paris Mean Time
1618 0:00 France WE%sT 1945 Sep 16 3:00
1619 1:00 France CE%sT 1977
1620 1:00 EU CE%sT
1621
17f48456
SW
1622# Montenegro
1623# see Serbia
1624
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MD
1625# Netherlands
1626
1627# Howse writes that the Netherlands' railways used GMT between 1892 and 1940,
1628# but for other purposes the Netherlands used Amsterdam mean time.
1629
1630# However, Robert H. van Gent writes (2001-04-01):
1631# Howse's statement is only correct up to 1909. From 1909-05-01 (00:00:00
1632# Amsterdam mean time) onwards, the whole of the Netherlands (including
1633# the Dutch railways) was required by law to observe Amsterdam mean time
1634# (19 minutes 32.13 seconds ahead of GMT). This had already been the
1635# common practice (except for the railways) for many decades but it was
1636# not until 1909 when the Dutch government finally defined this by law.
1637# On 1937-07-01 this was changed to 20 minutes (exactly) ahead of GMT and
1638# was generally known as Dutch Time ("Nederlandse Tijd").
1639#
1640# (2001-04-08):
1641# 1892-05-01 was the date when the Dutch railways were by law required to
1642# observe GMT while the remainder of the Netherlands adhered to the common
1643# practice of following Amsterdam mean time.
1644#
1645# (2001-04-09):
1646# In 1835 the authorities of the province of North Holland requested the
1647# municipal authorities of the towns and cities in the province to observe
1648# Amsterdam mean time but I do not know in how many cases this request was
1649# actually followed.
1650#
1651# From 1852 onwards the Dutch telegraph offices were by law required to
1652# observe Amsterdam mean time. As the time signals from the observatory of
1653# Leiden were also distributed by the telegraph system, I assume that most
1654# places linked up with the telegraph (and railway) system automatically
1655# adopted Amsterdam mean time.
1656#
1657# Although the early Dutch railway companies initially observed a variety
1658# of times, most of them had adopted Amsterdam mean time by 1858 but it
1659# was not until 1866 when they were all required by law to observe
1660# Amsterdam mean time.
1661
1662# The data before 1945 are taken from
1663# <http://www.phys.uu.nl/~vgent/wettijd/wettijd.htm>.
1664
1665# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
1666Rule Neth 1916 only - May 1 0:00 1:00 NST # Netherlands Summer Time
1667Rule Neth 1916 only - Oct 1 0:00 0 AMT # Amsterdam Mean Time
1668Rule Neth 1917 only - Apr 16 2:00s 1:00 NST
1669Rule Neth 1917 only - Sep 17 2:00s 0 AMT
1670Rule Neth 1918 1921 - Apr Mon>=1 2:00s 1:00 NST
1671Rule Neth 1918 1921 - Sep lastMon 2:00s 0 AMT
1672Rule Neth 1922 only - Mar lastSun 2:00s 1:00 NST
1673Rule Neth 1922 1936 - Oct Sun>=2 2:00s 0 AMT
1674Rule Neth 1923 only - Jun Fri>=1 2:00s 1:00 NST
1675Rule Neth 1924 only - Mar lastSun 2:00s 1:00 NST
1676Rule Neth 1925 only - Jun Fri>=1 2:00s 1:00 NST
1677# From 1926 through 1939 DST began 05-15, except that it was delayed by a week
1678# in years when 05-15 fell in the Pentecost weekend.
1679Rule Neth 1926 1931 - May 15 2:00s 1:00 NST
1680Rule Neth 1932 only - May 22 2:00s 1:00 NST
1681Rule Neth 1933 1936 - May 15 2:00s 1:00 NST
1682Rule Neth 1937 only - May 22 2:00s 1:00 NST
1683Rule Neth 1937 only - Jul 1 0:00 1:00 S
1684Rule Neth 1937 1939 - Oct Sun>=2 2:00s 0 -
1685Rule Neth 1938 1939 - May 15 2:00s 1:00 S
1686Rule Neth 1945 only - Apr 2 2:00s 1:00 S
1687Rule Neth 1945 only - Sep 16 2:00s 0 -
1688#
1689# Amsterdam Mean Time was +00:19:32.13 exactly, but the .13 is omitted
1690# below because the current format requires GMTOFF to be an integer.
1691# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
1692Zone Europe/Amsterdam 0:19:32 - LMT 1835
1693 0:19:32 Neth %s 1937 Jul 1
1694 0:20 Neth NE%sT 1940 May 16 0:00 # Dutch Time
1695 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945 Apr 2 2:00
1696 1:00 Neth CE%sT 1977
1697 1:00 EU CE%sT
1698
1699# Norway
bd7414aa
SW
1700# http://met.no/met/met_lex/q_u/sommertid.html (2004-01) agrees with Shanks &
1701# Pottenger.
984263bc 1702# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
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MD
1703Rule Norway 1916 only - May 22 1:00 1:00 S
1704Rule Norway 1916 only - Sep 30 0:00 0 -
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MD
1705Rule Norway 1945 only - Apr 2 2:00s 1:00 S
1706Rule Norway 1945 only - Oct 1 2:00s 0 -
1707Rule Norway 1959 1964 - Mar Sun>=15 2:00s 1:00 S
1708Rule Norway 1959 1965 - Sep Sun>=15 2:00s 0 -
1709Rule Norway 1965 only - Apr 25 2:00s 1:00 S
1710# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
1711Zone Europe/Oslo 0:43:00 - LMT 1895 Jan 1
1712 1:00 Norway CE%sT 1940 Aug 10 23:00
1713 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945 Apr 2 2:00
1714 1:00 Norway CE%sT 1980
1715 1:00 EU CE%sT
1716
1717# Svalbard & Jan Mayen
1718
1719# From Steffen Thorsen (2001-05-01):
1720# Although I could not find it explicitly, it seems that Jan Mayen and
1721# Svalbard have been using the same time as Norway at least since the
1722# time they were declared as parts of Norway. Svalbard was declared
1723# as a part of Norway by law of 1925-07-17 no 11, section 4 and Jan
1724# Mayen by law of 1930-02-27 no 2, section 2. (From
1725# http://www.lovdata.no/all/nl-19250717-011.html and
1726# http://www.lovdata.no/all/nl-19300227-002.html). The law/regulation
1727# for normal/standard time in Norway is from 1894-06-29 no 1 (came
1728# into operation on 1895-01-01) and Svalbard/Jan Mayen seem to be a
1729# part of this law since 1925/1930. (From
1730# http://www.lovdata.no/all/nl-18940629-001.html ) I have not been
1731# able to find if Jan Mayen used a different time zone (e.g. -0100)
1732# before 1930. Jan Mayen has only been "inhabitated" since 1921 by
1733# Norwegian meteorologists and maybe used the same time as Norway ever
1734# since 1921. Svalbard (Arctic/Longyearbyen) has been inhabited since
1735# before 1895, and therefore probably changed the local time somewhere
1736# between 1895 and 1925 (inclusive).
1737
1738# From Paul Eggert (2001-05-01):
1739#
1740# Actually, Jan Mayen was never occupied by Germany during World War II,
bc95ec93 1741# so it must have diverged from Oslo time during the war, as Oslo was
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MD
1742# keeping Berlin time.
1743#
1744# <http://home.no.net/janmayen/history.htm> says that the meteorologists
1745# burned down their station in 1940 and left the island, but returned in
1746# 1941 with a small Norwegian garrison and continued operations despite
1747# frequent air ttacks from Germans. In 1943 the Americans established a
1748# radiolocating station on the island, called "Atlantic City". Possibly
1749# the UTC offset changed during the war, but I think it unlikely that
1750# Jan Mayen used German daylight-saving rules.
1751#
1752# Svalbard is more complicated, as it was raided in August 1941 by an
1753# Allied party that evacuated the civilian population to England (says
1754# <http://www.bartleby.com/65/sv/Svalbard.html>). The Svalbard FAQ
1755# <http://www.svalbard.com/SvalbardFAQ.html> says that the Germans were
1756# expelled on 1942-05-14. However, small parties of Germans did return,
1757# and according to Wilhelm Dege's book "War North of 80" (1954)
bc95ec93 1758# <http://www.ucalgary.ca/UofC/departments/UP/1-55238/1-55238-110-2.html>
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MD
1759# the German armed forces at the Svalbard weather station code-named
1760# Haudegen did not surrender to the Allies until September 1945.
