Update build for OpenSSL-0.9.8j upgrade.
[dragonfly.git] / secure / usr.bin / openssl / man / verify.1
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132.\" ========================================================================
133.\"
134.IX Title "VERIFY 1"
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135.TH VERIFY 1 "2009-01-11" "0.9.8j" "OpenSSL"
136.\" For nroff, turn off justification. Always turn off hyphenation; it makes
137.\" way too many mistakes in technical documents.
138.if n .ad l
139.nh
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140.SH "NAME"
141verify \- Utility to verify certificates.
142.SH "SYNOPSIS"
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143.IX Header "SYNOPSIS"
144\&\fBopenssl\fR \fBverify\fR
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145[\fB\-CApath directory\fR]
146[\fB\-CAfile file\fR]
147[\fB\-purpose purpose\fR]
148[\fB\-untrusted file\fR]
149[\fB\-help\fR]
150[\fB\-issuer_checks\fR]
151[\fB\-verbose\fR]
e3cdf75b 152[\fB\-\fR]
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153[certificates]
154.SH "DESCRIPTION"
8b0cefbb 155.IX Header "DESCRIPTION"
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156The \fBverify\fR command verifies certificate chains.
157.SH "COMMAND OPTIONS"
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158.IX Header "COMMAND OPTIONS"
159.IP "\fB\-CApath directory\fR" 4
160.IX Item "-CApath directory"
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161A directory of trusted certificates. The certificates should have names
162of the form: hash.0 or have symbolic links to them of this
8b0cefbb 163form (\*(L"hash\*(R" is the hashed certificate subject name: see the \fB\-hash\fR option
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164of the \fBx509\fR utility). Under Unix the \fBc_rehash\fR script will automatically
165create symbolic links to a directory of certificates.
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166.IP "\fB\-CAfile file\fR" 4
167.IX Item "-CAfile file"
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168A file of trusted certificates. The file should contain multiple certificates
169in \s-1PEM\s0 format concatenated together.
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170.IP "\fB\-untrusted file\fR" 4
171.IX Item "-untrusted file"
984263bc 172A file of untrusted certificates. The file should contain multiple certificates
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173.IP "\fB\-purpose purpose\fR" 4
174.IX Item "-purpose purpose"
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175the intended use for the certificate. Without this option no chain verification
176will be done. Currently accepted uses are \fBsslclient\fR, \fBsslserver\fR,
8b0cefbb 177\&\fBnssslserver\fR, \fBsmimesign\fR, \fBsmimeencrypt\fR. See the \fB\s-1VERIFY\s0 \s-1OPERATION\s0\fR
984263bc 178section for more information.
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179.IP "\fB\-help\fR" 4
180.IX Item "-help"
984263bc 181prints out a usage message.
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182.IP "\fB\-verbose\fR" 4
183.IX Item "-verbose"
984263bc 184print extra information about the operations being performed.
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185.IP "\fB\-issuer_checks\fR" 4
186.IX Item "-issuer_checks"
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187print out diagnostics relating to searches for the issuer certificate
188of the current certificate. This shows why each candidate issuer
189certificate was rejected. However the presence of rejection messages
190does not itself imply that anything is wrong: during the normal
191verify process several rejections may take place.
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192.IP "\fB\-\fR" 4
193.IX Item "-"
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194marks the last option. All arguments following this are assumed to be
195certificate files. This is useful if the first certificate filename begins
e3cdf75b 196with a \fB\-\fR.
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197.IP "\fBcertificates\fR" 4
198.IX Item "certificates"
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199one or more certificates to verify. If no certificate filenames are included
200then an attempt is made to read a certificate from standard input. They should
201all be in \s-1PEM\s0 format.
202.SH "VERIFY OPERATION"
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203.IX Header "VERIFY OPERATION"
204The \fBverify\fR program uses the same functions as the internal \s-1SSL\s0 and S/MIME
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205verification, therefore this description applies to these verify operations
206too.
207.PP
208There is one crucial difference between the verify operations performed
209by the \fBverify\fR program: wherever possible an attempt is made to continue
210after an error whereas normally the verify operation would halt on the
211first error. This allows all the problems with a certificate chain to be
212determined.
