Update build for OpenSSL-0.9.8j upgrade.
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132.\" ========================================================================
133.\"
134.IX Title "X509 1"
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135.TH X509 1 "2009-01-11" "0.9.8j" "OpenSSL"
136.\" For nroff, turn off justification. Always turn off hyphenation; it makes
137.\" way too many mistakes in technical documents.
138.if n .ad l
139.nh
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140.SH "NAME"
141x509 \- Certificate display and signing utility
142.SH "SYNOPSIS"
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143.IX Header "SYNOPSIS"
144\&\fBopenssl\fR \fBx509\fR
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145[\fB\-inform DER|PEM|NET\fR]
146[\fB\-outform DER|PEM|NET\fR]
147[\fB\-keyform DER|PEM\fR]
148[\fB\-CAform DER|PEM\fR]
149[\fB\-CAkeyform DER|PEM\fR]
150[\fB\-in filename\fR]
151[\fB\-out filename\fR]
152[\fB\-serial\fR]
153[\fB\-hash\fR]
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154[\fB\-subject_hash\fR]
155[\fB\-issuer_hash\fR]
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156[\fB\-subject\fR]
157[\fB\-issuer\fR]
158[\fB\-nameopt option\fR]
159[\fB\-email\fR]
160[\fB\-startdate\fR]
161[\fB\-enddate\fR]
162[\fB\-purpose\fR]
163[\fB\-dates\fR]
164[\fB\-modulus\fR]
165[\fB\-fingerprint\fR]
166[\fB\-alias\fR]
167[\fB\-noout\fR]
168[\fB\-trustout\fR]
169[\fB\-clrtrust\fR]
170[\fB\-clrreject\fR]
171[\fB\-addtrust arg\fR]
172[\fB\-addreject arg\fR]
173[\fB\-setalias arg\fR]
174[\fB\-days arg\fR]
175[\fB\-set_serial n\fR]
176[\fB\-signkey filename\fR]
177[\fB\-x509toreq\fR]
178[\fB\-req\fR]
179[\fB\-CA filename\fR]
180[\fB\-CAkey filename\fR]
181[\fB\-CAcreateserial\fR]
182[\fB\-CAserial filename\fR]
183[\fB\-text\fR]
184[\fB\-C\fR]
185[\fB\-md2|\-md5|\-sha1|\-mdc2\fR]
186[\fB\-clrext\fR]
187[\fB\-extfile filename\fR]
188[\fB\-extensions section\fR]
189[\fB\-engine id\fR]
190.SH "DESCRIPTION"
8b0cefbb 191.IX Header "DESCRIPTION"
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192The \fBx509\fR command is a multi purpose certificate utility. It can be
193used to display certificate information, convert certificates to
8b0cefbb 194various forms, sign certificate requests like a \*(L"mini \s-1CA\s0\*(R" or edit
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195certificate trust settings.
196.PP
197Since there are a large number of options they will split up into
198various sections.
199.SH "OPTIONS"
8b0cefbb 200.IX Header "OPTIONS"
984263bc 201.Sh "\s-1INPUT\s0, \s-1OUTPUT\s0 \s-1AND\s0 \s-1GENERAL\s0 \s-1PURPOSE\s0 \s-1OPTIONS\s0"
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202.IX Subsection "INPUT, OUTPUT AND GENERAL PURPOSE OPTIONS"
203.IP "\fB\-inform DER|PEM|NET\fR" 4
204.IX Item "-inform DER|PEM|NET"
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205This specifies the input format normally the command will expect an X509
206certificate but this can change if other options such as \fB\-req\fR are
207present. The \s-1DER\s0 format is the \s-1DER\s0 encoding of the certificate and \s-1PEM\s0
208is the base64 encoding of the \s-1DER\s0 encoding with header and footer lines
209added. The \s-1NET\s0 option is an obscure Netscape server format that is now
210obsolete.
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211.IP "\fB\-outform DER|PEM|NET\fR" 4
212.IX Item "-outform DER|PEM|NET"
984263bc 213This specifies the output format, the options have the same meaning as the
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214\&\fB\-inform\fR option.
215.IP "\fB\-in filename\fR" 4
216.IX Item "-in filename"
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217This specifies the input filename to read a certificate from or standard input
218if this option is not specified.
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219.IP "\fB\-out filename\fR" 4
220.IX Item "-out filename"
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221This specifies the output filename to write to or standard output by
222default.
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223.IP "\fB\-md2|\-md5|\-sha1|\-mdc2\fR" 4
224.IX Item "-md2|-md5|-sha1|-mdc2"
984263bc 225the digest to use. This affects any signing or display option that uses a message
8b0cefbb 226digest, such as the \fB\-fingerprint\fR, \fB\-signkey\fR and \fB\-CA\fR options. If not
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227specified then \s-1SHA1\s0 is used. If the key being used to sign with is a \s-1DSA\s0 key
228then this option has no effect: \s-1SHA1\s0 is always used with \s-1DSA\s0 keys.
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229.IP "\fB\-engine id\fR" 4
230.IX Item "-engine id"
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231specifying an engine (by it's unique \fBid\fR string) will cause \fBreq\fR
232to attempt to obtain a functional reference to the specified engine,
233thus initialising it if needed. The engine will then be set as the default
234for all available algorithms.