1761#
1762# All these events predate our cutoff date of 1970. Unless we can
1763# come up with more definitive info about the timekeeping during the
1764# war years it's probably best just do do the following for now:
1765Link Europe/Oslo Arctic/Longyearbyen
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MD
1766
1767# Poland
1768# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
1769Rule Poland 1918 1919 - Sep 16 2:00s 0 -
1770Rule Poland 1919 only - Apr 15 2:00s 1:00 S
bd7414aa
SW
1771Rule Poland 1944 only - Apr 3 2:00s 1:00 S
1772# Whitman gives 1944 Nov 30; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
984263bc 1773Rule Poland 1944 only - Oct 4 2:00 0 -
bd7414aa 1774# For 1944-1948 Whitman gives the previous day; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
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MD
1775Rule Poland 1945 only - Apr 29 0:00 1:00 S
1776Rule Poland 1945 only - Nov 1 0:00 0 -
9ffe4b14
SW
1777# For 1946 on the source is Kazimierz Borkowski,
1778# Torun Center for Astronomy, Dept. of Radio Astronomy, Nicolaus Copernicus U.,
1779# <http://www.astro.uni.torun.pl/~kb/Artykuly/U-PA/Czas2.htm#tth_tAb1>
1780# Thanks to Przemyslaw Augustyniak (2005-05-28) for this reference.
1781# He also gives these further references:
1782# Mon Pol nr 13, poz 162 (1995) <http://www.abc.com.pl/serwis/mp/1995/0162.htm>
1783# Druk nr 2180 (2003) <http://www.senat.gov.pl/k5/dok/sejm/053/2180.pdf>
1784Rule Poland 1946 only - Apr 14 0:00s 1:00 S
1785Rule Poland 1946 only - Oct 7 2:00s 0 -
1786Rule Poland 1947 only - May 4 2:00s 1:00 S
1787Rule Poland 1947 1949 - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
1788Rule Poland 1948 only - Apr 18 2:00s 1:00 S
1789Rule Poland 1949 only - Apr 10 2:00s 1:00 S
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MD
1790Rule Poland 1957 only - Jun 2 1:00s 1:00 S
1791Rule Poland 1957 1958 - Sep lastSun 1:00s 0 -
1792Rule Poland 1958 only - Mar 30 1:00s 1:00 S
1793Rule Poland 1959 only - May 31 1:00s 1:00 S
1794Rule Poland 1959 1961 - Oct Sun>=1 1:00s 0 -
1795Rule Poland 1960 only - Apr 3 1:00s 1:00 S
9ffe4b14 1796Rule Poland 1961 1964 - May lastSun 1:00s 1:00 S
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MD
1797Rule Poland 1962 1964 - Sep lastSun 1:00s 0 -
1798# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
1799Zone Europe/Warsaw 1:24:00 - LMT 1880
1800 1:24:00 - WMT 1915 Aug 5 # Warsaw Mean Time
1801 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1918 Sep 16 3:00
1802 2:00 Poland EE%sT 1922 Jun
1803 1:00 Poland CE%sT 1940 Jun 23 2:00
1804 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Oct
9ffe4b14
SW
1805 1:00 Poland CE%sT 1977
1806 1:00 W-Eur CE%sT 1988
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MD
1807 1:00 EU CE%sT
1808
1809# Portugal
1810#
9ffe4b14 1811# From Rui Pedro Salgueiro (1992-11-12):
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MD
1812# Portugal has recently (September, 27) changed timezone
1813# (from WET to MET or CET) to harmonize with EEC.
1814#
9ffe4b14 1815# Martin Bruckmann (1996-02-29) reports via Peter Ilieve
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MD
1816# that Portugal is reverting to 0:00 by not moving its clocks this spring.
1817# The new Prime Minister was fed up with getting up in the dark in the winter.
1818#
1819# From Paul Eggert (1996-11-12):
1820# IATA SSIM (1991-09) reports several 1991-09 and 1992-09 transitions
1821# at 02:00u, not 01:00u. Assume that these are typos.
1822# IATA SSIM (1991/1992) reports that the Azores were at -1:00.
1823# IATA SSIM (1993-02) says +0:00; later issues (through 1996-09) say -1:00.
1824# Guess that the Azores changed to EU rules in 1992 (since that's when Portugal
1825# harmonized with the EU), and that they stayed +0:00 that winter.
1826#
1827# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
1828# DSH writes that despite Decree 1,469 (1915), the change to the clocks was not
1829# done every year, depending on what Spain did, because of railroad schedules.
bd7414aa 1830# Go with Shanks & Pottenger.
984263bc 1831Rule Port 1916 only - Jun 17 23:00 1:00 S
bd7414aa 1832# Whitman gives 1916 Oct 31; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
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MD
1833Rule Port 1916 only - Nov 1 1:00 0 -
1834Rule Port 1917 only - Feb 28 23:00s 1:00 S
1835Rule Port 1917 1921 - Oct 14 23:00s 0 -
1836Rule Port 1918 only - Mar 1 23:00s 1:00 S
1837Rule Port 1919 only - Feb 28 23:00s 1:00 S
1838Rule Port 1920 only - Feb 29 23:00s 1:00 S
1839Rule Port 1921 only - Feb 28 23:00s 1:00 S
1840Rule Port 1924 only - Apr 16 23:00s 1:00 S
1841Rule Port 1924 only - Oct 14 23:00s 0 -
1842Rule Port 1926 only - Apr 17 23:00s 1:00 S
1843Rule Port 1926 1929 - Oct Sat>=1 23:00s 0 -
1844Rule Port 1927 only - Apr 9 23:00s 1:00 S
1845Rule Port 1928 only - Apr 14 23:00s 1:00 S
1846Rule Port 1929 only - Apr 20 23:00s 1:00 S
1847Rule Port 1931 only - Apr 18 23:00s 1:00 S
bd7414aa 1848# Whitman gives 1931 Oct 8; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
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MD
1849Rule Port 1931 1932 - Oct Sat>=1 23:00s 0 -
1850Rule Port 1932 only - Apr 2 23:00s 1:00 S
984263bc 1851Rule Port 1934 only - Apr 7 23:00s 1:00 S
bd7414aa 1852# Whitman gives 1934 Oct 5; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
984263bc 1853Rule Port 1934 1938 - Oct Sat>=1 23:00s 0 -
bd7414aa 1854# Shanks & Pottenger give 1935 Apr 30; go with Whitman.
984263bc
MD
1855Rule Port 1935 only - Mar 30 23:00s 1:00 S
1856Rule Port 1936 only - Apr 18 23:00s 1:00 S
bd7414aa 1857# Whitman gives 1937 Apr 2; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
984263bc
MD
1858Rule Port 1937 only - Apr 3 23:00s 1:00 S
1859Rule Port 1938 only - Mar 26 23:00s 1:00 S
1860Rule Port 1939 only - Apr 15 23:00s 1:00 S
bd7414aa 1861# Whitman gives 1939 Oct 7; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
984263bc
MD
1862Rule Port 1939 only - Nov 18 23:00s 0 -
1863Rule Port 1940 only - Feb 24 23:00s 1:00 S
bd7414aa 1864# Shanks & Pottenger give 1940 Oct 7; go with Whitman.
984263bc
MD
1865Rule Port 1940 1941 - Oct 5 23:00s 0 -
1866Rule Port 1941 only - Apr 5 23:00s 1:00 S
1867Rule Port 1942 1945 - Mar Sat>=8 23:00s 1:00 S
1868Rule Port 1942 only - Apr 25 22:00s 2:00 M # Midsummer
1869Rule Port 1942 only - Aug 15 22:00s 1:00 S
1870Rule Port 1942 1945 - Oct Sat>=24 23:00s 0 -
1871Rule Port 1943 only - Apr 17 22:00s 2:00 M
1872Rule Port 1943 1945 - Aug Sat>=25 22:00s 1:00 S
1873Rule Port 1944 1945 - Apr Sat>=21 22:00s 2:00 M
1874Rule Port 1946 only - Apr Sat>=1 23:00s 1:00 S
1875Rule Port 1946 only - Oct Sat>=1 23:00s 0 -
1876Rule Port 1947 1949 - Apr Sun>=1 2:00s 1:00 S
1877Rule Port 1947 1949 - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
bd7414aa
SW
1878# Shanks & Pottenger say DST was observed in 1950; go with Whitman.
