Sync zoneinfo database with tzdata2011m from munnari.oz.au
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34850bd5 1# <pre>
e9ad9bde 2# @(#)australasia 8.28
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3# This file is in the public domain, so clarified as of
4# 2009-05-17 by Arthur David Olson.
34850bd5 5
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6# This file also includes Pacific islands.
7
8# Notes are at the end of this file
9
10###############################################################################
11
12# Australia
13
14# Please see the notes below for the controversy about "EST" versus "AEST" etc.
15
16# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
17Rule Aus 1917 only - Jan 1 0:01 1:00 -
18Rule Aus 1917 only - Mar 25 2:00 0 -
19Rule Aus 1942 only - Jan 1 2:00 1:00 -
20Rule Aus 1942 only - Mar 29 2:00 0 -
21Rule Aus 1942 only - Sep 27 2:00 1:00 -
22Rule Aus 1943 1944 - Mar lastSun 2:00 0 -
23Rule Aus 1943 only - Oct 3 2:00 1:00 -
24# Go with Whitman and the Australian National Standards Commission, which
25# says W Australia didn't use DST in 1943/1944. Ignore Whitman's claim that
26# 1944/1945 was just like 1943/1944.
27
28# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
29# Northern Territory
30Zone Australia/Darwin 8:43:20 - LMT 1895 Feb
31 9:00 - CST 1899 May
32 9:30 Aus CST
33# Western Australia
37cabc10 34#
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35# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
36Rule AW 1974 only - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 -
37Rule AW 1975 only - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
38Rule AW 1983 only - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 -
39Rule AW 1984 only - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
40Rule AW 1991 only - Nov 17 2:00s 1:00 -
41Rule AW 1992 only - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
42Rule AW 2006 only - Dec 3 2:00s 1:00 -
43Rule AW 2007 2009 - Mar lastSun 2:00s 0 -
44Rule AW 2007 2008 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 -
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45Zone Australia/Perth 7:43:24 - LMT 1895 Dec
46 8:00 Aus WST 1943 Jul
37cabc10 47 8:00 AW WST
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48Zone Australia/Eucla 8:35:28 - LMT 1895 Dec
49 8:45 Aus CWST 1943 Jul
50 8:45 AW CWST
51
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52# Queensland
53#
9ffe4b14 54# From Alex Livingston (1996-11-01):
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55# I have heard or read more than once that some resort islands off the coast
56# of Queensland chose to keep observing daylight-saving time even after
57# Queensland ceased to.
58#
59# From Paul Eggert (1996-11-22):
60# IATA SSIM (1993-02/1994-09) say that the Holiday Islands (Hayman, Lindeman,
61# Hamilton) observed DST for two years after the rest of Queensland stopped.
62# Hamilton is the largest, but there is also a Hamilton in Victoria,
63# so use Lindeman.
64#
65# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
66Rule AQ 1971 only - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 -
67Rule AQ 1972 only - Feb lastSun 2:00s 0 -
68Rule AQ 1989 1991 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 -
69Rule AQ 1990 1992 - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
70Rule Holiday 1992 1993 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 -
71Rule Holiday 1993 1994 - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
72Zone Australia/Brisbane 10:12:08 - LMT 1895
73 10:00 Aus EST 1971
74 10:00 AQ EST
75Zone Australia/Lindeman 9:55:56 - LMT 1895
76 10:00 Aus EST 1971
77 10:00 AQ EST 1992 Jul
78 10:00 Holiday EST
79
80# South Australia
81# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
82Rule AS 1971 1985 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 -
83Rule AS 1986 only - Oct 19 2:00s 1:00 -
0e49ec84 84Rule AS 1987 2007 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 -
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85Rule AS 1972 only - Feb 27 2:00s 0 -
86Rule AS 1973 1985 - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
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87Rule AS 1986 1990 - Mar Sun>=15 2:00s 0 -
88Rule AS 1991 only - Mar 3 2:00s 0 -
89Rule AS 1992 only - Mar 22 2:00s 0 -
90Rule AS 1993 only - Mar 7 2:00s 0 -
91Rule AS 1994 only - Mar 20 2:00s 0 -
9ffe4b14 92Rule AS 1995 2005 - Mar lastSun 2:00s 0 -
ba8eb822 93Rule AS 2006 only - Apr 2 2:00s 0 -
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94Rule AS 2007 only - Mar lastSun 2:00s 0 -
95Rule AS 2008 max - Apr Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
96Rule AS 2008 max - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 1:00 -
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97# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
98Zone Australia/Adelaide 9:14:20 - LMT 1895 Feb
99 9:00 - CST 1899 May
100 9:30 Aus CST 1971
101 9:30 AS CST
102
103# Tasmania
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104#
105# From Paul Eggert (2005-08-16):
106# <http://www.bom.gov.au/climate/averages/tables/dst_times.shtml>
107# says King Island didn't observe DST from WWII until late 1971.