235.Sh "\s-1DISPLAY\s0 \s-1OPTIONS\s0"
8b0cefbb 236.IX Subsection "DISPLAY OPTIONS"
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237Note: the \fB\-alias\fR and \fB\-purpose\fR options are also display options
238but are described in the \fB\s-1TRUST\s0 \s-1SETTINGS\s0\fR section.
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239.IP "\fB\-text\fR" 4
240.IX Item "-text"
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241prints out the certificate in text form. Full details are output including the
242public key, signature algorithms, issuer and subject names, serial number
243any extensions present and any trust settings.
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244.IP "\fB\-certopt option\fR" 4
245.IX Item "-certopt option"
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246customise the output format used with \fB\-text\fR. The \fBoption\fR argument can be
247a single option or multiple options separated by commas. The \fB\-certopt\fR switch
248may be also be used more than once to set multiple options. See the \fB\s-1TEXT\s0 \s-1OPTIONS\s0\fR
249section for more information.
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250.IP "\fB\-noout\fR" 4
251.IX Item "-noout"
984263bc 252this option prevents output of the encoded version of the request.
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253.IP "\fB\-modulus\fR" 4
254.IX Item "-modulus"
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255this option prints out the value of the modulus of the public key
256contained in the certificate.
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257.IP "\fB\-serial\fR" 4
258.IX Item "-serial"
984263bc 259outputs the certificate serial number.
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260.IP "\fB\-subject_hash\fR" 4
261.IX Item "-subject_hash"
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262outputs the \*(L"hash\*(R" of the certificate subject name. This is used in OpenSSL to
263form an index to allow certificates in a directory to be looked up by subject
264name.
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265.IP "\fB\-issuer_hash\fR" 4
266.IX Item "-issuer_hash"
267outputs the \*(L"hash\*(R" of the certificate issuer name.
268.IP "\fB\-hash\fR" 4
269.IX Item "-hash"
270synonym for \*(L"\-hash\*(R" for backward compatibility reasons.
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271.IP "\fB\-subject\fR" 4
272.IX Item "-subject"
984263bc 273outputs the subject name.
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274.IP "\fB\-issuer\fR" 4
275.IX Item "-issuer"
984263bc 276outputs the issuer name.
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277.IP "\fB\-nameopt option\fR" 4
278.IX Item "-nameopt option"
984263bc 279option which determines how the subject or issuer names are displayed. The
8b0cefbb 280\&\fBoption\fR argument can be a single option or multiple options separated by
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281commas. Alternatively the \fB\-nameopt\fR switch may be used more than once to
282set multiple options. See the \fB\s-1NAME\s0 \s-1OPTIONS\s0\fR section for more information.
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283.IP "\fB\-email\fR" 4
284.IX Item "-email"
285outputs the email address(es) if any.
286.IP "\fB\-startdate\fR" 4
287.IX Item "-startdate"
984263bc 288prints out the start date of the certificate, that is the notBefore date.
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289.IP "\fB\-enddate\fR" 4
290.IX Item "-enddate"
984263bc 291prints out the expiry date of the certificate, that is the notAfter date.
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292.IP "\fB\-dates\fR" 4
293.IX Item "-dates"
984263bc 294prints out the start and expiry dates of a certificate.
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295.IP "\fB\-fingerprint\fR" 4
296.IX Item "-fingerprint"
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297prints out the digest of the \s-1DER\s0 encoded version of the whole certificate
298(see digest options).
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299.IP "\fB\-C\fR" 4
300.IX Item "-C"
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301this outputs the certificate in the form of a C source file.
302.Sh "\s-1TRUST\s0 \s-1SETTINGS\s0"
8b0cefbb 303.IX Subsection "TRUST SETTINGS"
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304Please note these options are currently experimental and may well change.
305.PP
306A \fBtrusted certificate\fR is an ordinary certificate which has several
307additional pieces of information attached to it such as the permitted
308and prohibited uses of the certificate and an \*(L"alias\*(R".
309.PP
310Normally when a certificate is being verified at least one certificate
311must be \*(L"trusted\*(R". By default a trusted certificate must be stored
8b0cefbb 312locally and must be a root \s-1CA:\s0 any certificate chain ending in this \s-1CA\s0
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313is then usable for any purpose.
314.PP
315Trust settings currently are only used with a root \s-1CA\s0. They allow a finer
316control over the purposes the root \s-1CA\s0 can be used for. For example a \s-1CA\s0
317may be trusted for \s-1SSL\s0 client but not \s-1SSL\s0 server use.
318.PP
319See the description of the \fBverify\fR utility for more information on the
320meaning of trust settings.
321.PP
322Future versions of OpenSSL will recognize trust settings on any
323certificate: not just root CAs.
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324.IP "\fB\-trustout\fR" 4
325.IX Item "-trustout"
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326this causes \fBx509\fR to output a \fBtrusted\fR certificate. An ordinary
327or trusted certificate can be input but by default an ordinary
328certificate is output and any trust settings are discarded. With the
8b0cefbb 329\&\fB\-trustout\fR option a trusted certificate is output. A trusted
984263bc 330certificate is automatically output if any trust settings are modified.
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331.IP "\fB\-setalias arg\fR" 4
332.IX Item "-setalias arg"
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333sets the alias of the certificate. This will allow the certificate
334to be referred to using a nickname for example \*(L"Steve's Certificate\*(R".