1879# Whitman gives Oct lastSun for 1952 on; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
984263bc
MD
1880Rule Port 1951 1965 - Apr Sun>=1 2:00s 1:00 S
1881Rule Port 1951 1965 - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
1882Rule Port 1977 only - Mar 27 0:00s 1:00 S
1883Rule Port 1977 only - Sep 25 0:00s 0 -
1884Rule Port 1978 1979 - Apr Sun>=1 0:00s 1:00 S
1885Rule Port 1978 only - Oct 1 0:00s 0 -
1886Rule Port 1979 1982 - Sep lastSun 1:00s 0 -
1887Rule Port 1980 only - Mar lastSun 0:00s 1:00 S
1888Rule Port 1981 1982 - Mar lastSun 1:00s 1:00 S
1889Rule Port 1983 only - Mar lastSun 2:00s 1:00 S
1890# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
bd7414aa 1891# Shanks & Pottenger say the transition from LMT to WET occurred 1911-05-24;
ba5ba9da 1892# Willett says 1912-01-01. Go with Willett.
984263bc 1893Zone Europe/Lisbon -0:36:32 - LMT 1884
ba5ba9da 1894 -0:36:32 - LMT 1912 Jan 1 # Lisbon Mean Time
984263bc
MD
1895 0:00 Port WE%sT 1966 Apr 3 2:00
1896 1:00 - CET 1976 Sep 26 1:00
1897 0:00 Port WE%sT 1983 Sep 25 1:00s
1898 0:00 W-Eur WE%sT 1992 Sep 27 1:00s
1899 1:00 EU CE%sT 1996 Mar 31 1:00u
1900 0:00 EU WE%sT
1901Zone Atlantic/Azores -1:42:40 - LMT 1884 # Ponta Delgada
1902 -1:54:32 - HMT 1911 May 24 # Horta Mean Time
1903 -2:00 Port AZO%sT 1966 Apr 3 2:00 # Azores Time
1904 -1:00 Port AZO%sT 1983 Sep 25 1:00s
1905 -1:00 W-Eur AZO%sT 1992 Sep 27 1:00s
1906 0:00 EU WE%sT 1993 Mar 28 1:00u
1907 -1:00 EU AZO%sT
1908Zone Atlantic/Madeira -1:07:36 - LMT 1884 # Funchal
1909 -1:07:36 - FMT 1911 May 24 # Funchal Mean Time
1910 -1:00 Port MAD%sT 1966 Apr 3 2:00 # Madeira Time
1911 0:00 Port WE%sT 1983 Sep 25 1:00s
1912 0:00 EU WE%sT
1913
1914# Romania
1915#
1916# From Paul Eggert (1999-10-07):
1917# <a href="http://www.nineoclock.ro/POL/1778pol.html">
1918# Nine O'clock</a> (1998-10-23) reports that the switch occurred at
1919# 04:00 local time in fall 1998. For lack of better info,
1920# assume that Romania and Moldova switched to EU rules in 1997,
1921# the same year as Bulgaria.
1922#
1923# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
1924Rule Romania 1932 only - May 21 0:00s 1:00 S
1925Rule Romania 1932 1939 - Oct Sun>=1 0:00s 0 -
1926Rule Romania 1933 1939 - Apr Sun>=2 0:00s 1:00 S
1927Rule Romania 1979 only - May 27 0:00 1:00 S
1928Rule Romania 1979 only - Sep lastSun 0:00 0 -
1929Rule Romania 1980 only - Apr 5 23:00 1:00 S
1930Rule Romania 1980 only - Sep lastSun 1:00 0 -
1931Rule Romania 1991 1993 - Mar lastSun 0:00s 1:00 S
1932Rule Romania 1991 1993 - Sep lastSun 0:00s 0 -
1933# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
1934Zone Europe/Bucharest 1:44:24 - LMT 1891 Oct
1935 1:44:24 - BMT 1931 Jul 24 # Bucharest MT
1936 2:00 Romania EE%sT 1981 Mar 29 2:00s
1937 2:00 C-Eur EE%sT 1991
1938 2:00 Romania EE%sT 1994
1939 2:00 E-Eur EE%sT 1997
1940 2:00 EU EE%sT
1941
1942# Russia
1943
bd7414aa 1944# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
984263bc
MD
1945# Except for Moscow after 1919-07-01, I invented the time zone abbreviations.
1946# Moscow time zone abbreviations after 1919-07-01, and Moscow rules after 1991,
bd7414aa
SW
1947# are from Andrey A. Chernov. The rest is from Shanks & Pottenger,
1948# except we follow Chernov's report that 1992 DST transitions were Sat
1949# 23:00, not Sun 02:00s.
984263bc 1950#
9ffe4b14 1951# From Stanislaw A. Kuzikowski (1994-06-29):
984263bc
MD
1952# But now it is some months since Novosibirsk is 3 hours ahead of Moscow!
1953# I do not know why they have decided to make this change;
1954# as far as I remember it was done exactly during winter->summer switching
1955# so we (Novosibirsk) simply did not switch.
1956#
9ffe4b14 1957# From Andrey A. Chernov (1996-10-04):
984263bc 1958# `MSK' and `MSD' were born and used initially on Moscow computers with
ba5ba9da 1959# UNIX-like OSes by several developer groups (e.g. Demos group, Kiae group)....
984263bc
MD
1960# The next step was the UUCP network, the Relcom predecessor
1961# (used mainly for mail), and MSK/MSD was actively used there.
1962#
9ffe4b14 1963# From Chris Carrier (1996-10-30):
984263bc
MD
1964# According to a friend of mine who rode the Trans-Siberian Railroad from
1965# Moscow to Irkutsk in 1995, public air and rail transport in Russia ...
1966# still follows Moscow time, no matter where in Russia it is located.
1967#
1968# For Grozny, Chechnya, we have the following story from
1969# John Daniszewski, "Scavengers in the Rubble", Los Angeles Times (2001-02-07):
1970# News--often false--is spread by word of mouth. A rumor that it was
1971# time to move the clocks back put this whole city out of sync with
1972# the rest of Russia for two weeks--even soldiers stationed here began
1973# enforcing curfew at the wrong time.
1974#
1975# From Gwillim Law (2001-06-05):
1976# There's considerable evidence that Sakhalin Island used to be in
1977# UTC+11, and has changed to UTC+10, in this decade. I start with the
1978# SSIM, which listed Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk in zone RU10 along with Magadan
1979# until February 1997, and then in RU9 with Khabarovsk and Vladivostok
1980# since September 1997.... Although the Kuril Islands are
1981# administratively part of Sakhalin oblast', they appear to have
1982# remained on UTC+11 along with Magadan.
1983#
1984# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
1985#
1986# Kaliningradskaya oblast'.