108#
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109# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
110Rule AT 1967 only - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 1:00 -
111Rule AT 1968 only - Mar lastSun 2:00s 0 -
112Rule AT 1968 1985 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 -
113Rule AT 1969 1971 - Mar Sun>=8 2:00s 0 -
114Rule AT 1972 only - Feb lastSun 2:00s 0 -
115Rule AT 1973 1981 - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
116Rule AT 1982 1983 - Mar lastSun 2:00s 0 -
117Rule AT 1984 1986 - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
118Rule AT 1986 only - Oct Sun>=15 2:00s 1:00 -
119Rule AT 1987 1990 - Mar Sun>=15 2:00s 0 -
120Rule AT 1987 only - Oct Sun>=22 2:00s 1:00 -
121Rule AT 1988 1990 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 -
122Rule AT 1991 1999 - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 1:00 -
9ffe4b14 123Rule AT 1991 2005 - Mar lastSun 2:00s 0 -
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124Rule AT 2000 only - Aug lastSun 2:00s 1:00 -
125Rule AT 2001 max - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 1:00 -
9ffe4b14 126Rule AT 2006 only - Apr Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
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127Rule AT 2007 only - Mar lastSun 2:00s 0 -
128Rule AT 2008 max - Apr Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
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129# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
130Zone Australia/Hobart 9:49:16 - LMT 1895 Sep
131 10:00 - EST 1916 Oct 1 2:00
132 10:00 1:00 EST 1917 Feb
133 10:00 Aus EST 1967
134 10:00 AT EST
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135Zone Australia/Currie 9:35:28 - LMT 1895 Sep
136 10:00 - EST 1916 Oct 1 2:00
137 10:00 1:00 EST 1917 Feb
138 10:00 Aus EST 1971 Jul
139 10:00 AT EST
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140
141# Victoria
142# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
143Rule AV 1971 1985 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 -
144Rule AV 1972 only - Feb lastSun 2:00s 0 -
145Rule AV 1973 1985 - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
146Rule AV 1986 1990 - Mar Sun>=15 2:00s 0 -
147Rule AV 1986 1987 - Oct Sun>=15 2:00s 1:00 -
148Rule AV 1988 1999 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 -
149Rule AV 1991 1994 - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
9ffe4b14 150Rule AV 1995 2005 - Mar lastSun 2:00s 0 -
984263bc 151Rule AV 2000 only - Aug lastSun 2:00s 1:00 -
0e49ec84 152Rule AV 2001 2007 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 -
9ffe4b14 153Rule AV 2006 only - Apr Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
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154Rule AV 2007 only - Mar lastSun 2:00s 0 -
155Rule AV 2008 max - Apr Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
156Rule AV 2008 max - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 1:00 -
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157# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
158Zone Australia/Melbourne 9:39:52 - LMT 1895 Feb
159 10:00 Aus EST 1971
160 10:00 AV EST
161
162# New South Wales
163# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
164Rule AN 1971 1985 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 -
165Rule AN 1972 only - Feb 27 2:00s 0 -
166Rule AN 1973 1981 - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
167Rule AN 1982 only - Apr Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
168Rule AN 1983 1985 - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
169Rule AN 1986 1989 - Mar Sun>=15 2:00s 0 -
170Rule AN 1986 only - Oct 19 2:00s 1:00 -
171Rule AN 1987 1999 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 -
172Rule AN 1990 1995 - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
9ffe4b14 173Rule AN 1996 2005 - Mar lastSun 2:00s 0 -
984263bc 174Rule AN 2000 only - Aug lastSun 2:00s 1:00 -
0e49ec84 175Rule AN 2001 2007 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 -
9ffe4b14 176Rule AN 2006 only - Apr Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
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177Rule AN 2007 only - Mar lastSun 2:00s 0 -
178Rule AN 2008 max - Apr Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
179Rule AN 2008 max - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 1:00 -
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180# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
181Zone Australia/Sydney 10:04:52 - LMT 1895 Feb
182 10:00 Aus EST 1971
183 10:00 AN EST
184Zone Australia/Broken_Hill 9:25:48 - LMT 1895 Feb
185 10:00 - EST 1896 Aug 23
186 9:00 - CST 1899 May
187 9:30 Aus CST 1971
188 9:30 AN CST 2000
189 9:30 AS CST
190
191# Lord Howe Island
192# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
193Rule LH 1981 1984 - Oct lastSun 2:00 1:00 -
194Rule LH 1982 1985 - Mar Sun>=1 2:00 0 -
195Rule LH 1985 only - Oct lastSun 2:00 0:30 -
196Rule LH 1986 1989 - Mar Sun>=15 2:00 0 -
197Rule LH 1986 only - Oct 19 2:00 0:30 -
198Rule LH 1987 1999 - Oct lastSun 2:00 0:30 -
199Rule LH 1990 1995 - Mar Sun>=1 2:00 0 -
9ffe4b14 200Rule LH 1996 2005 - Mar lastSun 2:00 0 -
984263bc 201Rule LH 2000 only - Aug lastSun 2:00 0:30 -
0e49ec84 202Rule LH 2001 2007 - Oct lastSun 2:00 0:30 -
9ffe4b14 203Rule LH 2006 only - Apr Sun>=1 2:00 0 -
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204Rule LH 2007 only - Mar lastSun 2:00 0 -
205Rule LH 2008 max - Apr Sun>=1 2:00 0 -
206Rule LH 2008 max - Oct Sun>=1 2:00 0:30 -
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207Zone Australia/Lord_Howe 10:36:20 - LMT 1895 Feb
208 10:00 - EST 1981 Mar
209 10:30 LH LHST
210
211# Australian miscellany
212#
213# Ashmore Is, Cartier
214# no indigenous inhabitants; only seasonal caretakers
880368e2 215# no times are set
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216#
217# Coral Sea Is
218# no indigenous inhabitants; only meteorologists
880368e2 219# no times are set
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220#
221# Macquarie
222# permanent occupation (scientific station) since 1948;
223# sealing and penguin oil station operated 1888/1917
880368e2 224# like Australia/Hobart
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225
226# Christmas
227# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
228Zone Indian/Christmas 7:02:52 - LMT 1895 Feb
229 7:00 - CXT # Christmas Island Time
230
231# Cook Is
bd7414aa 232# From Shanks & Pottenger:
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233# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
234Rule Cook 1978 only - Nov 12 0:00 0:30 HS
235Rule Cook 1979 1991 - Mar Sun>=1 0:00 0 -
236Rule Cook 1979 1990 - Oct lastSun 0:00 0:30 HS
237# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
238Zone Pacific/Rarotonga -10:39:04 - LMT 1901 # Avarua
239 -10:30 - CKT 1978 Nov 12 # Cook Is Time
240 -10:00 Cook CK%sT
241
242# Cocos
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243# These islands were ruled by the Ross family from about 1830 to 1978.
244# We don't know when standard time was introduced; for now, we guess 1900.
984263bc 245# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
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246Zone Indian/Cocos 6:27:40 - LMT 1900
247 6:30 - CCT # Cocos Islands Time
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248
249# Fiji
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250# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-11-10):
251# According to Fiji Broadcasting Corporation, Fiji plans to re-introduce DST
252# from November 29th 2009 to April 25th 2010.