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335.IP "\fB\-alias\fR" 4
336.IX Item "-alias"
984263bc 337outputs the certificate alias, if any.
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338.IP "\fB\-clrtrust\fR" 4
339.IX Item "-clrtrust"
984263bc 340clears all the permitted or trusted uses of the certificate.
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341.IP "\fB\-clrreject\fR" 4
342.IX Item "-clrreject"
984263bc 343clears all the prohibited or rejected uses of the certificate.
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344.IP "\fB\-addtrust arg\fR" 4
345.IX Item "-addtrust arg"
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346adds a trusted certificate use. Any object name can be used here
347but currently only \fBclientAuth\fR (\s-1SSL\s0 client use), \fBserverAuth\fR
8b0cefbb 348(\s-1SSL\s0 server use) and \fBemailProtection\fR (S/MIME email) are used.
984263bc 349Other OpenSSL applications may define additional uses.
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350.IP "\fB\-addreject arg\fR" 4
351.IX Item "-addreject arg"
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352adds a prohibited use. It accepts the same values as the \fB\-addtrust\fR
353option.
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354.IP "\fB\-purpose\fR" 4
355.IX Item "-purpose"
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356this option performs tests on the certificate extensions and outputs
357the results. For a more complete description see the \fB\s-1CERTIFICATE\s0
8b0cefbb 358\&\s-1EXTENSIONS\s0\fR section.
984263bc 359.Sh "\s-1SIGNING\s0 \s-1OPTIONS\s0"
8b0cefbb 360.IX Subsection "SIGNING OPTIONS"
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361The \fBx509\fR utility can be used to sign certificates and requests: it
362can thus behave like a \*(L"mini \s-1CA\s0\*(R".
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363.IP "\fB\-signkey filename\fR" 4
364.IX Item "-signkey filename"
984263bc 365this option causes the input file to be self signed using the supplied
e257b235 366private key.
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367.Sp
368If the input file is a certificate it sets the issuer name to the
369subject name (i.e. makes it self signed) changes the public key to the
370supplied value and changes the start and end dates. The start date is
371set to the current time and the end date is set to a value determined
372by the \fB\-days\fR option. Any certificate extensions are retained unless
373the \fB\-clrext\fR option is supplied.
374.Sp
375If the input is a certificate request then a self signed certificate
376is created using the supplied private key using the subject name in
377the request.
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378.IP "\fB\-clrext\fR" 4
379.IX Item "-clrext"
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380delete any extensions from a certificate. This option is used when a
381certificate is being created from another certificate (for example with
8b0cefbb 382the \fB\-signkey\fR or the \fB\-CA\fR options). Normally all extensions are
984263bc 383retained.
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384.IP "\fB\-keyform PEM|DER\fR" 4
385.IX Item "-keyform PEM|DER"
984263bc 386specifies the format (\s-1DER\s0 or \s-1PEM\s0) of the private key file used in the
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387\&\fB\-signkey\fR option.
388.IP "\fB\-days arg\fR" 4
389.IX Item "-days arg"
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390specifies the number of days to make a certificate valid for. The default
391is 30 days.
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392.IP "\fB\-x509toreq\fR" 4
393.IX Item "-x509toreq"
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394converts a certificate into a certificate request. The \fB\-signkey\fR option
395is used to pass the required private key.
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396.IP "\fB\-req\fR" 4
397.IX Item "-req"
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398by default a certificate is expected on input. With this option a
399certificate request is expected instead.
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400.IP "\fB\-set_serial n\fR" 4
401.IX Item "-set_serial n"
984263bc 402specifies the serial number to use. This option can be used with either
8b0cefbb 403the \fB\-signkey\fR or \fB\-CA\fR options. If used in conjunction with the \fB\-CA\fR
984263bc 404option the serial number file (as specified by the \fB\-CAserial\fR or
8b0cefbb 405\&\fB\-CAcreateserial\fR options) is not used.
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406.Sp
407The serial number can be decimal or hex (if preceded by \fB0x\fR). Negative
408serial numbers can also be specified but their use is not recommended.
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409.IP "\fB\-CA filename\fR" 4
410.IX Item "-CA filename"
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411specifies the \s-1CA\s0 certificate to be used for signing. When this option is
412present \fBx509\fR behaves like a \*(L"mini \s-1CA\s0\*(R". The input file is signed by this
8b0cefbb 413\&\s-1CA\s0 using this option: that is its issuer name is set to the subject name
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414of the \s-1CA\s0 and it is digitally signed using the CAs private key.
415.Sp
416This option is normally combined with the \fB\-req\fR option. Without the
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417\&\fB\-req\fR option the input is a certificate which must be self signed.
418.IP "\fB\-CAkey filename\fR" 4
419.IX Item "-CAkey filename"
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420sets the \s-1CA\s0 private key to sign a certificate with. If this option is
421not specified then it is assumed that the \s-1CA\s0 private key is present in
422the \s-1CA\s0 certificate file.
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423.IP "\fB\-CAserial filename\fR" 4
424.IX Item "-CAserial filename"
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425sets the \s-1CA\s0 serial number file to use.
426.Sp
8b0cefbb 427When the \fB\-CA\fR option is used to sign a certificate it uses a serial
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428number specified in a file. This file consist of one line containing
429an even number of hex digits with the serial number to use. After each
430use the serial number is incremented and written out to the file again.