1987Zone Europe/Kaliningrad 1:22:00 - LMT 1893 Apr
1988 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945
1989 2:00 Poland CE%sT 1946
1990 3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
1991 2:00 Russia EE%sT
1992#
1993# From Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25): [This region consists of]
bd7414aa 1994# Respublika Adygeya, Arkhangel'skaya oblast',
984263bc 1995# Belgorodskaya oblast', Bryanskaya oblast', Vladimirskaya oblast',
bd7414aa 1996# Vologodskaya oblast', Voronezhskaya oblast',
984263bc
MD
1997# Respublika Dagestan, Ivanovskaya oblast', Respublika Ingushetiya,
1998# Kabarbino-Balkarskaya Respublika, Respublika Kalmykiya,
1999# Kalyzhskaya oblast', Respublika Karachaevo-Cherkessiya,
bd7414aa 2000# Respublika Kareliya, Respublika Komi,
984263bc
MD
2001# Kostromskaya oblast', Krasnodarskij kraj, Kurskaya oblast',
2002# Leningradskaya oblast', Lipetskaya oblast', Respublika Marij El,
2003# Respublika Mordoviya, Moskva, Moskovskaya oblast',
2004# Murmanskaya oblast', Nenetskij avtonomnyj okrug,
2005# Nizhegorodskaya oblast', Novgorodskaya oblast', Orlovskaya oblast',
2006# Penzenskaya oblast', Pskovskaya oblast', Rostovskaya oblast',
bd7414aa 2007# Ryazanskaya oblast', Sankt-Peterburg,
984263bc
MD
2008# Respublika Severnaya Osetiya, Smolenskaya oblast',
2009# Stavropol'skij kraj, Tambovskaya oblast', Respublika Tatarstan,
2010# Tverskaya oblast', Tyl'skaya oblast', Ul'yanovskaya oblast',
2011# Chechenskaya Respublika, Chuvashskaya oblast',
2012# Yaroslavskaya oblast'
2013Zone Europe/Moscow 2:30:20 - LMT 1880
2014 2:30 - MMT 1916 Jul 3 # Moscow Mean Time
2015 2:30:48 Russia %s 1919 Jul 1 2:00
2016 3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1922 Oct
2017 2:00 - EET 1930 Jun 21
2018 3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
2019 2:00 Russia EE%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s
2020 3:00 Russia MSK/MSD
2021#
bd7414aa
SW
2022# Astrakhanskaya oblast', Kirovskaya oblast', Saratovskaya oblast',
2023# Volgogradskaya oblast'. Shanks & Pottenger say Kirov is still at +0400
2024# but Wikipedia (2006-05-09) says +0300. Perhaps it switched after the
2025# others? But we have no data.
2026Zone Europe/Volgograd 2:57:40 - LMT 1920 Jan 3
2027 3:00 - TSAT 1925 Apr 6 # Tsaritsyn Time
2028 3:00 - STAT 1930 Jun 21 # Stalingrad Time
2029 4:00 - STAT 1961 Nov 11
2030 4:00 Russia VOL%sT 1989 Mar 26 2:00s # Volgograd T
2031 3:00 Russia VOL%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
2032 4:00 - VOLT 1992 Mar 29 2:00s
2033 3:00 Russia VOL%sT
2034#
984263bc
MD
2035# From Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25): [This region consists of]
2036# Samarskaya oblast', Udmyrtskaya respublika
2037Zone Europe/Samara 3:20:36 - LMT 1919 Jul 1 2:00
bd7414aa
SW
2038 3:00 - SAMT 1930 Jun 21
2039 4:00 - SAMT 1935 Jan 27
2040 4:00 Russia KUY%sT 1989 Mar 26 2:00s # Kuybyshev
984263bc
MD
2041 3:00 Russia KUY%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
2042 2:00 Russia KUY%sT 1991 Sep 29 2:00s
2043 3:00 - KUYT 1991 Oct 20 3:00
2044 4:00 Russia SAM%sT # Samara Time
2045#
2046# From Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25): [This region consists of]
2047# Respublika Bashkortostan, Komi-Permyatskij avtonomnyj okrug,
2048# Kurganskaya oblast', Orenburgskaya oblast', Permskaya oblast',
2049# Sverdlovskaya oblast', Tyumenskaya oblast',
2050# Khanty-Manskijskij avtonomnyj okrug, Chelyabinskaya oblast',
2051# Yamalo-Nenetskij avtonomnyj okrug.
2052Zone Asia/Yekaterinburg 4:02:24 - LMT 1919 Jul 15 4:00
2053 4:00 - SVET 1930 Jun 21 # Sverdlovsk Time
2054 5:00 Russia SVE%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
2055 4:00 Russia SVE%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s
2056 5:00 Russia YEK%sT # Yekaterinburg Time
2057#
2058# From Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25): [This region consists of]
2059# Respublika Altaj, Altajskij kraj, Omskaya oblast'.
2060Zone Asia/Omsk 4:53:36 - LMT 1919 Nov 14
2061 5:00 - OMST 1930 Jun 21 # Omsk TIme
2062 6:00 Russia OMS%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
2063 5:00 Russia OMS%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s
2064 6:00 Russia OMS%sT
2065#
bd7414aa
SW
2066# From Paul Eggert (2006-08-19): I'm guessing about Tomsk here; it's
2067# not clear when it switched from +7 to +6.
2068# Novosibirskaya oblast', Tomskaya oblast'.
984263bc
MD
2069Zone Asia/Novosibirsk 5:31:40 - LMT 1919 Dec 14 6:00
2070 6:00 - NOVT 1930 Jun 21 # Novosibirsk Time
2071 7:00 Russia NOV%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
2072 6:00 Russia NOV%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s
bd7414aa 2073 7:00 Russia NOV%sT 1993 May 23 # say Shanks & P.
984263bc 2074 6:00 Russia NOV%sT
d4f0c197
SW
2075
2076# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-10-13):
2077# Kemerovo oblast' (Kemerovo region) in Russia will change current time zone on
2078# March 28, 2010:
2079# from current Russia Zone 6 - Krasnoyarsk Time Zone (KRA) UTC +0700
2080# to Russia Zone 5 - Novosibirsk Time Zone (NOV) UTC +0600
2081#
2082# This is according to Government of Russia decree # 740, on September
2083# 14, 2009 "Application in the territory of the Kemerovo region the Fifth
2084# time zone." ("Russia Zone 5" or old "USSR Zone 5" is GMT +0600)
2085#
2086# Russian Government web site (Russian language)
2087# <a href="http://www.government.ru/content/governmentactivity/rfgovernmentdecisions/archiv">
2088# http://www.government.ru/content/governmentactivity/rfgovernmentdecisions/archive/2009/09/14/991633.htm
2089# </a>
2090# or Russian-English translation by WorldTimeZone.com with reference
2091# map to local region and new Russia Time Zone map after March 28, 2010
2092# <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_russia03.html">
2093# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_russia03.html
2094# </a>
2095#
2096# Thus, when Russia will switch to DST on the night of March 28, 2010
2097# Kemerovo region (Kemerovo oblast') will not change the clock.
2098#
2099# As a result, Kemerovo oblast' will be in the same time zone as
2100# Novosibirsk, Omsk, Tomsk, Barnaul and Altai Republic.
2101
2102Zone Asia/Novokuznetsk 5:48:48 - NMT 1920 Jan 6
2103 6:00 - KRAT 1930 Jun 21 # Krasnoyarsk Time
2104 7:00 Russia KRA%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
2105 6:00 Russia KRA%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s
2106 7:00 Russia KRA%sT 2010 Mar 28 2:00s
2107 6:00 Russia NOV%sT # Novosibirsk/Novokuznetsk Time
2108
984263bc
MD
2109#
2110# From Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25): [This region consists of]
d4f0c197 2111# Krasnoyarskij kraj,
bd7414aa 2112# Tajmyrskij (Dolgano-Nenetskij) avtonomnyj okrug,
984263bc
MD
2113# Respublika Tuva, Respublika Khakasiya, Evenkijskij avtonomnyj okrug.
2114Zone Asia/Krasnoyarsk 6:11:20 - LMT 1920 Jan 6
2115 6:00 - KRAT 1930 Jun 21 # Krasnoyarsk Time
2116 7:00 Russia KRA%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
2117 6:00 Russia KRA%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s
2118 7:00 Russia KRA%sT
2119#
2120# From Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25): [This region consists of]
2121# Respublika Buryatiya, Irkutskaya oblast',
2122# Ust'-Ordynskij Buryatskij avtonomnyj okrug.
2123Zone Asia/Irkutsk 6:57:20 - LMT 1880
2124 6:57:20 - IMT 1920 Jan 25 # Irkutsk Mean Time
2125 7:00 - IRKT 1930 Jun 21 # Irkutsk Time
2126 8:00 Russia IRK%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
2127 7:00 Russia IRK%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s
2128 8:00 Russia IRK%sT
2129#
ba5ba9da 2130# From Oscar van Vlijmen (2003-10-18): [This region consists of]
984263bc
MD
2131# Aginskij Buryatskij avtonomnyj okrug, Amurskaya oblast',
2132# [parts of] Respublika Sakha (Yakutiya), Chitinskaya oblast'.
cf207d0a
SW
2133
2134# From Oscar van Vlijmen (2009-11-29):
2135# ...some regions of RUssia were merged with others since 2005...
2136# Some names were changed, no big deal, except for one instance: a new name.
2137# YAK/YAKST: UTC+9 Zabajkal'skij kraj.