213.PP
214The verify operation consists of a number of separate steps.
215.PP
216Firstly a certificate chain is built up starting from the supplied certificate
8b0cefbb 217and ending in the root \s-1CA\s0. It is an error if the whole chain cannot be built
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218up. The chain is built up by looking up the issuers certificate of the current
219certificate. If a certificate is found which is its own issuer it is assumed
8b0cefbb 220to be the root \s-1CA\s0.
984263bc 221.PP
8b0cefbb 222The process of 'looking up the issuers certificate' itself involves a number
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223of steps. In versions of OpenSSL before 0.9.5a the first certificate whose
224subject name matched the issuer of the current certificate was assumed to be
225the issuers certificate. In OpenSSL 0.9.6 and later all certificates
226whose subject name matches the issuer name of the current certificate are
227subject to further tests. The relevant authority key identifier components
228of the current certificate (if present) must match the subject key identifier
229(if present) and issuer and serial number of the candidate issuer, in addition
230the keyUsage extension of the candidate issuer (if present) must permit
231certificate signing.
232.PP
233The lookup first looks in the list of untrusted certificates and if no match
8b0cefbb 234is found the remaining lookups are from the trusted certificates. The root \s-1CA\s0
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235is always looked up in the trusted certificate list: if the certificate to
236verify is a root certificate then an exact match must be found in the trusted
237list.
238.PP
239The second operation is to check every untrusted certificate's extensions for
240consistency with the supplied purpose. If the \fB\-purpose\fR option is not included
241then no checks are done. The supplied or \*(L"leaf\*(R" certificate must have extensions
242compatible with the supplied purpose and all other certificates must also be valid
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243\&\s-1CA\s0 certificates. The precise extensions required are described in more detail in
244the \fB\s-1CERTIFICATE\s0 \s-1EXTENSIONS\s0\fR section of the \fBx509\fR utility.
984263bc 245.PP
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246The third operation is to check the trust settings on the root \s-1CA\s0. The root
247\&\s-1CA\s0 should be trusted for the supplied purpose. For compatibility with previous
984263bc 248versions of SSLeay and OpenSSL a certificate with no trust settings is considered
e257b235 249to be valid for all purposes.
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250.PP
251The final operation is to check the validity of the certificate chain. The validity
252period is checked against the current system time and the notBefore and notAfter
253dates in the certificate. The certificate signatures are also checked at this
254point.
255.PP
256If all operations complete successfully then certificate is considered valid. If
257any operation fails then the certificate is not valid.
258.SH "DIAGNOSTICS"
8b0cefbb 259.IX Header "DIAGNOSTICS"
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260When a verify operation fails the output messages can be somewhat cryptic. The
261general form of the error message is:
262.PP
263.Vb 2
264\& server.pem: /C=AU/ST=Queensland/O=CryptSoft Pty Ltd/CN=Test CA (1024 bit)
265\& error 24 at 1 depth lookup:invalid CA certificate
266.Ve
8b0cefbb 267.PP
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268The first line contains the name of the certificate being verified followed by
269the subject name of the certificate. The second line contains the error number
270and the depth. The depth is number of the certificate being verified when a
271problem was detected starting with zero for the certificate being verified itself
8b0cefbb 272then 1 for the \s-1CA\s0 that signed the certificate and so on. Finally a text version
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273of the error number is presented.
274.PP
275An exhaustive list of the error codes and messages is shown below, this also
276includes the name of the error code as defined in the header file x509_vfy.h
277Some of the error codes are defined but never returned: these are described
278as \*(L"unused\*(R".
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279.IP "\fB0 X509_V_OK: ok\fR" 4
280.IX Item "0 X509_V_OK: ok"
984263bc 281the operation was successful.
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282.IP "\fB2 X509_V_ERR_UNABLE_TO_GET_ISSUER_CERT: unable to get issuer certificate\fR" 4
283.IX Item "2 X509_V_ERR_UNABLE_TO_GET_ISSUER_CERT: unable to get issuer certificate"
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284the issuer certificate could not be found: this occurs if the issuer certificate
285of an untrusted certificate cannot be found.