253#
254# "Daylight savings to commence this month"
255# <a href="http://www.radiofiji.com.fj/fullstory.php?id=23719">
256# http://www.radiofiji.com.fj/fullstory.php?id=23719
257# </a>
258# or
259# <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_fiji01.html">
260# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_fiji01.html
261# </a>
262
263# From Steffen Thorsen (2009-11-10):
264# The Fiji Government has posted some more details about the approved
265# amendments:
266# <a href="http://www.fiji.gov.fj/publish/page_16198.shtml">
267# http://www.fiji.gov.fj/publish/page_16198.shtml
268# </a>
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269
270# From Steffen Thorsen (2010-03-03):
271# The Cabinet in Fiji has decided to end DST about a month early, on
272# 2010-03-28 at 03:00.
273# The plan is to observe DST again, from 2010-10-24 to sometime in March
274# 2011 (last Sunday a good guess?).
275#
276# Official source:
277# <a href="http://www.fiji.gov.fj/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=1096:3310-cabinet-approves-change-in-daylight-savings-dates&catid=49:cabinet-releases&Itemid=166">
278# http://www.fiji.gov.fj/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=1096:3310-cabinet-approves-change-in-daylight-savings-dates&catid=49:cabinet-releases&Itemid=166
279# </a>
280#
281# A bit more background info here:
282# <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/fiji-dst-ends-march-2010.html">
283# http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/fiji-dst-ends-march-2010.html
284# </a>
285
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286# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2010-10-24):
287# According to Radio Fiji and Fiji Times online, Fiji will end DST 3
288# weeks earlier than expected - on March 6, 2011, not March 27, 2011...
289# Here is confirmation from Government of the Republic of the Fiji Islands,
290# Ministry of Information (fiji.gov.fj) web site:
291# <a href="http://www.fiji.gov.fj/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=2608:daylight-savings&catid=71:press-releases&Itemid=155">
292# http://www.fiji.gov.fj/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=2608:daylight-savings&catid=71:press-releases&Itemid=155
293# </a>
294# or
295# <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_fiji04.html">
296# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_fiji04.html
297# </a>
298
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299# From Steffen Thorsen (2011-10-03):
300# Now the dates have been confirmed, and at least our start date
301# assumption was correct (end date was one week wrong).
302#
303# <a href="http://www.fiji.gov.fj/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=4966:daylight-saving-starts-in-fiji&catid=71:press-releases&Itemid=155">
304# www.fiji.gov.fj/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=4966:daylight-saving-starts-in-fiji&catid=71:press-releases&Itemid=155
305# </a>
306# which says
307# Members of the public are reminded to change their time to one hour in
308# advance at 2am to 3am on October 23, 2011 and one hour back at 3am to
309# 2am on February 26 next year.
310
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311# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
312Rule Fiji 1998 1999 - Nov Sun>=1 2:00 1:00 S
313Rule Fiji 1999 2000 - Feb lastSun 3:00 0 -
482f37b8 314Rule Fiji 2009 only - Nov 29 2:00 1:00 S
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315Rule Fiji 2010 only - Mar lastSun 3:00 0 -
316Rule Fiji 2010 only - Oct 24 2:00 1:00 S
f15b9e37 317Rule Fiji 2011 only - Mar Sun>=1 3:00 0 -
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318Rule Fiji 2011 only - Oct 23 2:00 1:00 S
319Rule Fiji 2012 only - Feb 26 3:00 0 -
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320# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
321Zone Pacific/Fiji 11:53:40 - LMT 1915 Oct 26 # Suva
322 12:00 Fiji FJ%sT # Fiji Time
323
324# French Polynesia
325# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
326Zone Pacific/Gambier -8:59:48 - LMT 1912 Oct # Rikitea
327 -9:00 - GAMT # Gambier Time
328Zone Pacific/Marquesas -9:18:00 - LMT 1912 Oct
329 -9:30 - MART # Marquesas Time
330Zone Pacific/Tahiti -9:58:16 - LMT 1912 Oct # Papeete
331 -10:00 - TAHT # Tahiti Time
332# Clipperton (near North America) is administered from French Polynesia;
333# it is uninhabited.
334
335# Guam
336# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
337Zone Pacific/Guam -14:21:00 - LMT 1844 Dec 31
338 9:39:00 - LMT 1901 # Agana
339 10:00 - GST 2000 Dec 23 # Guam
340 10:00 - ChST # Chamorro Standard Time
341
342# Kiribati
343# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
344Zone Pacific/Tarawa 11:32:04 - LMT 1901 # Bairiki
345 12:00 - GILT # Gilbert Is Time
346Zone Pacific/Enderbury -11:24:20 - LMT 1901
347 -12:00 - PHOT 1979 Oct # Phoenix Is Time
348 -11:00 - PHOT 1995
349 13:00 - PHOT
350Zone Pacific/Kiritimati -10:29:20 - LMT 1901
351 -10:40 - LINT 1979 Oct # Line Is Time
352 -10:00 - LINT 1995
353 14:00 - LINT
354
355# N Mariana Is
356# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
357Zone Pacific/Saipan -14:17:00 - LMT 1844 Dec 31
358 9:43:00 - LMT 1901
359 9:00 - MPT 1969 Oct # N Mariana Is Time
360 10:00 - MPT 2000 Dec 23
361 10:00 - ChST # Chamorro Standard Time
362
363# Marshall Is
364# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
365Zone Pacific/Majuro 11:24:48 - LMT 1901
366 11:00 - MHT 1969 Oct # Marshall Islands Time
367 12:00 - MHT
368Zone Pacific/Kwajalein 11:09:20 - LMT 1901
369 11:00 - MHT 1969 Oct
370 -12:00 - KWAT 1993 Aug 20 # Kwajalein Time
371 12:00 - MHT
372
373# Micronesia
374# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
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375Zone Pacific/Chuuk 10:07:08 - LMT 1901
376 10:00 - CHUT # Chuuk Time
377Zone Pacific/Pohnpei 10:32:52 - LMT 1901 # Kolonia
378 11:00 - PONT # Pohnpei Time
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379Zone Pacific/Kosrae 10:51:56 - LMT 1901
380 11:00 - KOST 1969 Oct # Kosrae Time
381 12:00 - KOST 1999
382 11:00 - KOST
383
384# Nauru
385# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
386Zone Pacific/Nauru 11:07:40 - LMT 1921 Jan 15 # Uaobe
387 11:30 - NRT 1942 Mar 15 # Nauru Time
388 9:00 - JST 1944 Aug 15
389 11:30 - NRT 1979 May
390 12:00 - NRT
391
392# New Caledonia
393# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
394Rule NC 1977 1978 - Dec Sun>=1 0:00 1:00 S
395Rule NC 1978 1979 - Feb 27 0:00 0 -
396Rule NC 1996 only - Dec 1 2:00s 1:00 S
bd7414aa 397# Shanks & Pottenger say the following was at 2:00; go with IATA.
