Update build for OpenSSL-0.9.8j upgrade.
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132.\" ========================================================================
133.\"
134.IX Title "X509V3_CONFIG 5"
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135.TH X509V3_CONFIG 5 "2009-01-11" "0.9.8j" "OpenSSL"
136.\" For nroff, turn off justification. Always turn off hyphenation; it makes
137.\" way too many mistakes in technical documents.
138.if n .ad l
139.nh
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140.SH "NAME"
141x509v3_config \- X509 V3 certificate extension configuration format
142.SH "DESCRIPTION"
143.IX Header "DESCRIPTION"
144Several of the OpenSSL utilities can add extensions to a certificate or
145certificate request based on the contents of a configuration file.
146.PP
147Typically the application will contain an option to point to an extension
148section. Each line of the extension section takes the form:
149.PP
150.Vb 1
151\& extension_name=[critical,] extension_options
152.Ve
153.PP
154If \fBcritical\fR is present then the extension will be critical.
155.PP
156The format of \fBextension_options\fR depends on the value of \fBextension_name\fR.
157.PP
158There are four main types of extension: \fIstring\fR extensions, \fImulti-valued\fR
159extensions, \fIraw\fR and \fIarbitrary\fR extensions.
160.PP
161String extensions simply have a string which contains either the value itself
162or how it is obtained.
163.PP
164For example:
165.PP
166.Vb 1
167\& nsComment="This is a Comment"
168.Ve
169.PP
170Multi-valued extensions have a short form and a long form. The short form
171is a list of names and values:
172.PP
173.Vb 1
174\& basicConstraints=critical,CA:true,pathlen:1
175.Ve
176.PP
177The long form allows the values to be placed in a separate section:
178.PP
179.Vb 1
180\& basicConstraints=critical,@bs_section
e257b235 181\&
a561f9ff 182\& [bs_section]
e257b235 183\&
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184\& CA=true
185\& pathlen=1
186.Ve
187.PP
188Both forms are equivalent.
189.PP
190The syntax of raw extensions is governed by the extension code: it can
191for example contain data in multiple sections. The correct syntax to
192use is defined by the extension code itself: check out the certificate
193policies extension for an example.
194.PP
195If an extension type is unsupported then the \fIarbitrary\fR extension syntax
196must be used, see the \s-1ARBITRART\s0 \s-1EXTENSIONS\s0 section for more details.
197.SH "STANDARD EXTENSIONS"
198.IX Header "STANDARD EXTENSIONS"
199The following sections describe each supported extension in detail.
200.Sh "Basic Constraints."
201.IX Subsection "Basic Constraints."
202This is a multi valued extension which indicates whether a certificate is
203a \s-1CA\s0 certificate. The first (mandatory) name is \fB\s-1CA\s0\fR followed by \fB\s-1TRUE\s0\fR or
204\&\fB\s-1FALSE\s0\fR. If \fB\s-1CA\s0\fR is \fB\s-1TRUE\s0\fR then an optional \fBpathlen\fR name followed by an
205non-negative value can be included.
206.PP
207For example:
208.PP
209.Vb 1
210\& basicConstraints=CA:TRUE
e257b235 211\&
a561f9ff 212\& basicConstraints=CA:FALSE
e257b235 213\&
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214\& basicConstraints=critical,CA:TRUE, pathlen:0
215.Ve
216.PP
217A \s-1CA\s0 certificate \fBmust\fR include the basicConstraints value with the \s-1CA\s0 field
218set to \s-1TRUE\s0. An end user certificate must either set \s-1CA\s0 to \s-1FALSE\s0 or exclude the
219extension entirely. Some software may require the inclusion of basicConstraints
220with \s-1CA\s0 set to \s-1FALSE\s0 for end entity certificates.
221.PP
222The pathlen parameter indicates the maximum number of CAs that can appear
223below this one in a chain. So if you have a \s-1CA\s0 with a pathlen of zero it can
224only be used to sign end user certificates and not further CAs.
225.Sh "Key Usage."
226.IX Subsection "Key Usage."
227Key usage is a multi valued extension consisting of a list of names of the
228permitted key usages.