2138
2139# From Oscar van Vlijmen (2009-11-29):
ba5ba9da 2140# The Sakha districts are: Aldanskij, Amginskij, Anabarskij,
cf207d0a 2141# Verkhnevilyujskij, Vilyujskij, Gornyj,
ba5ba9da 2142# Zhiganskij, Kobyajskij, Lenskij, Megino-Kangalasskij, Mirninskij,
cf207d0a 2143# Namskij, Nyurbinskij, Olenyokskij, Olyokminskij,
ba5ba9da 2144# Suntarskij, Tattinskij, Ust'-Aldanskij, Khangalasskij,
cf207d0a
SW
2145# Churapchinskij, Eveno-Bytantajskij Natsional'nij.
2146
984263bc
MD
2147Zone Asia/Yakutsk 8:38:40 - LMT 1919 Dec 15
2148 8:00 - YAKT 1930 Jun 21 # Yakutsk Time
2149 9:00 Russia YAK%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
2150 8:00 Russia YAK%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s
2151 9:00 Russia YAK%sT
2152#
ba5ba9da 2153# From Oscar van Vlijmen (2003-10-18): [This region consists of]
984263bc
MD
2154# Evrejskaya avtonomnaya oblast', Khabarovskij kraj, Primorskij kraj,
2155# [parts of] Respublika Sakha (Yakutiya).
cf207d0a
SW
2156
2157# From Oscar van Vlijmen (2009-11-29):
2158# The Sakha districts are: Bulunskij, Verkhoyanskij, Tomponskij, Ust'-Majskij,
ba5ba9da 2159# Ust'-Yanskij.
984263bc
MD
2160Zone Asia/Vladivostok 8:47:44 - LMT 1922 Nov 15
2161 9:00 - VLAT 1930 Jun 21 # Vladivostok Time
2162 10:00 Russia VLA%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
2163 9:00 Russia VLA%sST 1992 Jan 19 2:00s
2164 10:00 Russia VLA%sT
2165#
2166# Sakhalinskaya oblast'.
2167# The Zone name should be Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, but that's too long.
2168Zone Asia/Sakhalin 9:30:48 - LMT 1905 Aug 23
2169 9:00 - CJT 1938
2170 9:00 - JST 1945 Aug 25
2171 11:00 Russia SAK%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s # Sakhalin T.
2172 10:00 Russia SAK%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s
2173 11:00 Russia SAK%sT 1997 Mar lastSun 2:00s
2174 10:00 Russia SAK%sT
2175#
ba5ba9da 2176# From Oscar van Vlijmen (2003-10-18): [This region consists of]
984263bc 2177# Magadanskaya oblast', Respublika Sakha (Yakutiya).
ba5ba9da 2178# Probably also: Kuril Islands.
cf207d0a
SW
2179
2180# From Oscar van Vlijmen (2009-11-29):
2181# The Sakha districts are: Abyjskij, Allaikhovskij, Verkhhhnekolymskij, Momskij,
2182# Nizhnekolymskij, Ojmyakonskij, Srednekolymskij.
984263bc
MD
2183Zone Asia/Magadan 10:03:12 - LMT 1924 May 2
2184 10:00 - MAGT 1930 Jun 21 # Magadan Time
2185 11:00 Russia MAG%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
2186 10:00 Russia MAG%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s
2187 11:00 Russia MAG%sT
2188#
2189# From Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25): [This region consists of]
2190# Kamchatskaya oblast', Koryakskij avtonomnyj okrug.
2191#
2192# The Zone name should be Asia/Petropavlovsk-Kamchatski, but that's too long.
2193Zone Asia/Kamchatka 10:34:36 - LMT 1922 Nov 10
2194 11:00 - PETT 1930 Jun 21 # P-K Time
2195 12:00 Russia PET%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
2196 11:00 Russia PET%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s
2197 12:00 Russia PET%sT
2198#
2199# Chukotskij avtonomnyj okrug
2200Zone Asia/Anadyr 11:49:56 - LMT 1924 May 2
2201 12:00 - ANAT 1930 Jun 21 # Anadyr Time
2202 13:00 Russia ANA%sT 1982 Apr 1 0:00s
2203 12:00 Russia ANA%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
2204 11:00 Russia ANA%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s
2205 12:00 Russia ANA%sT
2206
17f48456 2207# Serbia
984263bc
MD
2208# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
2209Zone Europe/Belgrade 1:22:00 - LMT 1884
2210 1:00 - CET 1941 Apr 18 23:00
3f249718
SW
2211 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945
2212 1:00 - CET 1945 May 8 2:00s
984263bc 2213 1:00 1:00 CEST 1945 Sep 16 2:00s
9ffe4b14 2214# Metod Kozelj reports that the legal date of
984263bc 2215# transition to EU rules was 1982-11-27, for all of Yugoslavia at the time.
bd7414aa 2216# Shanks & Pottenger don't give as much detail, so go with Kozelj.
984263bc
MD
2217 1:00 - CET 1982 Nov 27
2218 1:00 EU CE%sT
2219Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Ljubljana # Slovenia
17f48456 2220Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Podgorica # Montenegro
984263bc
MD
2221Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Sarajevo # Bosnia and Herzegovina
2222Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Skopje # Macedonia
2223Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Zagreb # Croatia
2224
2225# Slovakia
2226Link Europe/Prague Europe/Bratislava
2227
2228# Slovenia
17f48456 2229# see Serbia
984263bc
MD
2230
2231# Spain
2232# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
bd7414aa
SW
2233# For 1917-1919 Whitman gives Apr Sat>=1 - Oct Sat>=1;
2234# go with Shanks & Pottenger.
984263bc
MD
2235Rule Spain 1917 only - May 5 23:00s 1:00 S
2236Rule Spain 1917 1919 - Oct 6 23:00s 0 -
2237Rule Spain 1918 only - Apr 15 23:00s 1:00 S
2238Rule Spain 1919 only - Apr 5 23:00s 1:00 S
bd7414aa 2239# Whitman gives 1921 Feb 28 - Oct 14; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
984263bc 2240Rule Spain 1924 only - Apr 16 23:00s 1:00 S
bd7414aa 2241# Whitman gives 1924 Oct 14; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
984263bc
MD
2242Rule Spain 1924 only - Oct 4 23:00s 0 -
2243Rule Spain 1926 only - Apr 17 23:00s 1:00 S
bd7414aa 2244# Whitman says no DST in 1929; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
984263bc
MD
2245Rule Spain 1926 1929 - Oct Sat>=1 23:00s 0 -
2246Rule Spain 1927 only - Apr 9 23:00s 1:00 S
2247Rule Spain 1928 only - Apr 14 23:00s 1:00 S
2248Rule Spain 1929 only - Apr 20 23:00s 1:00 S
bd7414aa
SW
2249# Whitman gives 1937 Jun 16, 1938 Apr 16, 1940 Apr 13;
2250# go with Shanks & Pottenger.
984263bc
MD
2251Rule Spain 1937 only - May 22 23:00s 1:00 S
2252Rule Spain 1937 1939 - Oct Sat>=1 23:00s 0 -
2253Rule Spain 1938 only - Mar 22 23:00s 1:00 S
2254Rule Spain 1939 only - Apr 15 23:00s 1:00 S
2255Rule Spain 1940 only - Mar 16 23:00s 1:00 S
bd7414aa 2256# Whitman says no DST 1942-1945; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
984263bc
MD
2257Rule Spain 1942 only - May 2 22:00s 2:00 M # Midsummer
2258Rule Spain 1942 only - Sep 1 22:00s 1:00 S
2259Rule Spain 1943 1946 - Apr Sat>=13 22:00s 2:00 M
2260Rule Spain 1943 only - Oct 3 22:00s 1:00 S
2261Rule Spain 1944 only - Oct 10 22:00s 1:00 S
2262Rule Spain 1945 only - Sep 30 1:00 1:00 S
2263Rule Spain 1946 only - Sep 30 0:00 0 -
2264Rule Spain 1949 only - Apr 30 23:00 1:00 S
2265Rule Spain 1949 only - Sep 30 1:00 0 -
2266Rule Spain 1974 1975 - Apr Sat>=13 23:00 1:00 S
2267Rule Spain 1974 1975 - Oct Sun>=1 1:00 0 -
2268Rule Spain 1976 only - Mar 27 23:00 1:00 S
2269Rule Spain 1976 1977 - Sep lastSun 1:00 0 -
2270Rule Spain 1977 1978 - Apr 2 23:00 1:00 S
2271Rule Spain 1978 only - Oct 1 1:00 0 -
2272# The following rules are copied from Morocco from 1967 through 1978.