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398Rule NC 1997 only - Mar 2 2:00s 0 -
399# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
400Zone Pacific/Noumea 11:05:48 - LMT 1912 Jan 13
401 11:00 NC NC%sT
402
403
404###############################################################################
405
406# New Zealand
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407
408# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
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409Rule NZ 1927 only - Nov 6 2:00 1:00 S
410Rule NZ 1928 only - Mar 4 2:00 0 M
411Rule NZ 1928 1933 - Oct Sun>=8 2:00 0:30 S
412Rule NZ 1929 1933 - Mar Sun>=15 2:00 0 M
413Rule NZ 1934 1940 - Apr lastSun 2:00 0 M
414Rule NZ 1934 1940 - Sep lastSun 2:00 0:30 S
415Rule NZ 1946 only - Jan 1 0:00 0 S
416# Since 1957 Chatham has been 45 minutes ahead of NZ, but there's no
417# convenient notation for this so we must duplicate the Rule lines.
984263bc 418Rule NZ 1974 only - Nov Sun>=1 2:00s 1:00 D
ba5ba9da 419Rule Chatham 1974 only - Nov Sun>=1 2:45s 1:00 D
984263bc 420Rule NZ 1975 only - Feb lastSun 2:00s 0 S
ba5ba9da 421Rule Chatham 1975 only - Feb lastSun 2:45s 0 S
984263bc 422Rule NZ 1975 1988 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 D
ba5ba9da 423Rule Chatham 1975 1988 - Oct lastSun 2:45s 1:00 D
984263bc 424Rule NZ 1976 1989 - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 S
ba5ba9da 425Rule Chatham 1976 1989 - Mar Sun>=1 2:45s 0 S
984263bc 426Rule NZ 1989 only - Oct Sun>=8 2:00s 1:00 D
ba5ba9da 427Rule Chatham 1989 only - Oct Sun>=8 2:45s 1:00 D
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428Rule NZ 1990 2006 - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 1:00 D
429Rule Chatham 1990 2006 - Oct Sun>=1 2:45s 1:00 D
430Rule NZ 1990 2007 - Mar Sun>=15 2:00s 0 S
431Rule Chatham 1990 2007 - Mar Sun>=15 2:45s 0 S
432Rule NZ 2007 max - Sep lastSun 2:00s 1:00 D
433Rule Chatham 2007 max - Sep lastSun 2:45s 1:00 D
434Rule NZ 2008 max - Apr Sun>=1 2:00s 0 S
435Rule Chatham 2008 max - Apr Sun>=1 2:45s 0 S
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436# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
437Zone Pacific/Auckland 11:39:04 - LMT 1868 Nov 2
ba5ba9da 438 11:30 NZ NZ%sT 1946 Jan 1
984263bc 439 12:00 NZ NZ%sT
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440Zone Pacific/Chatham 12:13:48 - LMT 1957 Jan 1
441 12:45 Chatham CHA%sT
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442
443
444# Auckland Is
445# uninhabited; Maori and Moriori, colonial settlers, pastoralists, sealers,
446# and scientific personnel have wintered
447
448# Campbell I
449# minor whaling stations operated 1909/1914
450# scientific station operated 1941/1995;
451# previously whalers, sealers, pastoralists, and scientific personnel wintered
452# was probably like Pacific/Auckland
453
454###############################################################################
455
456
457# Niue
458# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
459Zone Pacific/Niue -11:19:40 - LMT 1901 # Alofi
460 -11:20 - NUT 1951 # Niue Time
461 -11:30 - NUT 1978 Oct 1
462 -11:00 - NUT
463
464# Norfolk
465# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
466Zone Pacific/Norfolk 11:11:52 - LMT 1901 # Kingston
467 11:12 - NMT 1951 # Norfolk Mean Time
468 11:30 - NFT # Norfolk Time
469
470# Palau (Belau)
471# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
472Zone Pacific/Palau 8:57:56 - LMT 1901 # Koror
473 9:00 - PWT # Palau Time
474
475# Papua New Guinea
476# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
477Zone Pacific/Port_Moresby 9:48:40 - LMT 1880
478 9:48:32 - PMMT 1895 # Port Moresby Mean Time
479 10:00 - PGT # Papua New Guinea Time
480
481# Pitcairn
482# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
483Zone Pacific/Pitcairn -8:40:20 - LMT 1901 # Adamstown
484 -8:30 - PNT 1998 Apr 27 00:00
485 -8:00 - PST # Pitcairn Standard Time
486
487# American Samoa
488Zone Pacific/Pago_Pago 12:37:12 - LMT 1879 Jul 5
489 -11:22:48 - LMT 1911
490 -11:30 - SAMT 1950 # Samoa Time
491 -11:00 - NST 1967 Apr # N=Nome
492 -11:00 - BST 1983 Nov 30 # B=Bering
493 -11:00 - SST # S=Samoa
494
bc95ec93 495# Samoa
d2e76e66 496
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497# From Steffen Thorsen (2009-10-16):
498# We have been in contact with the government of Samoa again, and received
499# the following info:
d2e76e66 500#
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501# "Cabinet has now approved Daylight Saving to be effected next year
502# commencing from the last Sunday of September 2010 and conclude first
503# Sunday of April 2011."