229.PP
230The supporte names are: digitalSignature, nonRepudiation, keyEncipherment,
231dataEncipherment, keyAgreement, keyCertSign, cRLSign, encipherOnly
232and decipherOnly.
233.PP
234Examples:
235.PP
236.Vb 1
237\& keyUsage=digitalSignature, nonRepudiation
e257b235 238\&
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239\& keyUsage=critical, keyCertSign
240.Ve
241.Sh "Extended Key Usage."
242.IX Subsection "Extended Key Usage."
243This extensions consists of a list of usages indicating purposes for which
244the certificate public key can be used for,
245.PP
246These can either be object short names of the dotted numerical form of OIDs.
247While any \s-1OID\s0 can be used only certain values make sense. In particular the
248following \s-1PKIX\s0, \s-1NS\s0 and \s-1MS\s0 values are meaningful:
249.PP
e257b235 250.Vb 10
a561f9ff 251\& Value Meaning
e257b235 252\& \-\-\-\-\- \-\-\-\-\-\-\-
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253\& serverAuth SSL/TLS Web Server Authentication.
254\& clientAuth SSL/TLS Web Client Authentication.
255\& codeSigning Code signing.
e257b235 256\& emailProtection E\-mail Protection (S/MIME).
a561f9ff
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257\& timeStamping Trusted Timestamping
258\& msCodeInd Microsoft Individual Code Signing (authenticode)
259\& msCodeCom Microsoft Commercial Code Signing (authenticode)
260\& msCTLSign Microsoft Trust List Signing
261\& msSGC Microsoft Server Gated Crypto
262\& msEFS Microsoft Encrypted File System
263\& nsSGC Netscape Server Gated Crypto
264.Ve
265.PP
266Examples:
267.PP
268.Vb 2
269\& extendedKeyUsage=critical,codeSigning,1.2.3.4
270\& extendedKeyUsage=nsSGC,msSGC
271.Ve
272.Sh "Subject Key Identifier."
273.IX Subsection "Subject Key Identifier."
274This is really a string extension and can take two possible values. Either
275the word \fBhash\fR which will automatically follow the guidelines in \s-1RFC3280\s0
276or a hex string giving the extension value to include. The use of the hex
277string is strongly discouraged.
278.PP
279Example:
280.PP
281.Vb 1
282\& subjectKeyIdentifier=hash
283.Ve
284.Sh "Authority Key Identifier."
285.IX Subsection "Authority Key Identifier."
286The authority key identifier extension permits two options. keyid and issuer:
287both can take the optional value \*(L"always\*(R".
288.PP
289If the keyid option is present an attempt is made to copy the subject key
290identifier from the parent certificate. If the value \*(L"always\*(R" is present
291then an error is returned if the option fails.
292.PP
293The issuer option copies the issuer and serial number from the issuer
294certificate. This will only be done if the keyid option fails or
295is not included unless the \*(L"always\*(R" flag will always include the value.
296.PP
297Example:
298.PP
299.Vb 1
300\& authorityKeyIdentifier=keyid,issuer
301.Ve
302.Sh "Subject Alternative Name."
303.IX Subsection "Subject Alternative Name."
304The subject alternative name extension allows various literal values to be
305included in the configuration file. These include \fBemail\fR (an email address)
306\&\fB\s-1URI\s0\fR a uniform resource indicator, \fB\s-1DNS\s0\fR (a \s-1DNS\s0 domain name), \fB\s-1RID\s0\fR (a
307registered \s-1ID:\s0 \s-1OBJECT\s0 \s-1IDENTIFIER\s0), \fB\s-1IP\s0\fR (an \s-1IP\s0 address), \fBdirName\fR
308(a distinguished name) and otherName.
309.PP
310The email option include a special 'copy' value. This will automatically
311include and email addresses contained in the certificate subject name in
312the extension.
313.PP
314The \s-1IP\s0 address used in the \fB\s-1IP\s0\fR options can be in either IPv4 or IPv6 format.
