Revert "binutils 2.22: Activate building in world"
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1.\" Copyright (c) 1990, 1993
2.\" The Regents of the University of California. All rights reserved.
3.\"
4.\" Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
5.\" modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
6.\" are met:
7.\" 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
8.\" notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
9.\" 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
10.\" notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
11.\" documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
12.\" 3. All advertising materials mentioning features or use of this software
13.\" must display the following acknowledgement:
14.\" This product includes software developed by the University of
15.\" California, Berkeley and its contributors.
16.\" 4. Neither the name of the University nor the names of its contributors
17.\" may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
18.\" without specific prior written permission.
19.\"
20.\" THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE REGENTS AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND
21.\" ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
22.\" IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
23.\" ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE REGENTS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
24.\" FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
25.\" DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
26.\" OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
27.\" HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
28.\" LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
29.\" OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
30.\" SUCH DAMAGE.
31.\"
32.\" @(#)hier.7 8.1 (Berkeley) 6/5/93
33.\" $FreeBSD: src/share/man/man7/hier.7,v 1.29.2.17 2003/01/13 21:43:50 ceri Exp $
34.\"
1c05bfaa 35.Dd April 2, 2011
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36.Dt HIER 7
37.Os
38.Sh NAME
39.Nm hier
40.Nd layout of filesystems
41.Sh DESCRIPTION
42A sketch of the filesystem hierarchy.
52eff785 43.Bl -tag -width ".Pa /modules/"
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44.It Pa /
45root directory of the filesystem
46.It Pa /bin/
47user utilities fundamental to both single-user and multi-user environments
48.It Pa /boot/
49programs and configuration files used during operating system bootstrap
50.Pp
52eff785 51.Bl -tag -width ".Pa defaults/" -compact
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52.It Pa defaults/
53default bootstrapping configuration files; see
54.Xr loader.conf 5
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55.It Pa kernel
56pure kernel executable (the operating system loaded into memory
57at boot time).
58.It Pa modules/
59loadable kernel modules;
60see
61.Xr kldstat 8
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62.El
63.It Pa /dev/
64block and character device files
65.Pp
2c272516 66.Bl -tag -width ".Pa fd/" -compact
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67.It Pa fd/
68file descriptor files;
69see
70.Xr \&fd 4
71.El
72.It Pa /etc/
73system configuration files and scripts
74.Pp
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75.Bl -tag -width ".Pa bluetooth/" -compact
76.It Pa bluetooth/
77bluetooth configuration files
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78.It Pa defaults/
79default system configuration files;
80see
81.Xr rc 8
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82.It Pa dma/
83.Xr dma 8
84configuration files
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85.\".It Pa firmware/
86.\"Firmware image files;
87.\"see
88.\".Xr firmware 9
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89.It Pa isdn/
90isdn4bsd configuration files;
91see
92.Xr isdnd 8
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93.It Pa localtime
94local timezone information;
95see
96.Xr ctime 3
97.It Pa mail/
98Sendmail control files
99.It Pa mtree/
100mtree configuration files;
101see
102.Xr mtree 8
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103.It Pa pam.d/
104configuration files for the Pluggable Authentication Modules (PAM)
105library
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106.It Pa periodic/
107scripts that are run daily, weekly, and monthly, via
108.Xr cron 8 ;
109see
110.Xr periodic 8
111.It Pa ppp/
112ppp configuration files;
113see
114.Xr ppp 8
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115.It Pa rc.d/