ae8fda8f 504#
5a0c5ddc 505# Background info:
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506# <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/samoa-dst-plan-2009.html">
507# http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/samoa-dst-plan-2009.html
508# </a>
83c88d65 509#
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510# Samoa's Daylight Saving Time Act 2009 is available here, but does not
511# contain any dates:
512# <a href="http://www.parliament.gov.ws/documents/acts/Daylight%20Saving%20Act%20%202009%20%28English%29%20-%20Final%207-7-091.pdf">
513# http://www.parliament.gov.ws/documents/acts/Daylight%20Saving%20Act%20%202009%20%28English%29%20-%20Final%207-7-091.pdf
514# </a>
83c88d65 515
939d3005 516# From Laupue Raymond Hughes (2010-10-07):
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517# Please see
518# <a href="http://www.mcil.gov.ws">
519# http://www.mcil.gov.ws
520# </a>,
521# the Ministry of Commerce, Industry and Labour (sideframe) "Last Sunday
522# September 2010 (26/09/10) - adjust clocks forward from 12:00 midnight
523# to 01:00am and First Sunday April 2011 (03/04/11) - adjust clocks
524# backwards from 1:00am to 12:00am"
525
939d3005 526# From Laupue Raymond Hughes (2011-03-07):
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527# I believe this will be posted shortly on the website
528# <a href="http://www.mcil.gov.ws">
529# www.mcil.gov.ws
530# </a>
531#
532# PUBLIC NOTICE ON DAYLIGHT SAVING TIME
533#
534# Pursuant to the Daylight Saving Act 2009 and Cabinets decision,
535# businesses and the general public are hereby advised that daylight
536# saving time is on the first Saturday of April 2011 (02/04/11).
537#
538# The public is therefore advised that when the standard time strikes
539# the hour of four oclock (4.00am or 0400 Hours) on the 2nd April 2011,
540# then all instruments used to measure standard time are to be
541# adjusted/changed to three oclock (3:00am or 0300Hrs).
542#
543# Margaret Fruean ACTING CHIEF EXECUTIVE OFFICER MINISTRY OF COMMERCE,
544# INDUSTRY AND LABOUR 28th February 2011
545
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546# From David Zuelke (2011-05-09):
547# Subject: Samoa to move timezone from east to west of international date line
548#
549# <a href="http://www.morningstar.co.uk/uk/markets/newsfeeditem.aspx?id=138501958347963">
550# http://www.morningstar.co.uk/uk/markets/newsfeeditem.aspx?id=138501958347963
551# </a>
552
553# From Mark Sim-Smith (2011-08-17):
554# I have been in contact with Leilani Tuala Warren from the Samoa Law
555# Reform Commission, and she has sent me a copy of the Bill that she
556# confirmed has been passed...Most of the sections are about maps rather
557# than the time zone change, but I'll paste the relevant bits below. But
558# the essence is that at midnight 29 Dec (UTC-11 I suppose), Samoa
559# changes from UTC-11 to UTC+13:
560#
561# International Date Line Bill 2011
562#
563# AN ACT to provide for the change to standard time in Samoa and to make
564# consequential amendments to the position of the International Date
565# Line, and for related purposes.
566#
567# BE IT ENACTED by the Legislative Assembly of Samoa in Parliament
568# assembled as follows:
569#
570# 1. Short title and commencement-(1) This Act may be cited as the
571# International Date Line Act 2011. (2) Except for section 5(3) this Act
572# commences at 12 o'clock midnight, on Thursday 29th December 2011. (3)
573# Section 5(3) commences on the date of assent by the Head of State.
574#
575# [snip]
576#
577# 3. Interpretation - [snip] "Samoa standard time" in this Act and any
578# other statute of Samoa which refers to 'Samoa standard time' means the
579# time 13 hours in advance of Co-ordinated Universal Time.
580#
581# 4. Samoa standard time - (1) Upon the commencement of this Act, Samoa
582# standard time shall be set at 13 hours in advance of Co-ordinated
583# Universal Time for the whole of Samoa. (2) All references to Samoa's
584# time zone and to Samoa standard time in Samoa in all legislation and
585# instruments after the commencement of this Act shall be references to
586# Samoa standard time as provided for in this Act. (3) Nothing in this
587# Act affects the provisions of the Daylight Saving Act 2009, except that
588# it defines Samoa standard time....
589
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590# From Laupue Raymond Hughes (2011-09-02):
591# <a href="http://www.mcil.gov.ws/mcil_publications.html">
592# http://www.mcil.gov.ws/mcil_publications.html
593# </a>
594#
595# here is the official website publication for Samoa DST and dateline change
596#
597# DST
598# Year End Time Start Time
599# 2011 - - - - - - 24 September 3:00am to 4:00am
600# 2012 01 April 4:00am to 3:00am - - - - - -
601#
602# Dateline Change skip Friday 30th Dec 2011
603# Thursday 29th December 2011 23:59:59 Hours
604# Saturday 31st December 2011 00:00:00 Hours
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605Zone Pacific/Apia 12:33:04 - LMT 1879 Jul 5
606 -11:26:56 - LMT 1911
607 -11:30 - SAMT 1950 # Samoa Time
5756332b 608 -11:00 - WST 2010 Sep 26
980da900 609 -11:00 1:00 WSDT 2011 Apr 2 4:00
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610 -11:00 - WST 2011 Sep 24 3:00
611 -11:00 1:00 WSDT 2011 Dec 30
612 13:00 1:00 WSDT 2012 Apr 1 4:00
57e1cca5 613 13:00 - WST
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614
615# Solomon Is
616# excludes Bougainville, for which see Papua New Guinea
617# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
618Zone Pacific/Guadalcanal 10:39:48 - LMT 1912 Oct # Honiara
619 11:00 - SBT # Solomon Is Time
620
621# Tokelau Is
622# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
623Zone Pacific/Fakaofo -11:24:56 - LMT 1901
624 -10:00 - TKT # Tokelau Time
625
626# Tonga
627# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
628Rule Tonga 1999 only - Oct 7 2:00s 1:00 S
629Rule Tonga 2000 only - Mar 19 2:00s 0 -
630Rule Tonga 2000 2001 - Nov Sun>=1 2:00 1:00 S
631Rule Tonga 2001 2002 - Jan lastSun 2:00 0 -
632# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
633Zone Pacific/Tongatapu 12:19:20 - LMT 1901
634 12:20 - TOT 1941 # Tonga Time
635 13:00 - TOT 1999
636 13:00 Tonga TO%sT
637
638# Tuvalu
639# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
640Zone Pacific/Funafuti 11:56:52 - LMT 1901
641 12:00 - TVT # Tuvalu Time
642
643
644# US minor outlying islands
645
646# Howland, Baker
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647# Howland was mined for guano by American companies 1857-1878 and British
648# 1886-1891; Baker was similar but exact dates are not known.
649# Inhabited by civilians 1935-1942; U.S. military bases 1943-1944;
650# uninhabited thereafter.