315.PP
316The value of \fBdirName\fR should point to a section containing the distinguished
317name to use as a set of name value pairs. Multi values AVAs can be formed by
318preceeding the name with a \fB+\fR character.
319.PP
320otherName can include arbitrary data associated with an \s-1OID:\s0 the value
321should be the \s-1OID\s0 followed by a semicolon and the content in standard
322\&\fIASN1_generate_nconf()\fR format.
323.PP
324Examples:
325.PP
326.Vb 5
327\& subjectAltName=email:copy,email:my@other.address,URI:http://my.url.here/
328\& subjectAltName=IP:192.168.7.1
329\& subjectAltName=IP:13::17
330\& subjectAltName=email:my@other.address,RID:1.2.3.4
331\& subjectAltName=otherName:1.2.3.4;UTF8:some other identifier
e257b235 332\&
a561f9ff 333\& subjectAltName=dirName:dir_sect
e257b235 334\&
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335\& [dir_sect]
336\& C=UK
337\& O=My Organization
338\& OU=My Unit
339\& CN=My Name
340.Ve
341.Sh "Issuer Alternative Name."
342.IX Subsection "Issuer Alternative Name."
343The issuer alternative name option supports all the literal options of
344subject alternative name. It does \fBnot\fR support the email:copy option because
345that would not make sense. It does support an additional issuer:copy option
346that will copy all the subject alternative name values from the issuer
347certificate (if possible).
348.PP
349Example:
350.PP
351.Vb 1
352\& issuserAltName = issuer:copy
353.Ve
354.Sh "Authority Info Access."
355.IX Subsection "Authority Info Access."
356The authority information access extension gives details about how to access
357certain information relating to the \s-1CA\s0. Its syntax is accessOID;location
358where \fIlocation\fR has the same syntax as subject alternative name (except
359that email:copy is not supported). accessOID can be any valid \s-1OID\s0 but only
360certain values are meaningful, for example \s-1OCSP\s0 and caIssuers.
361.PP
362Example:
363.PP
364.Vb 2
365\& authorityInfoAccess = OCSP;URI:http://ocsp.my.host/
366\& authorityInfoAccess = caIssuers;URI:http://my.ca/ca.html
367.Ve
368.Sh "\s-1CRL\s0 distribution points."
369.IX Subsection "CRL distribution points."
370This is a multi-valued extension that supports all the literal options of
371subject alternative name. Of the few software packages that currently interpret
372this extension most only interpret the \s-1URI\s0 option.
373.PP
374Currently each option will set a new DistributionPoint with the fullName
375field set to the given value.
376.PP
377Other fields like cRLissuer and reasons cannot currently be set or displayed:
378at this time no examples were available that used these fields.
379.PP
380Examples:
381.PP
382.Vb 2
383\& crlDistributionPoints=URI:http://myhost.com/myca.crl
384\& crlDistributionPoints=URI:http://my.com/my.crl,URI:http://oth.com/my.crl
385.Ve
386.Sh "Certificate Policies."
387.IX Subsection "Certificate Policies."
388This is a \fIraw\fR extension. All the fields of this extension can be set by
389using the appropriate syntax.
390.PP
391If you follow the \s-1PKIX\s0 recommendations and just using one \s-1OID\s0 then you just
392include the value of that \s-1OID\s0. Multiple OIDs can be set separated by commas,
393for example:
394.PP
395.Vb 1
396\& certificatePolicies= 1.2.4.5, 1.1.3.4
397.Ve
398.PP
399If you wish to include qualifiers then the policy \s-1OID\s0 and qualifiers need to
400be specified in a separate section: this is done by using the \f(CW@section\fR syntax
401instead of a literal \s-1OID\s0 value.
402.PP
403The section referred to must include the policy \s-1OID\s0 using the name
404policyIdentifier, cPSuri qualifiers can be included using the syntax:
405.PP
406.Vb 1
407\& CPS.nnn=value
408.Ve
409.PP
410userNotice qualifiers can be set using the syntax:
411.PP
412.Vb 1
413\& userNotice.nnn=@notice
414.Ve
415.PP
416The value of the userNotice qualifier is specified in the relevant section.