431.Sp
432The default filename consists of the \s-1CA\s0 certificate file base name with
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433\&\*(L".srl\*(R" appended. For example if the \s-1CA\s0 certificate file is called
434\&\*(L"mycacert.pem\*(R" it expects to find a serial number file called \*(L"mycacert.srl\*(R".
435.IP "\fB\-CAcreateserial\fR" 4
436.IX Item "-CAcreateserial"
984263bc
MD
437with this option the \s-1CA\s0 serial number file is created if it does not exist:
438it will contain the serial number \*(L"02\*(R" and the certificate being signed will
8b0cefbb 439have the 1 as its serial number. Normally if the \fB\-CA\fR option is specified
984263bc 440and the serial number file does not exist it is an error.
8b0cefbb
JR
441.IP "\fB\-extfile filename\fR" 4
442.IX Item "-extfile filename"
984263bc
MD
443file containing certificate extensions to use. If not specified then
444no extensions are added to the certificate.
8b0cefbb
JR
445.IP "\fB\-extensions section\fR" 4
446.IX Item "-extensions section"
984263bc
MD
447the section to add certificate extensions from. If this option is not
448specified then the extensions should either be contained in the unnamed
449(default) section or the default section should contain a variable called
8b0cefbb 450\&\*(L"extensions\*(R" which contains the section to use.
984263bc 451.Sh "\s-1NAME\s0 \s-1OPTIONS\s0"
8b0cefbb 452.IX Subsection "NAME OPTIONS"
984263bc
MD
453The \fBnameopt\fR command line switch determines how the subject and issuer
454names are displayed. If no \fBnameopt\fR switch is present the default \*(L"oneline\*(R"
455format is used which is compatible with previous versions of OpenSSL.
456Each option is described in detail below, all options can be preceded by
e3cdf75b 457a \fB\-\fR to turn the option off. Only the first four will normally be used.
8b0cefbb
JR
458.IP "\fBcompat\fR" 4
459.IX Item "compat"
984263bc 460use the old format. This is equivalent to specifying no name options at all.
8b0cefbb
JR
461.IP "\fB\s-1RFC2253\s0\fR" 4
462.IX Item "RFC2253"
984263bc 463displays names compatible with \s-1RFC2253\s0 equivalent to \fBesc_2253\fR, \fBesc_ctrl\fR,
8b0cefbb
JR
464\&\fBesc_msb\fR, \fButf8\fR, \fBdump_nostr\fR, \fBdump_unknown\fR, \fBdump_der\fR,
465\&\fBsep_comma_plus\fR, \fBdn_rev\fR and \fBsname\fR.
466.IP "\fBoneline\fR" 4
467.IX Item "oneline"
984263bc
MD
468a oneline format which is more readable than \s-1RFC2253\s0. It is equivalent to
469specifying the \fBesc_2253\fR, \fBesc_ctrl\fR, \fBesc_msb\fR, \fButf8\fR, \fBdump_nostr\fR,
edae4a78 470\&\fBdump_der\fR, \fBuse_quote\fR, \fBsep_comma_plus_space\fR, \fBspace_eq\fR and \fBsname\fR
984263bc 471options.
8b0cefbb
JR
472.IP "\fBmultiline\fR" 4
473.IX Item "multiline"
984263bc 474a multiline format. It is equivalent \fBesc_ctrl\fR, \fBesc_msb\fR, \fBsep_multiline\fR,
edae4a78 475\&\fBspace_eq\fR, \fBlname\fR and \fBalign\fR.
8b0cefbb
JR
476.IP "\fBesc_2253\fR" 4
477.IX Item "esc_2253"
984263bc 478escape the \*(L"special\*(R" characters required by \s-1RFC2253\s0 in a field That is
8b0cefbb 479\&\fB,+"<>;\fR. Additionally \fB#\fR is escaped at the beginning of a string
984263bc 480and a space character at the beginning or end of a string.
8b0cefbb
JR
481.IP "\fBesc_ctrl\fR" 4
482.IX Item "esc_ctrl"
984263bc
MD
483escape control characters. That is those with \s-1ASCII\s0 values less than
4840x20 (space) and the delete (0x7f) character. They are escaped using the
8b0cefbb 485\&\s-1RFC2253\s0 \eXX notation (where \s-1XX\s0 are two hex digits representing the
984263bc 486character value).
8b0cefbb
JR
487.IP "\fBesc_msb\fR" 4
488.IX Item "esc_msb"
984263bc
MD
489escape characters with the \s-1MSB\s0 set, that is with \s-1ASCII\s0 values larger than
490127.
8b0cefbb
JR
491.IP "\fBuse_quote\fR" 4
492.IX Item "use_quote"
493escapes some characters by surrounding the whole string with \fB"\fR characters,
984263bc 494without the option all escaping is done with the \fB\e\fR character.
8b0cefbb
JR
495.IP "\fButf8\fR" 4
496.IX Item "utf8"
984263bc
MD
497convert all strings to \s-1UTF8\s0 format first. This is required by \s-1RFC2253\s0. If
498you are lucky enough to have a \s-1UTF8\s0 compatible terminal then the use
499of this option (and \fBnot\fR setting \fBesc_msb\fR) may result in the correct
500display of multibyte (international) characters. Is this option is not
501present then multibyte characters larger than 0xff will be represented
502using the format \eUXXXX for 16 bits and \eWXXXXXXXX for 32 bits.