2273Rule SpainAfrica 1967 only - Jun 3 12:00 1:00 S
2274Rule SpainAfrica 1967 only - Oct 1 0:00 0 -
2275Rule SpainAfrica 1974 only - Jun 24 0:00 1:00 S
2276Rule SpainAfrica 1974 only - Sep 1 0:00 0 -
2277Rule SpainAfrica 1976 1977 - May 1 0:00 1:00 S
2278Rule SpainAfrica 1976 only - Aug 1 0:00 0 -
2279Rule SpainAfrica 1977 only - Sep 28 0:00 0 -
2280Rule SpainAfrica 1978 only - Jun 1 0:00 1:00 S
2281Rule SpainAfrica 1978 only - Aug 4 0:00 0 -
2282# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
bd7414aa 2283Zone Europe/Madrid -0:14:44 - LMT 1901 Jan 1 0:00s
984263bc
MD
2284 0:00 Spain WE%sT 1946 Sep 30
2285 1:00 Spain CE%sT 1979
2286 1:00 EU CE%sT
2287Zone Africa/Ceuta -0:21:16 - LMT 1901
2288 0:00 - WET 1918 May 6 23:00
2289 0:00 1:00 WEST 1918 Oct 7 23:00
2290 0:00 - WET 1924
2291 0:00 Spain WE%sT 1929
2292 0:00 SpainAfrica WE%sT 1984 Mar 16
2293 1:00 - CET 1986
2294 1:00 EU CE%sT
2295Zone Atlantic/Canary -1:01:36 - LMT 1922 Mar # Las Palmas de Gran C.
2296 -1:00 - CANT 1946 Sep 30 1:00 # Canaries Time
2297 0:00 - WET 1980 Apr 6 0:00s
2298 0:00 1:00 WEST 1980 Sep 28 0:00s
2299 0:00 EU WE%sT
2300# IATA SSIM (1996-09) says the Canaries switch at 2:00u, not 1:00u.
2301# Ignore this for now, as the Canaries are part of the EU.
2302
2303# Sweden
2304
bd7414aa 2305# From Ivan Nilsson (2001-04-13), superseding Shanks & Pottenger:
984263bc
MD
2306#
2307# The law "Svensk forfattningssamling 1878, no 14" about standard time in 1879:
2308# From the beginning of 1879 (that is 01-01 00:00) the time for all
2309# places in the country is "the mean solar time for the meridian at
2310# three degrees, or twelve minutes of time, to the west of the
2311# meridian of the Observatory of Stockholm". The law is dated 1878-05-31.
2312#
2313# The observatory at that time had the meridian 18 degrees 03' 30"
2314# eastern longitude = 01:12:14 in time. Less 12 minutes gives the
2315# national standard time as 01:00:14 ahead of GMT....
2316#
2317# About the beginning of CET in Sweden. The lawtext ("Svensk
2318# forfattningssamling 1899, no 44") states, that "from the beginning
2319# of 1900... ... the same as the mean solar time for the meridian at
2320# the distance of one hour of time from the meridian of the English
2321# observatory at Greenwich, or at 12 minutes 14 seconds to the west
2322# from the meridian of the Observatory of Stockholm". The law is dated
2323# 1899-06-16. In short: At 1900-01-01 00:00:00 the new standard time
2324# in Sweden is 01:00:00 ahead of GMT.
2325#
2326# 1916: The lawtext ("Svensk forfattningssamling 1916, no 124") states
2327# that "1916-05-15 is considered to begin one hour earlier". It is
2328# pretty obvious that at 05-14 23:00 the clocks are set to 05-15 00:00....
2329# Further the law says, that "1916-09-30 is considered to end one hour later".
2330#
2331# The laws regulating [DST] are available on the site of the Swedish
2332# Parliament beginning with 1985 - the laws regulating 1980/1984 are
2333# not available on the site (to my knowledge they are only available
2334# in Swedish): <http://www.riksdagen.se/english/work/sfst.asp> (type
2335# "sommartid" without the quotes in the field "Fritext" and then click
2336# the Sok-button).
2337#
2338# (2001-05-13):
2339#
2340# I have now found a newspaper stating that at 1916-10-01 01:00
2341# summertime the church-clocks etc were set back one hour to show
2342# 1916-10-01 00:00 standard time. The article also reports that some
2343# people thought the switch to standard time would take place already
2344# at 1916-10-01 00:00 summer time, but they had to wait for another
2345# hour before the event took place.
2346#
2347# Source: The newspaper "Dagens Nyheter", 1916-10-01, page 7 upper left.
2348
2349# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
2350Zone Europe/Stockholm 1:12:12 - LMT 1879 Jan 1
2351 1:00:14 - SET 1900 Jan 1 # Swedish Time
2352 1:00 - CET 1916 May 14 23:00
2353 1:00 1:00 CEST 1916 Oct 1 01:00
2354 1:00 - CET 1980
2355 1:00 EU CE%sT
2356
2357# Switzerland
2358# From Howse:
2359# By the end of the 18th century clocks and watches became commonplace
2360# and their performance improved enormously. Communities began to keep
2361# mean time in preference to apparent time -- Geneva from 1780 ....
2362# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
2363# From Whitman (who writes ``Midnight?''):
09695390
SW
2364# Rule Swiss 1940 only - Nov 2 0:00 1:00 S
2365# Rule Swiss 1940 only - Dec 31 0:00 0 -
bd7414aa 2366# From Shanks & Pottenger:
09695390
SW
2367# Rule Swiss 1941 1942 - May Sun>=1 2:00 1:00 S
2368# Rule Swiss 1941 1942 - Oct Sun>=1 0:00 0 -
2369
2370# From Alois Treindl (2008-12-17):
2371# I have researched the DST usage in Switzerland during the 1940ies.
2372#
2373# As I wrote in an earlier message, I suspected the current tzdata values
2374# to be wrong. This is now verified.
2375#
2376# I have found copies of the original ruling by the Swiss Federal
2377# government, in 'Eidgen[o]ssische Gesetzessammlung 1941 and 1942' (Swiss
2378# federal law collection)...
2379#
2380# DST began on Monday 5 May 1941, 1:00 am by shifting the clocks to 2:00 am
2381# DST ended on Monday 6 Oct 1941, 2:00 am by shifting the clocks to 1:00 am.
2382#
2383# DST began on Monday, 4 May 1942 at 01:00 am
2384# DST ended on Monday, 5 Oct 1942 at 02:00 am
2385#
2386# There was no DST in 1940, I have checked the law collection carefully.
2387# It is also indicated by the fact that the 1942 entry in the law
2388# collection points back to 1941 as a reference, but no reference to any
2389# other years are made.
2390#
2391# Newspaper articles I have read in the archives on 6 May 1941 reported
2392# about the introduction of DST (Sommerzeit in German) during the previous
2393# night as an absolute novelty, because this was the first time that such
2394# a thing had happened in Switzerland.
2395#
2396# I have also checked 1916, because one book source (Gabriel, Traite de
2397# l'heure dans le monde) claims that Switzerland had DST in 1916. This is
2398# false, no official document could be found. Probably Gabriel got misled
2399# by references to Germany, which introduced DST in 1916 for the first time.
2400#
2401# The tzdata rules for Switzerland must be changed to:
2402# Rule Swiss 1941 1942 - May Mon>=1 1:00 1:00 S
2403# Rule Swiss 1941 1942 - Oct Mon>=1 2:00 0 -
2404#
2405# The 1940 rules must be deleted.
2406#
2407# One further detail for Switzerland, which is probably out of scope for
2408# most users of tzdata:
2409# The zone file
2410# Zone Europe/Zurich 0:34:08 - LMT 1848 Sep 12
2411# 0:29:44 - BMT 1894 Jun #Bern Mean Time
2412# 1:00 Swiss CE%sT 1981
2413# 1:00 EU CE%sT
2414# describes all of Switzerland correctly, with the exception of
2415# the Cantone Geneve (Geneva, Genf). Between 1848 and 1894 Geneve did not
2416# follow Bern Mean Time but kept its own local mean time.