116System and daemon startup/control scripts;
117see
118.Xr rc 8
119.It Pa ssh/
120OpenSSH configuration files;
121see
122.Xr ssh 1
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123.It Pa ssl/
124OpenSSL configuration files
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125.It Pa upgrade/
126Files relevant to system upgrades
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127.It Pa uucp/
128uucp configuration files;
129see
130.Xr uucp 1
131.El
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132.It Pa /home/
133HOME directories of non-root users
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134.It Pa /mnt/
135empty directory commonly used by
136system administrators as a temporary mount point
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137.It Pa /pfs/
138pseudo file system directory (on
139.Xr hammer 5
140root file systems)
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141.It Pa /proc/
142process file system;
143see
144.Xr procfs 5 ,
145.Xr mount_procfs 8
146.It Pa /root/
147root's HOME directory
148.It Pa /sbin/
149system programs and administration utilities
150fundamental to both single-user and multi-user environments
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151.It Pa /sys/
152the kernel's source code (usually a symbolic link to
153.Pa /usr/src/sys )
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154.It Pa /tmp/
155temporary files that are not guaranteed to persist across system reboots
156.It Pa /usr/
157contains the majority of user utilities and applications
158.Pp
52eff785 159.Bl -tag -width ".Pa libdata/" -compact
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160.It Pa bin/
161common utilities, programming tools, and applications
162.It Pa games/
163useful and semi-frivolous programs
164.It Pa include/
165standard C include files
166.Pp
52eff785 167.Bl -tag -width ".Pa libmilter/" -compact
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168.It Pa arpa/
169C include files for Internet service protocols
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170.It Pa c++/
171C++ include files
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172.It Pa cam/
173C include files for the Common Access Methods Layer
f97cf1ca 174.Pp
52eff785 175.Bl -tag -width ".Pa scsi/" -compact
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176.It Pa scsi/
177The SCSI device on top of CAM
178.El
f97cf1ca 179.Pp
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180.It Pa dev/
181C include files for programming various
9bb2a92d 182.Dx
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184.It Pa emulation/
185Include Files for various emulation layers
984263bc 186.It Pa fs/
f97cf1ca 187.Pp
52eff785 188.Bl -tag -width ".Pa smbfs/" -compact
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189.It Pa smbfs/
190SMB/CIFS filesystem
191.El
f97cf1ca 192.Pp
984263bc 193.It Pa isofs/
f97cf1ca 194.Pp
52eff785 195.Bl -tag -width ".Pa cd9660/" -compact
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196.It Pa cd9660/
197iso9660 filesystem
198.El
f97cf1ca 199.Pp
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200.It Pa libmilter/
201C include files for libmilter,
202the sendmail mail filter API
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203.It Pa libprop/
204C include files for libprop
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205.It Pa machine/
206machine-specific C include files
207.It Pa msdosfs/
208MS-DOS file system
209.It Pa net/
210misc network C include files
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211.It Pa netatm/
212ATM include files;
213see
214.Xr atm 8
215.It Pa netinet/
216C include files for Internet standard protocols;
217see
218.Xr inet 4
219.It Pa netinet6/
220C include files for Internet protocol version 6;
221see
222.Xr inet6 4
223.It Pa netipx/
224IPX/SPX protocol stacks
225.It Pa netkey/
226kernel key-management service
227.It Pa netnatm/
228NATM include files;
229see
230.Xr natm 4
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231.It Pa netsmb/
232SMB/CIFS requester
233.It Pa nfs/
234C include files for NFS (Network File System)
235.It Pa objc/
236Objective C include files
237.It Pa openssl/
238OpenSSL (Cryptography/SSL toolkit) headers
42bcdd13
PA
239.It Pa pcap/
240Packet Capture (libpcap) headers;
241see
242.Xr pcap 3
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243.It Pa pccard/
244PC-CARD controllers
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245.It Pa protocols/
246C include files for Berkeley service protocols
247.It Pa readline/