503Also if this option is off any UTF8Strings will be converted to their
504character form first.
8b0cefbb
JR
505.IP "\fBno_type\fR" 4
506.IX Item "no_type"
984263bc
MD
507this option does not attempt to interpret multibyte characters in any
508way. That is their content octets are merely dumped as though one octet
509represents each character. This is useful for diagnostic purposes but
510will result in rather odd looking output.
8b0cefbb
JR
511.IP "\fBshow_type\fR" 4
512.IX Item "show_type"
984263bc 513show the type of the \s-1ASN1\s0 character string. The type precedes the
8b0cefbb
JR
514field contents. For example \*(L"\s-1BMPSTRING:\s0 Hello World\*(R".
515.IP "\fBdump_der\fR" 4
516.IX Item "dump_der"
984263bc
MD
517when this option is set any fields that need to be hexdumped will
518be dumped using the \s-1DER\s0 encoding of the field. Otherwise just the
519content octets will be displayed. Both options use the \s-1RFC2253\s0
8b0cefbb
JR
520\&\fB#XXXX...\fR format.
521.IP "\fBdump_nostr\fR" 4
522.IX Item "dump_nostr"
984263bc
MD
523dump non character string types (for example \s-1OCTET\s0 \s-1STRING\s0) if this
524option is not set then non character string types will be displayed
525as though each content octet represents a single character.
8b0cefbb
JR
526.IP "\fBdump_all\fR" 4
527.IX Item "dump_all"
984263bc 528dump all fields. This option when used with \fBdump_der\fR allows the
8b0cefbb
JR
529\&\s-1DER\s0 encoding of the structure to be unambiguously determined.
530.IP "\fBdump_unknown\fR" 4
531.IX Item "dump_unknown"
984263bc 532dump any field whose \s-1OID\s0 is not recognised by OpenSSL.
8b0cefbb
JR
533.IP "\fBsep_comma_plus\fR, \fBsep_comma_plus_space\fR, \fBsep_semi_plus_space\fR, \fBsep_multiline\fR" 4
534.IX Item "sep_comma_plus, sep_comma_plus_space, sep_semi_plus_space, sep_multiline"
984263bc
MD
535these options determine the field separators. The first character is
536between RDNs and the second between multiple AVAs (multiple AVAs are
537very rare and their use is discouraged). The options ending in
8b0cefbb 538\&\*(L"space\*(R" additionally place a space after the separator to make it
984263bc
MD
539more readable. The \fBsep_multiline\fR uses a linefeed character for
540the \s-1RDN\s0 separator and a spaced \fB+\fR for the \s-1AVA\s0 separator. It also
541indents the fields by four characters.
8b0cefbb
JR
542.IP "\fBdn_rev\fR" 4
543.IX Item "dn_rev"
984263bc
MD
544reverse the fields of the \s-1DN\s0. This is required by \s-1RFC2253\s0. As a side
545effect this also reverses the order of multiple AVAs but this is
546permissible.
8b0cefbb
JR
547.IP "\fBnofname\fR, \fBsname\fR, \fBlname\fR, \fBoid\fR" 4
548.IX Item "nofname, sname, lname, oid"
984263bc
MD
549these options alter how the field name is displayed. \fBnofname\fR does
550not display the field at all. \fBsname\fR uses the \*(L"short name\*(R" form
551(\s-1CN\s0 for commonName for example). \fBlname\fR uses the long form.
8b0cefbb 552\&\fBoid\fR represents the \s-1OID\s0 in numerical form and is useful for
984263bc 553diagnostic purpose.
8b0cefbb
JR
554.IP "\fBalign\fR" 4
555.IX Item "align"
984263bc 556align field values for a more readable output. Only usable with
8b0cefbb 557\&\fBsep_multiline\fR.
edae4a78
PA
558.IP "\fBspace_eq\fR" 4
559.IX Item "space_eq"
984263bc
MD
560places spaces round the \fB=\fR character which follows the field
561name.
562.Sh "\s-1TEXT\s0 \s-1OPTIONS\s0"
8b0cefbb 563.IX Subsection "TEXT OPTIONS"
984263bc
MD
564As well as customising the name output format, it is also possible to
565customise the actual fields printed using the \fBcertopt\fR options when
566the \fBtext\fR option is present. The default behaviour is to print all fields.
8b0cefbb
JR
567.IP "\fBcompatible\fR" 4
568.IX Item "compatible"
984263bc 569use the old format. This is equivalent to specifying no output options at all.
8b0cefbb
JR
570.IP "\fBno_header\fR" 4
571.IX Item "no_header"
984263bc 572don't print header information: that is the lines saying \*(L"Certificate\*(R" and \*(L"Data\*(R".
8b0cefbb
JR
573.IP "\fBno_version\fR" 4
574.IX Item "no_version"
984263bc 575don't print out the version number.
8b0cefbb
JR
576.IP "\fBno_serial\fR" 4
577.IX Item "no_serial"
984263bc 578don't print out the serial number.
8b0cefbb
JR
579.IP "\fBno_signame\fR" 4
580.IX Item "no_signame"
984263bc 581don't print out the signature algorithm used.