651# Howland observed Hawaii Standard Time (UTC-10:30) in 1937;
652# see page 206 of Elgen M. Long and Marie K. Long,
653# Amelia Earhart: the Mystery Solved, Simon & Schuster (2000).
654# So most likely Howland and Baker observed Hawaii Time from 1935
655# until they were abandoned after the war.
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656
657# Jarvis
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658# Mined for guano by American companies 1857-1879 and British 1883?-1891?.
659# Inhabited by civilians 1935-1942; IGY scientific base 1957-1958;
660# uninhabited thereafter.
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661# no information; was probably like Pacific/Kiritimati
662
663# Johnston
664# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
665Zone Pacific/Johnston -10:00 - HST
666
667# Kingman
668# uninhabited
669
670# Midway
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671#
672# From Mark Brader (2005-01-23):
673# [Fallacies and Fantasies of Air Transport History, by R.E.G. Davies,
674# published 1994 by Paladwr Press, McLean, VA, USA; ISBN 0-9626483-5-3]
675# reproduced a Pan American Airways timeables from 1936, for their weekly
676# "Orient Express" flights between San Francisco and Manila, and connecting
677# flights to Chicago and the US East Coast. As it uses some time zone
678# designations that I've never seen before:....
679# Fri. 6:30A Lv. HONOLOLU (Pearl Harbor), H.I. H.L.T. Ar. 5:30P Sun.
680# " 3:00P Ar. MIDWAY ISLAND . . . . . . . . . M.L.T. Lv. 6:00A "
681#
984263bc 682Zone Pacific/Midway -11:49:28 - LMT 1901
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683 -11:00 - NST 1956 Jun 3
684 -11:00 1:00 NDT 1956 Sep 2
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685 -11:00 - NST 1967 Apr # N=Nome
686 -11:00 - BST 1983 Nov 30 # B=Bering
687 -11:00 - SST # S=Samoa
688
689# Palmyra
690# uninhabited since World War II; was probably like Pacific/Kiritimati
691
692# Wake
693# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
694Zone Pacific/Wake 11:06:28 - LMT 1901
695 12:00 - WAKT # Wake Time
696
697
698# Vanuatu
699# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
700Rule Vanuatu 1983 only - Sep 25 0:00 1:00 S
701Rule Vanuatu 1984 1991 - Mar Sun>=23 0:00 0 -
702Rule Vanuatu 1984 only - Oct 23 0:00 1:00 S
703Rule Vanuatu 1985 1991 - Sep Sun>=23 0:00 1:00 S
704Rule Vanuatu 1992 1993 - Jan Sun>=23 0:00 0 -
705Rule Vanuatu 1992 only - Oct Sun>=23 0:00 1:00 S
706# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
707Zone Pacific/Efate 11:13:16 - LMT 1912 Jan 13 # Vila
708 11:00 Vanuatu VU%sT # Vanuatu Time
709
710# Wallis and Futuna
711# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
712Zone Pacific/Wallis 12:15:20 - LMT 1901
713 12:00 - WFT # Wallis & Futuna Time
714
715###############################################################################
716
717# NOTES
718
719# This data is by no means authoritative; if you think you know better,
720# go ahead and edit the file (and please send any changes to
721# tz@elsie.nci.nih.gov for general use in the future).
722
bd7414aa 723# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
984263bc 724# A good source for time zone historical data outside the U.S. is
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725# Thomas G. Shanks and Rique Pottenger, The International Atlas (6th edition),
726# San Diego: ACS Publications, Inc. (2003).
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727#
728# Gwillim Law writes that a good source
729# for recent time zone data is the International Air Transport
730# Association's Standard Schedules Information Manual (IATA SSIM),
731# published semiannually. Law sent in several helpful summaries
732# of the IATA's data after 1990.
733#
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734# Except where otherwise noted, Shanks & Pottenger is the source for
735# entries through 1990, and IATA SSIM is the source for entries afterwards.
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736#
737# Another source occasionally used is Edward W. Whitman, World Time Differences,
738# Whitman Publishing Co, 2 Niagara Av, Ealing, London (undated), which
739# I found in the UCLA library.
740#
741# A reliable and entertaining source about time zones is
742# Derek Howse, Greenwich time and longitude, Philip Wilson Publishers (1997).
743#
744# I invented the abbreviations marked `*' in the following table;
745# the rest are from earlier versions of this file, or from other sources.
746# Corrections are welcome!
747# std dst
748# LMT Local Mean Time
749# 8:00 WST WST Western Australia
880368e2 750# 8:45 CWST CWST Central Western Australia*
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751# 9:00 JST Japan
752# 9:30 CST CST Central Australia
753# 10:00 EST EST Eastern Australia
754# 10:00 ChST Chamorro
755# 10:30 LHST LHST Lord Howe*
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756# 11:30 NZMT NZST New Zealand through 1945
757# 12:00 NZST NZDT New Zealand 1946-present
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758# 12:45 CHAST CHADT Chatham*
759# -11:00 SST Samoa
760# -10:00 HST Hawaii
761# - 8:00 PST Pitcairn*
762#
763# See the `northamerica' file for Hawaii.
764# See the `southamerica' file for Easter I and the Galapagos Is.
765
766###############################################################################
767
768# Australia
769
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770# From Paul Eggert (2005-12-08):
771# <a href="http://www.bom.gov.au/climate/averages/tables/dst_times.shtml">
772# Implementation Dates of Daylight Saving Time within Australia
773# </a> summarizes daylight saving issues in Australia.
774
775# From Arthur David Olson (2005-12-12):
776# <a href="http://www.lawlink.nsw.gov.au/lawlink/Corporate/ll_agdinfo.nsf/pages/community_relations_daylight_saving">
777# Lawlink NSW:Daylight Saving in New South Wales
778# </a> covers New South Wales in particular.
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779
780# From John Mackin (1991-03-06):
781# We in Australia have _never_ referred to DST as `daylight' time.
782# It is called `summer' time. Now by a happy coincidence, `summer'
783# and `standard' happen to start with the same letter; hence, the
784# abbreviation does _not_ change...
785# The legislation does not actually define abbreviations, at least
786# in this State, but the abbreviation is just commonly taken to be the
787# initials of the phrase, and the legislation here uniformly uses
788# the phrase `summer time' and does not use the phrase `daylight
789# time'.