248get a line from a user, with editing;
249see
250.Xr readline 3
251.It Pa rpc/
252remote procedure calls;
253see
254.Xr rpc 3
255.It Pa rpcsvc/
256definition of RPC service structures; see
257.Xr rpc 3
258.It Pa security/
259PAM; see
260.Xr pam 8
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261.It Pa sys/
262system C include files (kernel data structures)
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263.It Pa ufs/
264C include files for UFS (The U-word File System)
f97cf1ca 265.Pp
52eff785 266.Bl -tag -width ".Pa ffs/" -compact
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267.It Pa ffs/
268Fast filesystem
269.It Pa mfs/
270memory file system;
271see
272.Xr mount_mfs 8
273.It Pa ufs/
274UFS filesystem
275.El
f97cf1ca 276.Pp
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277.It Pa vm/
278virtual memory;
279see
280.Xr vmstat 8
281.El
282.Pp
283.It Pa lib/
284archive libraries
f97cf1ca 285.Pp
52eff785 286.Bl -tag -width ".Pa compat/" -compact
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287.It Pa aout/
288a.out archive libraries
289.It Pa compat/
290shared libraries for compatibility
b1956a22 291.Pp
52eff785 292.Bl -tag -width ".Pa aout/" -compact
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293.It Pa aout/
294a.out backward compatibility libraries
295.El
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PA
296.It Pa engines/
297OpenSSL dynamic engines
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298.El
299.Pp
300.It Pa libdata/
301misc. utility data files
f97cf1ca 302.Pp
52eff785 303.Bl -tag -width ".Pa stallion/" -compact
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304.It Pa doscmd/
305files used by doscmd (drivers, fonts, etc.);
306see
307.Xr doscmd 1
f97cf1ca 308.Pp
52eff785 309.Bl -tag -width ".Pa fonts/" -compact
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310.It Pa fonts/
311fonts used by doscmd
312.El
f97cf1ca 313.Pp
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314.It Pa lint/
315various prebuilt lint libraries;
316see
317.Xr lint 1
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318.It Pa stallion/
319holds the download firmware images
320.El
321.Pp
322.It Pa libexec/
323system daemons & system utilities (executed by other programs)
f97cf1ca 324.Pp
b1242318 325.It Pa binutils221/
f97cf1ca 326.Pp
52eff785 327.Bl -tag -width ".Pa ldscripts/" -compact
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328.It Pa ldscripts/
329linker scripts;
330see
331.Xr ld 1
332.El
333.Pp
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334.It Pa lpr/
335utilities and filters for LP print system;
336see
337.Xr lpr 1
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338.It Pa sendmail/
339the sendmail binary;
340see
341.Xr mailwrapper 8
342and
343.Xr sendmail 8
344.It Pa sm.bin/
345restricted shell for sendmail;
346see
347.Xr smrsh 8
348.It Pa uucp/
349uucp utilities;
350see
351.Xr uucp 1
352.El
353.Pp
354.It Pa local/
355local executables, libraries, etc.
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356Within
357.Pa local/ ,
358the general layout sketched out by
984263bc 359.Xr hier 7
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360for
361.Pa /usr
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362should be used.
363Exceptions are the
364.Pa man/
365directory (directly under
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366.Pa local/
367rather than under
368.Pa local/share/ ) ,
369documentation (in
370.Pa share/doc/<app>/ ) ,
371and
372.Pa /usr/local/etc
373.Pf ( mimics
374.Pa /etc ) .
984263bc 375.It Pa obj/
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376architecture-specific target tree produced by building the
377.Pa /usr/src
378tree
f97cf1ca 379.It Pa pkg/
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380default destination directory for the
381.Xr pkgsrc 7
382collection.
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383Within
384.Pa pkg/ ,
385the general layout sketched out by
f97cf1ca 386.Xr hier 7
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387for
388.Pa /usr
33fa2848 389should be used.
59730311
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390Exceptions are the
391.Pa man/
392directory (directly under
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393.Pa pkg/
394rather than under
395.Pa pkg/share/ ) ,
396documentation (in
397.Pa share/doc/<pkg>/ ) ,
398and
399.Pa /usr/pkg/etc
400.Pf ( mimics
401.Pa /etc ) .
f97cf1ca 402.It Pa pkgsrc/
a161144f 403The
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404.Xr pkgsrc 7
405collection (optional).