8b0cefbb
JR
582.IP "\fBno_validity\fR" 4
583.IX Item "no_validity"
984263bc 584don't print the validity, that is the \fBnotBefore\fR and \fBnotAfter\fR fields.
8b0cefbb
JR
585.IP "\fBno_subject\fR" 4
586.IX Item "no_subject"
984263bc 587don't print out the subject name.
8b0cefbb
JR
588.IP "\fBno_issuer\fR" 4
589.IX Item "no_issuer"
984263bc 590don't print out the issuer name.
8b0cefbb
JR
591.IP "\fBno_pubkey\fR" 4
592.IX Item "no_pubkey"
984263bc 593don't print out the public key.
8b0cefbb
JR
594.IP "\fBno_sigdump\fR" 4
595.IX Item "no_sigdump"
984263bc 596don't give a hexadecimal dump of the certificate signature.
8b0cefbb
JR
597.IP "\fBno_aux\fR" 4
598.IX Item "no_aux"
984263bc 599don't print out certificate trust information.
8b0cefbb
JR
600.IP "\fBno_extensions\fR" 4
601.IX Item "no_extensions"
984263bc 602don't print out any X509V3 extensions.
8b0cefbb
JR
603.IP "\fBext_default\fR" 4
604.IX Item "ext_default"
984263bc 605retain default extension behaviour: attempt to print out unsupported certificate extensions.
8b0cefbb
JR
606.IP "\fBext_error\fR" 4
607.IX Item "ext_error"
984263bc 608print an error message for unsupported certificate extensions.
8b0cefbb
JR
609.IP "\fBext_parse\fR" 4
610.IX Item "ext_parse"
611\&\s-1ASN1\s0 parse unsupported extensions.
612.IP "\fBext_dump\fR" 4
613.IX Item "ext_dump"
984263bc 614hex dump unsupported extensions.
8b0cefbb
JR
615.IP "\fBca_default\fR" 4
616.IX Item "ca_default"
984263bc 617the value used by the \fBca\fR utility, equivalent to \fBno_issuer\fR, \fBno_pubkey\fR, \fBno_header\fR,
8b0cefbb 618\&\fBno_version\fR, \fBno_sigdump\fR and \fBno_signame\fR.
984263bc 619.SH "EXAMPLES"
8b0cefbb
JR
620.IX Header "EXAMPLES"
621Note: in these examples the '\e' means the example should be all on one
984263bc
MD
622line.
623.PP
624Display the contents of a certificate:
625.PP
626.Vb 1
e257b235 627\& openssl x509 \-in cert.pem \-noout \-text
984263bc 628.Ve
8b0cefbb 629.PP
984263bc
MD
630Display the certificate serial number:
631.PP
632.Vb 1
e257b235 633\& openssl x509 \-in cert.pem \-noout \-serial
984263bc 634.Ve
8b0cefbb 635.PP
984263bc
MD
636Display the certificate subject name:
637.PP
638.Vb 1
e257b235 639\& openssl x509 \-in cert.pem \-noout \-subject
984263bc 640.Ve
8b0cefbb
JR
641.PP
642Display the certificate subject name in \s-1RFC2253\s0 form:
984263bc
MD
643.PP
644.Vb 1
e257b235 645\& openssl x509 \-in cert.pem \-noout \-subject \-nameopt RFC2253
984263bc 646.Ve
8b0cefbb 647.PP
984263bc 648Display the certificate subject name in oneline form on a terminal
8b0cefbb 649supporting \s-1UTF8:\s0
984263bc
MD
650.PP
651.Vb 1
e257b235 652\& openssl x509 \-in cert.pem \-noout \-subject \-nameopt oneline,\-esc_msb
984263bc 653.Ve
8b0cefbb
JR
654.PP
655Display the certificate \s-1MD5\s0 fingerprint:
984263bc
MD
656.PP
657.Vb 1
e257b235 658\& openssl x509 \-in cert.pem \-noout \-fingerprint
984263bc 659.Ve
8b0cefbb
JR
660.PP
661Display the certificate \s-1SHA1\s0 fingerprint:
984263bc
MD
662.PP
663.Vb 1
e257b235 664\& openssl x509 \-sha1 \-in cert.pem \-noout \-fingerprint
984263bc 665.Ve
8b0cefbb
JR
666.PP
667Convert a certificate from \s-1PEM\s0 to \s-1DER\s0 format:
984263bc
MD
668.PP
669.Vb 1
e257b235 670\& openssl x509 \-in cert.pem \-inform PEM \-out cert.der \-outform DER
984263bc 671.Ve
8b0cefbb 672.PP
984263bc
MD
673Convert a certificate to a certificate request:
674.PP
675.Vb 1
e257b235 676\& openssl x509 \-x509toreq \-in cert.pem \-out req.pem \-signkey key.pem
984263bc 677.Ve
8b0cefbb 678.PP
984263bc 679Convert a certificate request into a self signed certificate using
8b0cefbb 680extensions for a \s-1CA:\s0
984263bc
MD
681.PP
682.Vb 2
e257b235
PA
683\& openssl x509 \-req \-in careq.pem \-extfile openssl.cnf \-extensions v3_ca \e
684\& \-signkey key.pem \-out cacert.pem
984263bc 685.Ve
8b0cefbb
JR
686.PP
687Sign a certificate request using the \s-1CA\s0 certificate above and add user
984263bc
MD
688certificate extensions:
689.PP
690.Vb 2
e257b235
PA
691\& openssl x509 \-req \-in req.pem \-extfile openssl.cnf \-extensions v3_usr \e
692\& \-CA cacert.pem \-CAkey key.pem \-CAcreateserial
984263bc 693.Ve
8b0cefbb
JR
694.PP