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286.IP "\fB3 X509_V_ERR_UNABLE_TO_GET_CRL: unable to get certificate \s-1CRL\s0\fR" 4
287.IX Item "3 X509_V_ERR_UNABLE_TO_GET_CRL: unable to get certificate CRL"
984263bc 288the \s-1CRL\s0 of a certificate could not be found. Unused.
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289.IP "\fB4 X509_V_ERR_UNABLE_TO_DECRYPT_CERT_SIGNATURE: unable to decrypt certificate's signature\fR" 4
290.IX Item "4 X509_V_ERR_UNABLE_TO_DECRYPT_CERT_SIGNATURE: unable to decrypt certificate's signature"
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291the certificate signature could not be decrypted. This means that the actual signature value
292could not be determined rather than it not matching the expected value, this is only
293meaningful for \s-1RSA\s0 keys.
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294.IP "\fB5 X509_V_ERR_UNABLE_TO_DECRYPT_CRL_SIGNATURE: unable to decrypt \s-1CRL\s0's signature\fR" 4
295.IX Item "5 X509_V_ERR_UNABLE_TO_DECRYPT_CRL_SIGNATURE: unable to decrypt CRL's signature"
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296the \s-1CRL\s0 signature could not be decrypted: this means that the actual signature value
297could not be determined rather than it not matching the expected value. Unused.
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298.IP "\fB6 X509_V_ERR_UNABLE_TO_DECODE_ISSUER_PUBLIC_KEY: unable to decode issuer public key\fR" 4
299.IX Item "6 X509_V_ERR_UNABLE_TO_DECODE_ISSUER_PUBLIC_KEY: unable to decode issuer public key"
984263bc 300the public key in the certificate SubjectPublicKeyInfo could not be read.
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301.IP "\fB7 X509_V_ERR_CERT_SIGNATURE_FAILURE: certificate signature failure\fR" 4
302.IX Item "7 X509_V_ERR_CERT_SIGNATURE_FAILURE: certificate signature failure"
984263bc 303the signature of the certificate is invalid.
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304.IP "\fB8 X509_V_ERR_CRL_SIGNATURE_FAILURE: \s-1CRL\s0 signature failure\fR" 4
305.IX Item "8 X509_V_ERR_CRL_SIGNATURE_FAILURE: CRL signature failure"
984263bc 306the signature of the certificate is invalid. Unused.
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307.IP "\fB9 X509_V_ERR_CERT_NOT_YET_VALID: certificate is not yet valid\fR" 4
308.IX Item "9 X509_V_ERR_CERT_NOT_YET_VALID: certificate is not yet valid"
984263bc 309the certificate is not yet valid: the notBefore date is after the current time.
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310.IP "\fB10 X509_V_ERR_CERT_HAS_EXPIRED: certificate has expired\fR" 4
311.IX Item "10 X509_V_ERR_CERT_HAS_EXPIRED: certificate has expired"
984263bc 312the certificate has expired: that is the notAfter date is before the current time.
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313.IP "\fB11 X509_V_ERR_CRL_NOT_YET_VALID: \s-1CRL\s0 is not yet valid\fR" 4
314.IX Item "11 X509_V_ERR_CRL_NOT_YET_VALID: CRL is not yet valid"
984263bc 315the \s-1CRL\s0 is not yet valid. Unused.
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316.IP "\fB12 X509_V_ERR_CRL_HAS_EXPIRED: \s-1CRL\s0 has expired\fR" 4
317.IX Item "12 X509_V_ERR_CRL_HAS_EXPIRED: CRL has expired"
984263bc 318the \s-1CRL\s0 has expired. Unused.
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319.IP "\fB13 X509_V_ERR_ERROR_IN_CERT_NOT_BEFORE_FIELD: format error in certificate's notBefore field\fR" 4
320.IX Item "13 X509_V_ERR_ERROR_IN_CERT_NOT_BEFORE_FIELD: format error in certificate's notBefore field"
984263bc 321the certificate notBefore field contains an invalid time.