417This section can include explicitText, organization and noticeNumbers
418options. explicitText and organization are text strings, noticeNumbers is a
419comma separated list of numbers. The organization and noticeNumbers options
420(if included) must \s-1BOTH\s0 be present. If you use the userNotice option with \s-1IE5\s0
421then you need the 'ia5org' option at the top level to modify the encoding:
422otherwise it will not be interpreted properly.
423.PP
424Example:
425.PP
426.Vb 1
427\& certificatePolicies=ia5org,1.2.3.4,1.5.6.7.8,@polsect
e257b235 428\&
a561f9ff 429\& [polsect]
e257b235 430\&
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431\& policyIdentifier = 1.3.5.8
432\& CPS.1="http://my.host.name/"
433\& CPS.2="http://my.your.name/"
434\& userNotice.1=@notice
e257b235 435\&
a561f9ff 436\& [notice]
e257b235 437\&
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438\& explicitText="Explicit Text Here"
439\& organization="Organisation Name"
440\& noticeNumbers=1,2,3,4
441.Ve
442.PP
443The \fBia5org\fR option changes the type of the \fIorganization\fR field. In \s-1RFC2459\s0
444it can only be of type DisplayText. In \s-1RFC3280\s0 IA5Strring is also permissible.
445Some software (for example some versions of \s-1MSIE\s0) may require ia5org.
446.Sh "Policy Constraints"
447.IX Subsection "Policy Constraints"
448This is a multi-valued extension which consisting of the names
449\&\fBrequireExplicitPolicy\fR or \fBinhibitPolicyMapping\fR and a non negative intger
450value. At least one component must be present.
451.PP
452Example:
453.PP
454.Vb 1
455\& policyConstraints = requireExplicitPolicy:3
456.Ve
457.Sh "Inhibit Any Policy"
458.IX Subsection "Inhibit Any Policy"
459This is a string extension whose value must be a non negative integer.
460.PP
461Example:
462.PP
463.Vb 1
464\& inhibitAnyPolicy = 2
465.Ve
466.Sh "Name Constraints"
467.IX Subsection "Name Constraints"
468The name constraints extension is a multi-valued extension. The name should
469begin with the word \fBpermitted\fR or \fBexcluded\fR followed by a \fB;\fR. The rest of
470the name and the value follows the syntax of subjectAltName except email:copy
471is not supported and the \fB\s-1IP\s0\fR form should consist of an \s-1IP\s0 addresses and
472subnet mask separated by a \fB/\fR.
473.PP
474Examples:
475.PP
476.Vb 1
477\& nameConstraints=permitted;IP:192.168.0.0/255.255.0.0
e257b235 478\&
a561f9ff 479\& nameConstraints=permitted;email:.somedomain.com
e257b235 480\&
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481\& nameConstraints=excluded;email:.com
482.Ve
483.SH "DEPRECATED EXTENSIONS"
484.IX Header "DEPRECATED EXTENSIONS"
485The following extensions are non standard, Netscape specific and largely
486obsolete. Their use in new applications is discouraged.
487.Sh "Netscape String extensions."
488.IX Subsection "Netscape String extensions."
489Netscape Comment (\fBnsComment\fR) is a string extension containing a comment
490which will be displayed when the certificate is viewed in some browsers.
491.PP
492Example:
493.PP
494.Vb 1
495\& nsComment = "Some Random Comment"
496.Ve
497.PP
498Other supported extensions in this category are: \fBnsBaseUrl\fR,
499\&\fBnsRevocationUrl\fR, \fBnsCaRevocationUrl\fR, \fBnsRenewalUrl\fR, \fBnsCaPolicyUrl\fR
500and \fBnsSslServerName\fR.
501.Sh "Netscape Certificate Type"
502.IX Subsection "Netscape Certificate Type"
503This is a multi-valued extensions which consists of a list of flags to be
504included. It was used to indicate the purposes for which a certificate could
505be used. The basicConstraints, keyUsage and extended key usage extensions are
506now used instead.