2417# To represent this, an extra zone would be needed.
2418
2419# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
2420Rule Swiss 1941 1942 - May Mon>=1 1:00 1:00 S
2421Rule Swiss 1941 1942 - Oct Mon>=1 2:00 0 -
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MD
2422# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
2423Zone Europe/Zurich 0:34:08 - LMT 1848 Sep 12
2424 0:29:44 - BMT 1894 Jun # Bern Mean Time
2425 1:00 Swiss CE%sT 1981
2426 1:00 EU CE%sT
2427
2428# Turkey
70fc4940
SW
2429
2430# From Amar Devegowda (2007-01-03):
2431# The time zone rules for Istanbul, Turkey have not been changed for years now.
2432# ... The latest rules are available at -
2433# http://www.timeanddate.com/worldclock/timezone.html?n=107
2434# From Steffen Thorsen (2007-01-03):
2435# I have been able to find press records back to 1996 which all say that
2436# DST started 01:00 local time and end at 02:00 local time. I am not sure
2437# what happened before that. One example for each year from 1996 to 2001:
2438# http://newspot.byegm.gov.tr/arsiv/1996/21/N4.htm
2439# http://www.byegm.gov.tr/YAYINLARIMIZ/CHR/ING97/03/97X03X25.TXT
2440# http://www.byegm.gov.tr/YAYINLARIMIZ/CHR/ING98/03/98X03X02.HTM
2441# http://www.byegm.gov.tr/YAYINLARIMIZ/CHR/ING99/10/99X10X26.HTM#%2016
2442# http://www.byegm.gov.tr/YAYINLARIMIZ/CHR/ING2000/03/00X03X06.HTM#%2021
2443# http://www.byegm.gov.tr/YAYINLARIMIZ/CHR/ING2001/03/23x03x01.HTM#%2027
2444# From Paul Eggert (2007-01-03):
2445# Prefer the above source to Shanks & Pottenger for time stamps after 1990.
2446
8393cd87
SW
2447# From Steffen Thorsen (2007-03-09):
2448# Starting 2007 though, it seems that they are adopting EU's 1:00 UTC
2449# start/end time, according to the following page (2007-03-07):
2450# http://www.ntvmsnbc.com/news/402029.asp
2451# The official document is located here - it is in Turkish...:
2452# http://rega.basbakanlik.gov.tr/eskiler/2007/03/20070307-7.htm
2453# I was able to locate the following seemingly official document
2454# (on a non-government server though) describing dates between 2002 and 2006:
2455# http://www.alomaliye.com/bkk_2002_3769.htm
2456
234dfcd0
SW
2457# From Sue Williams (2008-08-11):
2458# I spotted this news article about a potential change in Turkey.
2459#
2460# <a href="http://www.hurriyet.com.tr/english/domestic/9626174.asp?scr=1">
2461# http://www.hurriyet.com.tr/english/domestic/9626174.asp?scr=1
2462# </a>
2463
2464# From Sue Williams (2008-08-20):
2465# This article says that around the end of March 2011, Turkey wants to
2466# adjust the clocks forward by 1/2 hour and stay that way permanently.
2467# The article indicates that this is a change in timezone offset in addition
2468# to stopping observance of DST.
2469# This proposal has not yet been approved.
2470#
2471# Read more here...
2472#
2473# Turkey to abandon daylight saving time in 2011
2474# <a href="http://www.turkishdailynews.com.tr/article.php?enewsid=112989">
2475# http://www.turkishdailynews.com.tr/article.php?enewsid=112989
2476# </a>
2477
984263bc
MD
2478# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
2479Rule Turkey 1916 only - May 1 0:00 1:00 S
2480Rule Turkey 1916 only - Oct 1 0:00 0 -
2481Rule Turkey 1920 only - Mar 28 0:00 1:00 S
2482Rule Turkey 1920 only - Oct 25 0:00 0 -
2483Rule Turkey 1921 only - Apr 3 0:00 1:00 S
2484Rule Turkey 1921 only - Oct 3 0:00 0 -
2485Rule Turkey 1922 only - Mar 26 0:00 1:00 S
2486Rule Turkey 1922 only - Oct 8 0:00 0 -
bd7414aa
SW
2487# Whitman gives 1923 Apr 28 - Sep 16 and no DST in 1924-1925;
2488# go with Shanks & Pottenger.
984263bc
MD
2489Rule Turkey 1924 only - May 13 0:00 1:00 S
2490Rule Turkey 1924 1925 - Oct 1 0:00 0 -
2491Rule Turkey 1925 only - May 1 0:00 1:00 S
2492Rule Turkey 1940 only - Jun 30 0:00 1:00 S
2493Rule Turkey 1940 only - Oct 5 0:00 0 -
2494Rule Turkey 1940 only - Dec 1 0:00 1:00 S
2495Rule Turkey 1941 only - Sep 21 0:00 0 -
2496Rule Turkey 1942 only - Apr 1 0:00 1:00 S
bd7414aa
SW
2497# Whitman omits the next two transition and gives 1945 Oct 1;
2498# go with Shanks & Pottenger.
984263bc
MD
2499Rule Turkey 1942 only - Nov 1 0:00 0 -
2500Rule Turkey 1945 only - Apr 2 0:00 1:00 S
2501Rule Turkey 1945 only - Oct 8 0:00 0 -
2502Rule Turkey 1946 only - Jun 1 0:00 1:00 S
2503Rule Turkey 1946 only - Oct 1 0:00 0 -
2504Rule Turkey 1947 1948 - Apr Sun>=16 0:00 1:00 S
2505Rule Turkey 1947 1950 - Oct Sun>=2 0:00 0 -
2506Rule Turkey 1949 only - Apr 10 0:00 1:00 S
2507Rule Turkey 1950 only - Apr 19 0:00 1:00 S
2508Rule Turkey 1951 only - Apr 22 0:00 1:00 S
2509Rule Turkey 1951 only - Oct 8 0:00 0 -
2510Rule Turkey 1962 only - Jul 15 0:00 1:00 S
2511Rule Turkey 1962 only - Oct 8 0:00 0 -
2512Rule Turkey 1964 only - May 15 0:00 1:00 S
2513Rule Turkey 1964 only - Oct 1 0:00 0 -
2514Rule Turkey 1970 1972 - May Sun>=2 0:00 1:00 S
2515Rule Turkey 1970 1972 - Oct Sun>=2 0:00 0 -
2516Rule Turkey 1973 only - Jun 3 1:00 1:00 S
2517Rule Turkey 1973 only - Nov 4 3:00 0 -
2518Rule Turkey 1974 only - Mar 31 2:00 1:00 S
2519Rule Turkey 1974 only - Nov 3 5:00 0 -
2520Rule Turkey 1975 only - Mar 30 0:00 1:00 S
2521Rule Turkey 1975 1976 - Oct lastSun 0:00 0 -
2522Rule Turkey 1976 only - Jun 1 0:00 1:00 S
2523Rule Turkey 1977 1978 - Apr Sun>=1 0:00 1:00 S
2524Rule Turkey 1977 only - Oct 16 0:00 0 -
2525Rule Turkey 1979 1980 - Apr Sun>=1 3:00 1:00 S
2526Rule Turkey 1979 1982 - Oct Mon>=11 0:00 0 -
2527Rule Turkey 1981 1982 - Mar lastSun 3:00 1:00 S
2528Rule Turkey 1983 only - Jul 31 0:00 1:00 S
2529Rule Turkey 1983 only - Oct 2 0:00 0 -
2530Rule Turkey 1985 only - Apr 20 0:00 1:00 S
2531Rule Turkey 1985 only - Sep 28 0:00 0 -
70fc4940
SW
2532Rule Turkey 1986 1990 - Mar lastSun 2:00s 1:00 S
2533Rule Turkey 1986 1990 - Sep lastSun 2:00s 0 -
8393cd87 2534Rule Turkey 1991 2006 - Mar lastSun 1:00s 1:00 S
70fc4940 2535Rule Turkey 1991 1995 - Sep lastSun 1:00s 0 -
8393cd87 2536Rule Turkey 1996 2006 - Oct lastSun 1:00s 0 -
984263bc
MD
2537# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
2538Zone Europe/Istanbul 1:55:52 - LMT 1880
2539 1:56:56 - IMT 1910 Oct # Istanbul Mean Time?