695Set a certificate to be trusted for \s-1SSL\s0 client use and change set its alias to
696\&\*(L"Steve's Class 1 \s-1CA\s0\*(R"
984263bc
MD
697.PP
698.Vb 2
e257b235
PA
699\& openssl x509 \-in cert.pem \-addtrust clientAuth \e
700\& \-setalias "Steve\*(Aqs Class 1 CA" \-out trust.pem
984263bc
MD
701.Ve
702.SH "NOTES"
8b0cefbb
JR
703.IX Header "NOTES"
704The \s-1PEM\s0 format uses the header and footer lines:
984263bc
MD
705.PP
706.Vb 2
e257b235
PA
707\& \-\-\-\-\-BEGIN CERTIFICATE\-\-\-\-\-
708\& \-\-\-\-\-END CERTIFICATE\-\-\-\-\-
984263bc 709.Ve
8b0cefbb 710.PP
984263bc
MD
711it will also handle files containing:
712.PP
713.Vb 2
e257b235
PA
714\& \-\-\-\-\-BEGIN X509 CERTIFICATE\-\-\-\-\-
715\& \-\-\-\-\-END X509 CERTIFICATE\-\-\-\-\-
984263bc 716.Ve
8b0cefbb 717.PP
984263bc
MD
718Trusted certificates have the lines
719.PP
720.Vb 2
e257b235
PA
721\& \-\-\-\-\-BEGIN TRUSTED CERTIFICATE\-\-\-\-\-
722\& \-\-\-\-\-END TRUSTED CERTIFICATE\-\-\-\-\-
984263bc 723.Ve
8b0cefbb
JR
724.PP
725The conversion to \s-1UTF8\s0 format used with the name options assumes that
726T61Strings use the \s-1ISO8859\-1\s0 character set. This is wrong but Netscape
727and \s-1MSIE\s0 do this as do many certificates. So although this is incorrect
984263bc
MD
728it is more likely to display the majority of certificates correctly.
729.PP
8b0cefbb 730The \fB\-fingerprint\fR option takes the digest of the \s-1DER\s0 encoded certificate.
984263bc
MD
731This is commonly called a \*(L"fingerprint\*(R". Because of the nature of message
732digests the fingerprint of a certificate is unique to that certificate and
733two certificates with the same fingerprint can be considered to be the same.
734.PP
8b0cefbb 735The Netscape fingerprint uses \s-1MD5\s0 whereas \s-1MSIE\s0 uses \s-1SHA1\s0.
984263bc
MD
736.PP
737The \fB\-email\fR option searches the subject name and the subject alternative
738name extension. Only unique email addresses will be printed out: it will
739not print the same address more than once.
740.SH "CERTIFICATE EXTENSIONS"
8b0cefbb 741.IX Header "CERTIFICATE EXTENSIONS"
984263bc
MD
742The \fB\-purpose\fR option checks the certificate extensions and determines
743what the certificate can be used for. The actual checks done are rather
744complex and include various hacks and workarounds to handle broken
745certificates and software.
746.PP
747The same code is used when verifying untrusted certificates in chains
748so this section is useful if a chain is rejected by the verify code.
749.PP
8b0cefbb
JR
750The basicConstraints extension \s-1CA\s0 flag is used to determine whether the
751certificate can be used as a \s-1CA\s0. If the \s-1CA\s0 flag is true then it is a \s-1CA\s0,
752if the \s-1CA\s0 flag is false then it is not a \s-1CA\s0. \fBAll\fR CAs should have the
753\&\s-1CA\s0 flag set to true.
984263bc
MD
754.PP
755If the basicConstraints extension is absent then the certificate is
8b0cefbb 756considered to be a \*(L"possible \s-1CA\s0\*(R" other extensions are checked according
984263bc 757to the intended use of the certificate. A warning is given in this case
8b0cefbb
JR
758because the certificate should really not be regarded as a \s-1CA:\s0 however
759it is allowed to be a \s-1CA\s0 to work around some broken software.
984263bc
MD
760.PP
761If the certificate is a V1 certificate (and thus has no extensions) and
8b0cefbb 762it is self signed it is also assumed to be a \s-1CA\s0 but a warning is again
984263bc
MD
763given: this is to work around the problem of Verisign roots which are V1
764self signed certificates.
765.PP
766If the keyUsage extension is present then additional restraints are
8b0cefbb 767made on the uses of the certificate. A \s-1CA\s0 certificate \fBmust\fR have the
984263bc
MD
768keyCertSign bit set if the keyUsage extension is present.
769.PP
770The extended key usage extension places additional restrictions on the
771certificate uses. If this extension is present (whether critical or not)
772the key can only be used for the purposes specified.
773.PP
774A complete description of each test is given below. The comments about
775basicConstraints and keyUsage and V1 certificates above apply to \fBall\fR
8b0cefbb
JR
776\&\s-1CA\s0 certificates.