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322.IP "\fB14 X509_V_ERR_ERROR_IN_CERT_NOT_AFTER_FIELD: format error in certificate's notAfter field\fR" 4
323.IX Item "14 X509_V_ERR_ERROR_IN_CERT_NOT_AFTER_FIELD: format error in certificate's notAfter field"
984263bc 324the certificate notAfter field contains an invalid time.
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325.IP "\fB15 X509_V_ERR_ERROR_IN_CRL_LAST_UPDATE_FIELD: format error in \s-1CRL\s0's lastUpdate field\fR" 4
326.IX Item "15 X509_V_ERR_ERROR_IN_CRL_LAST_UPDATE_FIELD: format error in CRL's lastUpdate field"
984263bc 327the \s-1CRL\s0 lastUpdate field contains an invalid time. Unused.
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328.IP "\fB16 X509_V_ERR_ERROR_IN_CRL_NEXT_UPDATE_FIELD: format error in \s-1CRL\s0's nextUpdate field\fR" 4
329.IX Item "16 X509_V_ERR_ERROR_IN_CRL_NEXT_UPDATE_FIELD: format error in CRL's nextUpdate field"
984263bc 330the \s-1CRL\s0 nextUpdate field contains an invalid time. Unused.
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331.IP "\fB17 X509_V_ERR_OUT_OF_MEM: out of memory\fR" 4
332.IX Item "17 X509_V_ERR_OUT_OF_MEM: out of memory"
984263bc 333an error occurred trying to allocate memory. This should never happen.
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334.IP "\fB18 X509_V_ERR_DEPTH_ZERO_SELF_SIGNED_CERT: self signed certificate\fR" 4
335.IX Item "18 X509_V_ERR_DEPTH_ZERO_SELF_SIGNED_CERT: self signed certificate"
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336the passed certificate is self signed and the same certificate cannot be found in the list of
337trusted certificates.
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338.IP "\fB19 X509_V_ERR_SELF_SIGNED_CERT_IN_CHAIN: self signed certificate in certificate chain\fR" 4
339.IX Item "19 X509_V_ERR_SELF_SIGNED_CERT_IN_CHAIN: self signed certificate in certificate chain"
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340the certificate chain could be built up using the untrusted certificates but the root could not
341be found locally.
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342.IP "\fB20 X509_V_ERR_UNABLE_TO_GET_ISSUER_CERT_LOCALLY: unable to get local issuer certificate\fR" 4
343.IX Item "20 X509_V_ERR_UNABLE_TO_GET_ISSUER_CERT_LOCALLY: unable to get local issuer certificate"
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344the issuer certificate of a locally looked up certificate could not be found. This normally means
345the list of trusted certificates is not complete.
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346.IP "\fB21 X509_V_ERR_UNABLE_TO_VERIFY_LEAF_SIGNATURE: unable to verify the first certificate\fR" 4
347.IX Item "21 X509_V_ERR_UNABLE_TO_VERIFY_LEAF_SIGNATURE: unable to verify the first certificate"
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348no signatures could be verified because the chain contains only one certificate and it is not
349self signed.
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350.IP "\fB22 X509_V_ERR_CERT_CHAIN_TOO_LONG: certificate chain too long\fR" 4
351.IX Item "22 X509_V_ERR_CERT_CHAIN_TOO_LONG: certificate chain too long"
984263bc 352the certificate chain length is greater than the supplied maximum depth. Unused.
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353.IP "\fB23 X509_V_ERR_CERT_REVOKED: certificate revoked\fR" 4
354.IX Item "23 X509_V_ERR_CERT_REVOKED: certificate revoked"
984263bc 355the certificate has been revoked. Unused.
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356.IP "\fB24 X509_V_ERR_INVALID_CA: invalid \s-1CA\s0 certificate\fR" 4
357.IX Item "24 X509_V_ERR_INVALID_CA: invalid CA certificate"
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358a \s-1CA\s0 certificate is invalid. Either it is not a \s-1CA\s0 or its extensions are not consistent
359with the supplied purpose.