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406.It Pa sbin/
407system daemons & system utilities (executed by users)
408.It Pa share/
409architecture-independent files
410.Pp
52eff785 411.Bl -tag -width ".Pa groff_font/" -compact
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412.It Pa calendar/
413a variety of pre-fab calendar files;
414see
415.Xr calendar 1
416.It Pa dict/
417word lists;
418see
419.Xr look 1
420.Pp
52eff785 421.Bl -tag -width ".Pa papers/" -compact
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422.It Pa web2
423words from Webster's 2nd International
424.It Pa words
425common words
426.It Pa papers/
427reference databases;
428see
429.Xr refer 1
430.El
431.Pp
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432.It Pa doc/
433miscellaneous documentation
7b14808b 434.Bl -tag -width ".Pa legal/" -compact
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435.It Pa legal/
436License files for vendor supplied firmwares
437.El
438.Pp
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439.It Pa examples/
440various examples for users and programmers
441.It Pa games/
442ASCII text files used by various games
443.It Pa groff_font/
444device description file for device name
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445.It Pa i18n/
446internationalization databases; see
447.Xr iconv 3
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448.It Pa info/
449GNU Info hypertext system
450.It Pa isdn/
451ISDN
452.It Pa libg++/
453libg++'s genclass prototype/template class files
454.It Pa locale/
455localization files;
456see
457.Xr setlocale 3
458.It Pa man/
459manual pages
460.It Pa me/
461macros for use with the me macro package;
462see
463.Xr me 7
464.It Pa misc/
465misc system-wide ASCII text files
f97cf1ca 466.Pp
52eff785 467.Bl -tag -width ".Pa termcap" -compact
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468.It Pa termcap
469terminal characteristics database;
470see
471.Xr termcap 5
472.El
f97cf1ca 473.Pp
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474.It Pa mk/
475templates for make;
476see
477.Xr make 1
478.It Pa nls/
479national language support files;
480see
481.Xr mklocale 1
9fc6d562
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482.It Pa openssl/
483.Pp
484.Bl -tag -width ".Pa man/" -compact
485.It Pa man/
486OpenSSL manual pages
487.El
488.Pp
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489.It Pa sendmail/
490sendmail configuration files;
491see
492.Xr sendmail 8
493.It Pa skel/
494example . (dot) files for new accounts
495.It Pa syscons/
28feafc7 496files used by
984263bc 497.Xr syscons 4
f97cf1ca 498.Pp
52eff785 499.Bl -tag -width ".Pa scrnmaps/" -compact
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500.It Pa fonts/
501console fonts;
502see
503.Xr vidcontrol 1
504and
505.Xr vidfont 1
506.It Pa keymaps/
507console keyboard maps;
508see
509.Xr kbdcontrol 1
510and
511.Xr kbdmap 1
512.It Pa scrnmaps/
513console screen maps
514.El
f97cf1ca 515.Pp
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516.It Pa tabset/
517tab description files for a variety of terminals; used in
518the termcap file;
519see
520.Xr termcap 5
521.It Pa tmac/
522text processing macros;
523see
524.Xr nroff 1
525and
526.Xr troff 1
527.It Pa vi/
528localization support and utilities for
529.Xr vi 1
530.It Pa zoneinfo/
531timezone configuration information;
532see
533.Xr tzfile 5
534.El
f97cf1ca 535.Pp
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536.It Pa src/
537.Bx ,
538third-party, and/or local source files
539.Pp
32c20b8b 540.Bl -tag -width ".Pa nrelease/" -compact
984263bc 541.It Pa bin/
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542source code for files in
543.Pa /bin
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544.It Pa contrib/
545source code for contributed software
546.It Pa crypto/
547source code for contributed cryptography software
548.It Pa etc/
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549source code for files in
550.Pa /etc
984263bc 551.It Pa games/
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552source code for files in
553.Pa /usr/games
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554.It Pa gnu/
555Utilities covered by the GNU General Public License
556.It Pa include/
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557source code for files in
558.Pa /usr/include
984263bc 559.It Pa lib/
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560source code for files in
561.Pa /usr/lib
984263bc 562.It Pa libexec/
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563source code for files in
564.Pa /usr/libexec
f97cf1ca 565.It Pa nrelease/
984263bc 566files required to produce a
9bb2a92d 567.Dx
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568release
569.It Pa sbin/
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570source code for files in
571.Pa /sbin
984263bc 572.It Pa secure/
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573build directory for files in
574.Pa /usr/src/crypto
984263bc 575.It Pa share/
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576source for files in