2540 2:00 Turkey EE%sT 1978 Oct 15
2541 3:00 Turkey TR%sT 1985 Apr 20 # Turkey Time
8393cd87
SW
2542 2:00 Turkey EE%sT 2007
2543 2:00 EU EE%sT
984263bc
MD
2544Link Europe/Istanbul Asia/Istanbul # Istanbul is in both continents.
2545
2546# Ukraine
2547#
2548# From Igor Karpov, who works for the Ukranian Ministry of Justice,
2549# via Garrett Wollman (2003-01-27):
2550# BTW, I've found the official document on this matter. It's goverment
2551# regulations number 509, May 13, 1996. In my poor translation it says:
2552# "Time in Ukraine is set to second timezone (Kiev time). Each last Sunday
2553# of March at 3am the time is changing to 4am and each last Sunday of
2554# October the time at 4am is changing to 3am"
2555
2556# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
2557# Most of Ukraine since 1970 has been like Kiev.
0e49ec84
SW
2558# "Kyiv" is the transliteration of the Ukrainian name, but
2559# "Kiev" is more common in English.
984263bc
MD
2560Zone Europe/Kiev 2:02:04 - LMT 1880
2561 2:02:04 - KMT 1924 May 2 # Kiev Mean Time
2562 2:00 - EET 1930 Jun 21
2563 3:00 - MSK 1941 Sep 20
2564 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1943 Nov 6
2565 3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1990
2566 3:00 - MSK 1990 Jul 1 2:00
2567 2:00 - EET 1992
2568 2:00 E-Eur EE%sT 1995
2569 2:00 EU EE%sT
2570# Ruthenia used CET 1990/1991.
0e49ec84
SW
2571# "Uzhhorod" is the transliteration of the Ukrainian name, but
2572# "Uzhgorod" is more common in English.
984263bc
MD
2573Zone Europe/Uzhgorod 1:29:12 - LMT 1890 Oct
2574 1:00 - CET 1940
2575 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Oct
2576 1:00 1:00 CEST 1944 Oct 26
2577 1:00 - CET 1945 Jun 29
2578 3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1990
2579 3:00 - MSK 1990 Jul 1 2:00
2580 1:00 - CET 1991 Mar 31 3:00
2581 2:00 - EET 1992
2582 2:00 E-Eur EE%sT 1995
2583 2:00 EU EE%sT
2584# Zaporozh'ye and eastern Lugansk oblasts observed DST 1990/1991.
0e49ec84
SW
2585# "Zaporizhia" is the transliteration of the Ukrainian name, but
2586# "Zaporozh'ye" is more common in English. Use the common English
2587# spelling, except omit the apostrophe as it is not allowed in
2588# portable Posix file names.
984263bc
MD
2589Zone Europe/Zaporozhye 2:20:40 - LMT 1880
2590 2:20 - CUT 1924 May 2 # Central Ukraine T
2591 2:00 - EET 1930 Jun 21
2592 3:00 - MSK 1941 Aug 25
2593 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1943 Oct 25
2594 3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1991 Mar 31 2:00
2595 2:00 E-Eur EE%sT 1995
2596 2:00 EU EE%sT
2597# Central Crimea used Moscow time 1994/1997.
2598Zone Europe/Simferopol 2:16:24 - LMT 1880
2599 2:16 - SMT 1924 May 2 # Simferopol Mean T
2600 2:00 - EET 1930 Jun 21
2601 3:00 - MSK 1941 Nov
2602 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Apr 13
2603 3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1990
2604 3:00 - MSK 1990 Jul 1 2:00
2605 2:00 - EET 1992
bd7414aa 2606# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
984263bc
MD
2607# The _Economist_ (1994-05-28, p 45) reports that central Crimea switched
2608# from Kiev to Moscow time sometime after the January 1994 elections.
bd7414aa
SW
2609# Shanks (1999) says ``date of change uncertain'', but implies that it happened
2610# sometime between the 1994 DST switches. Shanks & Pottenger simply say
2611# 1994-09-25 03:00, but that can't be right. For now, guess it
2612# changed in May.
984263bc
MD
2613 2:00 E-Eur EE%sT 1994 May
2614# From IATA SSIM (1994/1997), which also says that Kerch is still like Kiev.
2615 3:00 E-Eur MSK/MSD 1996 Mar 31 3:00s
2616 3:00 1:00 MSD 1996 Oct 27 3:00s
2617# IATA SSIM (1997-09) says Crimea switched to EET/EEST.
2618# Assume it happened in March by not changing the clocks.
2619 3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1997
2620 3:00 - MSK 1997 Mar lastSun 1:00u
2621 2:00 EU EE%sT
2622
2623###############################################################################
2624
2625# One source shows that Bulgaria, Cyprus, Finland, and Greece observe DST from
2626# the last Sunday in March to the last Sunday in September in 1986.
2627# The source shows Romania changing a day later than everybody else.
2628#
2629# According to Bernard Sieloff's source, Poland is in the MET time zone but
2630# uses the WE DST rules. The Western USSR uses EET+1 and ME DST rules.
2631# Bernard Sieloff's source claims Romania switches on the same day, but at
2632# 00:00 standard time (i.e., 01:00 DST). It also claims that Turkey
2633# switches on the same day, but switches on at 01:00 standard time
2634# and off at 00:00 standard time (i.e., 01:00 DST)
2635
2636# ...
2637# Date: Wed, 28 Jan 87 16:56:27 -0100
9ffe4b14 2638# From: Tom Hofmann
984263bc
MD
2639# ...
2640#
2641# ...the European time rules are...standardized since 1981, when
2642# most European coun[tr]ies started DST. Before that year, only
2643# a few countries (UK, France, Italy) had DST, each according
2644# to own national rules. In 1981, however, DST started on
2645# 'Apr firstSun', and not on 'Mar lastSun' as in the following
2646# years...
2647# But also since 1981 there are some more national exceptions
2648# than listed in 'europe': Switzerland, for example, joined DST
2649# one year later, Denmark ended DST on 'Oct 1' instead of 'Sep
2650# lastSun' in 1981---I don't know how they handle now.
2651#
2652# Finally, DST ist always from 'Apr 1' to 'Oct 1' in the
2653# Soviet Union (as far as I know).
2654#
2655# Tom Hofmann, Scientific Computer Center, CIBA-GEIGY AG,
2656# 4002 Basle, Switzerland
9ffe4b14 2657# ...
984263bc
MD
2658
2659# ...
2660# Date: Wed, 4 Feb 87 22:35:22 +0100
9ffe4b14 2661# From: Dik T. Winter
984263bc
MD
2662# ...
2663#
2664# The information from Tom Hofmann is (as far as I know) not entirely correct.
2665# After a request from chongo at amdahl I tried to retrieve all information
2666# about DST in Europe. I was able to find all from about 1969.
2667#
2668# ...standardization on DST in Europe started in about 1977 with switches on
2669# first Sunday in April and last Sunday in September...
2670# In 1981 UK joined Europe insofar that
2671# the starting day for both shifted to last Sunday in March. And from 1982
2672# the whole of Europe used DST, with switch dates April 1 and October 1 in
2673# the Sov[i]et Union. In 1985 the SU reverted to standard Europe[a]n switch
2674# dates...
2675#
2676# It should also be remembered that time-zones are not constants; e.g.
2677# Portugal switched in 1976 from MET (or CET) to WET with DST...
2678# Note also that though there were rules for switch dates not
2679# all countries abided to these dates, and many individual deviations
2680# occurred, though not since 1982 I believe. Another note: it is always
2681# assumed that DST is 1 hour ahead of normal time, this need not be the
2682# case; at least in the Netherlands there have been times when DST was 2 hours
2683# in advance of normal time.
2684#
2685# ...
2686# dik t. winter, cwi, amsterdam, nederland
9ffe4b14 2687# ...
984263bc
MD
2688
2689# From Bob Devine (1988-01-28):
2690# ...
2691# Greece: Last Sunday in April to last Sunday in September (iffy on dates).
2692# Since 1978. Change at midnight.
2693# ...
2694# Monaco: has same DST as France.
2695# ...