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360.IP "\fB25 X509_V_ERR_PATH_LENGTH_EXCEEDED: path length constraint exceeded\fR" 4
361.IX Item "25 X509_V_ERR_PATH_LENGTH_EXCEEDED: path length constraint exceeded"
984263bc 362the basicConstraints pathlength parameter has been exceeded.
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363.IP "\fB26 X509_V_ERR_INVALID_PURPOSE: unsupported certificate purpose\fR" 4
364.IX Item "26 X509_V_ERR_INVALID_PURPOSE: unsupported certificate purpose"
984263bc 365the supplied certificate cannot be used for the specified purpose.
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366.IP "\fB27 X509_V_ERR_CERT_UNTRUSTED: certificate not trusted\fR" 4
367.IX Item "27 X509_V_ERR_CERT_UNTRUSTED: certificate not trusted"
984263bc 368the root \s-1CA\s0 is not marked as trusted for the specified purpose.
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369.IP "\fB28 X509_V_ERR_CERT_REJECTED: certificate rejected\fR" 4
370.IX Item "28 X509_V_ERR_CERT_REJECTED: certificate rejected"
984263bc 371the root \s-1CA\s0 is marked to reject the specified purpose.
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372.IP "\fB29 X509_V_ERR_SUBJECT_ISSUER_MISMATCH: subject issuer mismatch\fR" 4
373.IX Item "29 X509_V_ERR_SUBJECT_ISSUER_MISMATCH: subject issuer mismatch"
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374the current candidate issuer certificate was rejected because its subject name
375did not match the issuer name of the current certificate. Only displayed when
376the \fB\-issuer_checks\fR option is set.
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377.IP "\fB30 X509_V_ERR_AKID_SKID_MISMATCH: authority and subject key identifier mismatch\fR" 4
378.IX Item "30 X509_V_ERR_AKID_SKID_MISMATCH: authority and subject key identifier mismatch"
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379the current candidate issuer certificate was rejected because its subject key
380identifier was present and did not match the authority key identifier current
381certificate. Only displayed when the \fB\-issuer_checks\fR option is set.
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JR
382.IP "\fB31 X509_V_ERR_AKID_ISSUER_SERIAL_MISMATCH: authority and issuer serial number mismatch\fR" 4
383.IX Item "31 X509_V_ERR_AKID_ISSUER_SERIAL_MISMATCH: authority and issuer serial number mismatch"
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384the current candidate issuer certificate was rejected because its issuer name
385and serial number was present and did not match the authority key identifier
386of the current certificate. Only displayed when the \fB\-issuer_checks\fR option is set.
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JR
387.IP "\fB32 X509_V_ERR_KEYUSAGE_NO_CERTSIGN:key usage does not include certificate signing\fR" 4
388.IX Item "32 X509_V_ERR_KEYUSAGE_NO_CERTSIGN:key usage does not include certificate signing"
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389the current candidate issuer certificate was rejected because its keyUsage extension
390does not permit certificate signing.
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391.IP "\fB50 X509_V_ERR_APPLICATION_VERIFICATION: application verification failure\fR" 4
392.IX Item "50 X509_V_ERR_APPLICATION_VERIFICATION: application verification failure"
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393an application specific error. Unused.
394.SH "BUGS"
8b0cefbb 395.IX Header "BUGS"
984263bc 396Although the issuer checks are a considerably improvement over the old technique they still
8b0cefbb 397suffer from limitations in the underlying X509_LOOKUP \s-1API\s0. One consequence of this is that
984263bc 398trusted certificates with matching subject name must either appear in a file (as specified by the
8b0cefbb 399\&\fB\-CAfile\fR option) or a directory (as specified by \fB\-CApath\fR. If they occur in both then only
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400the certificates in the file will be recognised.
401.PP
402Previous versions of OpenSSL assume certificates with matching subject name are identical and
403mishandled them.
404.SH "SEE ALSO"
e3cdf75b 405.IX Header "SEE ALSO"
8b0cefbb 406\&\fIx509\fR\|(1)