507.PP
508Acceptable values for nsCertType are: \fBclient\fR, \fBserver\fR, \fBemail\fR,
509\&\fBobjsign\fR, \fBreserved\fR, \fBsslCA\fR, \fBemailCA\fR, \fBobjCA\fR.
510.SH "ARBITRARY EXTENSIONS"
511.IX Header "ARBITRARY EXTENSIONS"
512If an extension is not supported by the OpenSSL code then it must be encoded
513using the arbitrary extension format. It is also possible to use the arbitrary
514format for supported extensions. Extreme care should be taken to ensure that
515the data is formatted correctly for the given extension type.
516.PP
517There are two ways to encode arbitrary extensions.
518.PP
519The first way is to use the word \s-1ASN1\s0 followed by the extension content
520using the same syntax as \fIASN1_generate_nconf()\fR. For example:
521.PP
522.Vb 1
523\& 1.2.3.4=critical,ASN1:UTF8String:Some random data
e257b235 524\&
a561f9ff 525\& 1.2.3.4=ASN1:SEQUENCE:seq_sect
e257b235 526\&
a561f9ff 527\& [seq_sect]
e257b235 528\&
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529\& field1 = UTF8:field1
530\& field2 = UTF8:field2
531.Ve
532.PP
533It is also possible to use the word \s-1DER\s0 to include the raw encoded data in any
534extension.
535.PP
536.Vb 2
537\& 1.2.3.4=critical,DER:01:02:03:04
538\& 1.2.3.4=DER:01020304
539.Ve
540.PP
541The value following \s-1DER\s0 is a hex dump of the \s-1DER\s0 encoding of the extension
542Any extension can be placed in this form to override the default behaviour.
543For example:
544.PP
545.Vb 1
546\& basicConstraints=critical,DER:00:01:02:03
547.Ve
548.SH "WARNING"
549.IX Header "WARNING"
550There is no guarantee that a specific implementation will process a given
551extension. It may therefore be sometimes possible to use certificates for
552purposes prohibited by their extensions because a specific application does
553not recognize or honour the values of the relevant extensions.
554.PP
555The \s-1DER\s0 and \s-1ASN1\s0 options should be used with caution. It is possible to create
556totally invalid extensions if they are not used carefully.
557.SH "NOTES"
558.IX Header "NOTES"
559If an extension is multi-value and a field value must contain a comma the long
560form must be used otherwise the comma would be misinterpreted as a field
561separator. For example:
562.PP
563.Vb 1
564\& subjectAltName=URI:ldap://somehost.com/CN=foo,OU=bar
565.Ve
566.PP
567will produce an error but the equivalent form:
568.PP
569.Vb 1
570\& subjectAltName=@subject_alt_section
e257b235 571\&
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572\& [subject_alt_section]
573\& subjectAltName=URI:ldap://somehost.com/CN=foo,OU=bar
574.Ve
575.PP
e257b235 576is valid.
a561f9ff
SS
577.PP
578Due to the behaviour of the OpenSSL \fBconf\fR library the same field name
579can only occur once in a section. This means that:
580.PP
581.Vb 1
582\& subjectAltName=@alt_section
e257b235 583\&
a561f9ff 584\& [alt_section]
e257b235 585\&
a561f9ff
SS
586\& email=steve@here
587\& email=steve@there
588.Ve
589.PP
590will only recognize the last value. This can be worked around by using the form:
591.PP
592.Vb 1
593\& [alt_section]
e257b235 594\&
a561f9ff
SS
595\& email.1=steve@here
596\& email.2=steve@there
597.Ve
598.SH "HISTORY"
599.IX Header "HISTORY"
600The X509v3 extension code was first added to OpenSSL 0.9.2.
601.PP
602Policy mappings, inhibit any policy and name constraints support was added in
603OpenSSL 0.9.8
604.PP
605The \fBdirectoryName\fR and \fBotherName\fR option as well as the \fB\s-1ASN1\s0\fR option
606for arbitrary extensions was added in OpenSSL 0.9.8
607.SH "SEE ALSO"
608.IX Header "SEE ALSO"
609\&\fIreq\fR\|(1), \fIca\fR\|(1), \fIx509\fR\|(1)