777.IP "\fB\s-1SSL\s0 Client\fR" 4
778.IX Item "SSL Client"
984263bc
MD
779The extended key usage extension must be absent or include the \*(L"web client
780authentication\*(R" \s-1OID\s0. keyUsage must be absent or it must have the
781digitalSignature bit set. Netscape certificate type must be absent or it must
782have the \s-1SSL\s0 client bit set.
8b0cefbb
JR
783.IP "\fB\s-1SSL\s0 Client \s-1CA\s0\fR" 4
784.IX Item "SSL Client CA"
984263bc
MD
785The extended key usage extension must be absent or include the \*(L"web client
786authentication\*(R" \s-1OID\s0. Netscape certificate type must be absent or it must have
787the \s-1SSL\s0 \s-1CA\s0 bit set: this is used as a work around if the basicConstraints
788extension is absent.
8b0cefbb
JR
789.IP "\fB\s-1SSL\s0 Server\fR" 4
790.IX Item "SSL Server"
984263bc
MD
791The extended key usage extension must be absent or include the \*(L"web server
792authentication\*(R" and/or one of the \s-1SGC\s0 OIDs. keyUsage must be absent or it
793must have the digitalSignature, the keyEncipherment set or both bits set.
794Netscape certificate type must be absent or have the \s-1SSL\s0 server bit set.
8b0cefbb
JR
795.IP "\fB\s-1SSL\s0 Server \s-1CA\s0\fR" 4
796.IX Item "SSL Server CA"
984263bc
MD
797The extended key usage extension must be absent or include the \*(L"web server
798authentication\*(R" and/or one of the \s-1SGC\s0 OIDs. Netscape certificate type must
799be absent or the \s-1SSL\s0 \s-1CA\s0 bit must be set: this is used as a work around if the
800basicConstraints extension is absent.
8b0cefbb
JR
801.IP "\fBNetscape \s-1SSL\s0 Server\fR" 4
802.IX Item "Netscape SSL Server"
984263bc
MD
803For Netscape \s-1SSL\s0 clients to connect to an \s-1SSL\s0 server it must have the
804keyEncipherment bit set if the keyUsage extension is present. This isn't
805always valid because some cipher suites use the key for digital signing.
806Otherwise it is the same as a normal \s-1SSL\s0 server.
8b0cefbb
JR
807.IP "\fBCommon S/MIME Client Tests\fR" 4
808.IX Item "Common S/MIME Client Tests"
984263bc
MD
809The extended key usage extension must be absent or include the \*(L"email
810protection\*(R" \s-1OID\s0. Netscape certificate type must be absent or should have the
8b0cefbb 811S/MIME bit set. If the S/MIME bit is not set in netscape certificate type
984263bc 812then the \s-1SSL\s0 client bit is tolerated as an alternative but a warning is shown:
8b0cefbb
JR
813this is because some Verisign certificates don't set the S/MIME bit.
814.IP "\fBS/MIME Signing\fR" 4
815.IX Item "S/MIME Signing"
816In addition to the common S/MIME client tests the digitalSignature bit must
984263bc 817be set if the keyUsage extension is present.
8b0cefbb
JR
818.IP "\fBS/MIME Encryption\fR" 4
819.IX Item "S/MIME Encryption"
820In addition to the common S/MIME tests the keyEncipherment bit must be set
984263bc 821if the keyUsage extension is present.
8b0cefbb
JR
822.IP "\fBS/MIME \s-1CA\s0\fR" 4
823.IX Item "S/MIME CA"
984263bc
MD
824The extended key usage extension must be absent or include the \*(L"email
825protection\*(R" \s-1OID\s0. Netscape certificate type must be absent or must have the
8b0cefbb 826S/MIME \s-1CA\s0 bit set: this is used as a work around if the basicConstraints
e257b235 827extension is absent.
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JR
828.IP "\fB\s-1CRL\s0 Signing\fR" 4
829.IX Item "CRL Signing"
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830The keyUsage extension must be absent or it must have the \s-1CRL\s0 signing bit
831set.
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832.IP "\fB\s-1CRL\s0 Signing \s-1CA\s0\fR" 4
833.IX Item "CRL Signing CA"
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834The normal \s-1CA\s0 tests apply. Except in this case the basicConstraints extension
835must be present.
836.SH "BUGS"
8b0cefbb 837.IX Header "BUGS"
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838Extensions in certificates are not transferred to certificate requests and
839vice versa.
840.PP
841It is possible to produce invalid certificates or requests by specifying the
842wrong private key or using inconsistent options in some cases: these should
843be checked.
844.PP
845There should be options to explicitly set such things as start and end
846dates rather than an offset from the current time.
847.PP
8b0cefbb 848The code to implement the verify behaviour described in the \fB\s-1TRUST\s0 \s-1SETTINGS\s0\fR
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849is currently being developed. It thus describes the intended behaviour rather
850than the current behaviour. It is hoped that it will represent reality in
851OpenSSL 0.9.5 and later.
852.SH "SEE ALSO"
e3cdf75b 853.IX Header "SEE ALSO"
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854\&\fIreq\fR\|(1), \fIca\fR\|(1), \fIgenrsa\fR\|(1),
855\&\fIgendsa\fR\|(1), \fIverify\fR\|(1)
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856.SH "HISTORY"
857.IX Header "HISTORY"
858Before OpenSSL 0.9.8, the default digest for \s-1RSA\s0 keys was \s-1MD5\s0.