790# Announcers on the Commonwealth radio network, the ABC (for Australian
791# Broadcasting Commission), use the phrases `Eastern Standard Time'
792# or `Eastern Summer Time'. (Note, though, that as I say in the
793# current australasia file, there is really no such thing.) Announcers
794# on its overseas service, Radio Australia, use the same phrases
795# prefixed by the word `Australian' when referring to local times;
796# time announcements on that service, naturally enough, are made in UTC.
797
798# From Arthur David Olson (1992-03-08):
799# Given the above, what's chosen for year-round use is:
800# CST for any place operating at a GMTOFF of 9:30
801# WST for any place operating at a GMTOFF of 8:00
802# EST for any place operating at a GMTOFF of 10:00
803
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804# From Chuck Soper (2006-06-01):
805# I recently found this Australian government web page on time zones:
806# <http://www.australia.gov.au/about-australia-13time>
807# And this government web page lists time zone names and abbreviations:
808# <http://www.bom.gov.au/climate/averages/tables/daysavtm.shtml>
809
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810# From Paul Eggert (2001-04-05), summarizing a long discussion about "EST"
811# versus "AEST" etc.:
812#
813# I see the following points of dispute:
814#
815# * How important are unique time zone abbreviations?
816#
817# Here I tend to agree with the point (most recently made by Chris
818# Newman) that unique abbreviations should not be essential for proper
819# operation of software. We have other instances of ambiguity
820# (e.g. "IST" denoting both "Israel Standard Time" and "Indian
821# Standard Time"), and they are not likely to go away any time soon.
822# In the old days, some software mistakenly relied on unique
823# abbreviations, but this is becoming less true with time, and I don't
824# think it's that important to cater to such software these days.
825#
826# On the other hand, there is another motivation for unambiguous
827# abbreviations: it cuts down on human confusion. This is
828# particularly true for Australia, where "EST" can mean one thing for
829# time T and a different thing for time T plus 1 second.
830#
831# * Does the relevant legislation indicate which abbreviations should be used?
832#
833# Here I tend to think that things are a mess, just as they are in
834# many other countries. We Americans are currently disagreeing about
835# which abbreviation to use for the newly legislated Chamorro Standard
836# Time, for example.
837#
838# Personally, I would prefer to use common practice; I would like to
839# refer to legislation only for examples of common practice, or as a
840# tiebreaker.
841#
842# * Do Australians more often use "Eastern Daylight Time" or "Eastern
843# Summer Time"? Do they typically prefix the time zone names with
844# the word "Australian"?
845#
846# My own impression is that both "Daylight Time" and "Summer Time" are
847# common and are widely understood, but that "Summer Time" is more
848# popular; and that the leading "A" is also common but is omitted more
849# often than not. I just used AltaVista advanced search and got the
850# following count of page hits:
851#
852# 1,103 "Eastern Summer Time" AND domain:au
853# 971 "Australian Eastern Summer Time" AND domain:au
854# 613 "Eastern Daylight Time" AND domain:au
855# 127 "Australian Eastern Daylight Time" AND domain:au
856#
857# Here "Summer" seems quite a bit more popular than "Daylight",
858# particularly when we know the time zone is Australian and not US,
859# say. The "Australian" prefix seems to be popular for Eastern Summer
860# Time, but unpopular for Eastern Daylight Time.
861#
862# For abbreviations, tools like AltaVista are less useful because of
863# ambiguity. Many hits are not really time zones, unfortunately, and
864# many hits denote US time zones and not Australian ones. But here
865# are the hit counts anyway:
866#
867# 161,304 "EST" and domain:au
868# 25,156 "EDT" and domain:au
869# 18,263 "AEST" and domain:au
870# 10,416 "AEDT" and domain:au
871#
872# 14,538 "CST" and domain:au
873# 5,728 "CDT" and domain:au
874# 176 "ACST" and domain:au
875# 29 "ACDT" and domain:au
876#
877# 7,539 "WST" and domain:au
878# 68 "AWST" and domain:au
879#
880# This data suggest that Australians tend to omit the "A" prefix in
881# practice. The situation for "ST" versus "DT" is less clear, given
882# the ambiguities involved.
883#
884# * How do Australians feel about the abbreviations in the tz database?
885#
886# If you just count Australians on this list, I count 2 in favor and 3
887# against. One of the "against" votes (David Keegel) counseled delay,
888# saying that both AEST/AEDT and EST/EST are widely used and
889# understood in Australia.
890
891# From Paul Eggert (1995-12-19):
bd7414aa 892# Shanks & Pottenger report 2:00 for all autumn changes in Australia and NZ.
9ffe4b14 893# Mark Prior writes that his newspaper
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894# reports that NSW's fall 1995 change will occur at 2:00,
895# but Robert Elz says it's been 3:00 in Victoria since 1970
896# and perhaps the newspaper's `2:00' is referring to standard time.
897# For now we'll continue to assume 2:00s for changes since 1960.
898
9ffe4b14 899# From Eric Ulevik (1998-01-05):
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900#
901# Here are some URLs to Australian time legislation. These URLs are stable,
902# and should probably be included in the data file. There are probably more
903# relevant entries in this database.
904#
905# NSW (including LHI and Broken Hill):
906# <a href="http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/nsw/consol_act/sta1987137/index.html">
907# Standard Time Act 1987 (updated 1995-04-04)
908# </a>
909# ACT
910# <a href="http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/act/consol_act/stasta1972279/index.html">
911# Standard Time and Summer Time Act 1972
912# </a>
913# SA
914# <a href="http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/sa/consol_act/sta1898137/index.html">
915# Standard Time Act, 1898
916# </a>
917
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918# From David Grosz (2005-06-13):
919# It was announced last week that Daylight Saving would be extended by
920# one week next year to allow for the 2006 Commonwealth Games.
921# Daylight Saving is now to end for next year only on the first Sunday
922# in April instead of the last Sunday in March.
923#
924# From Gwillim Law (2005-06-14):
925# I did some Googling and found that all of those states (and territory) plan
926# to extend DST together in 2006.