577.Pa /usr/share
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578.It Pa sys/
579kernel source code
580.It Pa tools/
581tools used for maintenance and testing of
9bb2a92d 582.Dx
984263bc 583.It Pa usr.bin/
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584source code for files in
585.Pa /usr/bin
984263bc 586.It Pa usr.sbin/
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587source code for files in
588.Pa /usr/sbin
984263bc 589.El
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590.El
591.It Pa /var/
592multi-purpose log, temporary, transient, and spool files
593.Pp
52eff785 594.Bl -tag -width ".Pa preserve/" -compact
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595.It Pa account/
596system accounting files
597.Pp
52eff785 598.Bl -tag -width ".Pa acct" -compact
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599.It Pa acct
600execution accounting file;
601see
602.Xr acct 5
603.El
604.Pp
605.It Pa at/
606timed command scheduling files;
607see
608.Xr \&at 1
f97cf1ca 609.Pp
52eff785 610.Bl -tag -width ".Pa spool/" -compact
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611.It Pa jobs/
612directory containing job files
613.It Pa spool/
614directory containing output spool files
615.El
616.Pp
617.It Pa backups/
618misc. backup files
619.It Pa crash/
620default directory to store kernel crash dumps; see
621.Xr crash 8
622and
623.Xr savecore 8
624.It Pa cron/
625files used by cron;
626see
627.Xr cron 8
f97cf1ca 628.Pp
52eff785 629.Bl -tag -width ".Pa tabs/" -compact
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630.It Pa tabs/
631crontab files;
632see
633.Xr crontab 5
634.El
635.Pp
636.It Pa db/
637misc. automatically generated system-specific database files
638.It Pa empty/
a009fae0 639empty directory used by
984263bc 640.Xr sshd 8
a009fae0 641for privilege separation
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642.It Pa games/
643misc. game status and score files
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644.It Pa hammer/
645per PFS (pseudo file system) snapshots directory for
646.Xr hammer 5
647file systems
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648.It Pa log/
649misc. system log files
650.Pp
52eff785 651.Bl -tag -width ".Pa wtmp" -compact
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652.It Pa wtmp
653login/logout log;
654see
655.Xr wtmp 5
656.El
657.Pp
658.It Pa mail/
659user mailbox files
660.It Pa msgs/
661system messages database;
662see
663.Xr msgs 1
664.It Pa preserve/
665temporary home of files preserved after an accidental death
666of an editor;
667see
668.Xr \&ex 1
669.It Pa quotas/
670filesystem quota information files
671.It Pa run/
672system information files describing various info about
673system since it was booted
674.Pp
52eff785 675.Bl -tag -width ".Pa ppp/" -compact
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676.It Pa ppp/
677writable by the
678.Dq network
679group for command connection sockets; see
680.Xr ppp 8
681.It Pa utmp
682database of current users;
683see
684.Xr utmp 5
685.El
686.Pp
687.It Pa rwho/
688rwho data files;
689see
690.Xr rwhod 8 ,
691.Xr rwho 1 ,
692and
693.Xr ruptime 1
694.It Pa spool/
695misc. printer and mail system spooling directories
696.Pp
52eff785 697.Bl -tag -width ".Pa clientmqueue/" -compact
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698.It Pa clientmqueue/
699undelivered submission mail queue;
700see
701.Xr sendmail 8
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702.It Pa dma/
703undelivered mail queue;
704see
705.Xr dma 8
984263bc 706.It Pa ftp/
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707commonly
708.Pa ~ftp ;
709the anonymous ftp root directory
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710.It Pa mqueue/
711undelivered mail queue;
712see
713.Xr sendmail 8
714.It Pa output/
715line printer spooling directories
716.It Pa uucp/
717uucp spool directory
718.It Pa uucppublic/
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719commonly
720.Pa ~uucp ;
721public uucp temporary directory
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722.El
723.Pp
724.It Pa tmp/
725temporary files that are kept between system reboots
f97cf1ca 726.Pp
52eff785 727.Bl -tag -width ".Pa vi.recover/" -compact
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728.It Pa vi.recover/
729the directory where recovery files are stored
730.El
f97cf1ca 731.Pp
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732.It Pa yp/
733the NIS maps
734.El
735.El
736.Sh NOTES
737This manual page documents the default
9bb2a92d 738.Dx
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739filesystem layout, but
740the actual hierarchy on a given system is defined at the system
741administrator's discretion.
742A well-maintained installation will include a customized version of
743this document.
744.Sh SEE ALSO
745.Xr apropos 1 ,
746.Xr find 1 ,
747.Xr finger 1 ,
748.Xr grep 1 ,
749.Xr ls 1 ,
750.Xr whatis 1 ,
751.Xr whereis 1 ,
752.Xr which 1 ,
753.Xr fsck 8
754.Sh HISTORY
755A
756.Nm
757manual page appeared in
758.At v7 .