927# ACT: http://www.cmd.act.gov.au/mediareleases/fileread.cfm?file=86.txt
928# New South Wales: http://www.thecouriermail.news.com.au/common/story_page/0,5936,15538869%255E1702,00.html
929# South Australia: http://www.news.com.au/story/0,10117,15555031-1246,00.html
930# Tasmania: http://www.media.tas.gov.au/release.php?id=14772
931# Victoria: I wasn't able to find anything separate, but the other articles
932# allude to it.
933# But not Queensland
934# http://www.news.com.au/story/0,10117,15564030-1248,00.html.
935
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936# Northern Territory
937
938# From George Shepherd via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06):
939# # The NORTHERN TERRITORY.. [ Courtesy N.T. Dept of the Chief Minister ]
940# # [ Nov 1990 ]
941# # N.T. have never utilised any DST due to sub-tropical/tropical location.
942# ...
943# Zone Australia/North 9:30 - CST
944
945# From Bradley White (1991-03-04):
946# A recent excerpt from an Australian newspaper...
947# the Northern Territory do[es] not have daylight saving.
948
949# Western Australia
950
951# From George Shepherd via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06):
952# # The state of WESTERN AUSTRALIA.. [ Courtesy W.A. dept Premier+Cabinet ]
953# # [ Nov 1990 ]
954# # W.A. suffers from a great deal of public and political opposition to
955# # DST in principle. A bill is brought before parliament in most years, but
956# # usually defeated either in the upper house, or in party caucus
957# # before reaching parliament.
958# ...
959# Zone Australia/West 8:00 AW %sST
960# ...
961# Rule AW 1974 only - Oct lastSun 2:00 1:00 D
962# Rule AW 1975 only - Mar Sun>=1 3:00 0 W
963# Rule AW 1983 only - Oct lastSun 2:00 1:00 D
964# Rule AW 1984 only - Mar Sun>=1 3:00 0 W
965
966# From Bradley White (1991-03-04):
967# A recent excerpt from an Australian newspaper...
968# Western Australia...do[es] not have daylight saving.
969
970# From John D. Newman via Bradley White (1991-11-02):
971# Western Australia is still on "winter time". Some DH in Sydney
972# rang me at home a few days ago at 6.00am. (He had just arrived at
973# work at 9.00am.)
974# W.A. is switching to Summer Time on Nov 17th just to confuse
975# everybody again.
976
977# From Arthur David Olson (1992-03-08):
978# The 1992 ending date used in the rules is a best guess;
979# it matches what was used in the past.
980
981# <a href="http://www.bom.gov.au/faq/faqgen.htm">
982# The Australian Bureau of Meteorology FAQ
983# </a> (1999-09-27) writes that Giles Meteorological Station uses
984# South Australian time even though it's located in Western Australia.
985
986# Queensland
987# From George Shepherd via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06):
988# # The state of QUEENSLAND.. [ Courtesy Qld. Dept Premier Econ&Trade Devel ]
989# # [ Dec 1990 ]
990# ...
991# Zone Australia/Queensland 10:00 AQ %sST
992# ...
993# Rule AQ 1971 only - Oct lastSun 2:00 1:00 D
994# Rule AQ 1972 only - Feb lastSun 3:00 0 E
995# Rule AQ 1989 max - Oct lastSun 2:00 1:00 D
996# Rule AQ 1990 max - Mar Sun>=1 3:00 0 E
997
998# From Bradley White (1989-12-24):
999# "Australia/Queensland" now observes daylight time (i.e. from
1000# October 1989).
1001
1002# From Bradley White (1991-03-04):
1003# A recent excerpt from an Australian newspaper...
1004# ...Queensland...[has] agreed to end daylight saving
1005# at 3am tomorrow (March 3)...
1006
1007# From John Mackin (1991-03-06):
1008# I can certainly confirm for my part that Daylight Saving in NSW did in fact
1009# end on Sunday, 3 March. I don't know at what hour, though. (It surprised
1010# me.)
1011
1012# From Bradley White (1992-03-08):
1013# ...there was recently a referendum in Queensland which resulted
1014# in the experimental daylight saving system being abandoned. So, ...
1015# ...
1016# Rule QLD 1989 1991 - Oct lastSun 2:00 1:00 D
1017# Rule QLD 1990 1992 - Mar Sun>=1 3:00 0 S
1018# ...
1019
1020# From Arthur David Olson (1992-03-08):
1021# The chosen rules the union of the 1971/1972 change and the 1989-1992 changes.
1022
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1023# From Christopher Hunt (2006-11-21), after an advance warning
1024# from Jesper Norgaard Welen (2006-11-01):
8393cd87 1025# WA are trialing DST for three years.
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1026# <http://www.parliament.wa.gov.au/parliament/bills.nsf/9A1B183144403DA54825721200088DF1/$File/Bill175-1B.pdf>
1027
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1028# From Rives McDow (2002-04-09):
1029# The most interesting region I have found consists of three towns on the
880368e2 1030# southern coast.... South Australia observes daylight saving time; Western
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1031# Australia does not. The two states are one and a half hours apart. The
1032# residents decided to forget about this nonsense of changing the clock so
1033# much and set the local time 20 hours and 45 minutes from the
1034# international date line, or right in the middle of the time of South
880368e2 1035# Australia and Western Australia....
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1036#
1037# From Paul Eggert (2002-04-09):
1038# This is confirmed by the section entitled
1039# "What's the deal with time zones???" in
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1040# <http://www.earthsci.unimelb.edu.au/~awatkins/null.html>.
1041#
1042# From Alex Livingston (2006-12-07):
1043# ... it was just on four years ago that I drove along the Eyre Highway,
1044# which passes through eastern Western Australia close to the southern
1045# coast of the continent.
1046#
1047# I paid particular attention to the time kept there. There can be no
1048# dispute that UTC+08:45 was considered "the time" from the border
1049# village just inside the border with South Australia to as far west
1050# as just east of Caiguna. There can also be no dispute that Eucla is
1051# the largest population centre in this zone....
1052#
1053# Now that Western Australia is observing daylight saving, the
1054# question arose whether this part of the state would follow suit. I
1055# just called the border village and confirmed that indeed they have,
1056# meaning that they are now observing UTC+09:45.
8393cd87 1057#
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1058# (2006-12-09):
1059# I personally doubt that either experimentation with daylight saving
1060# in WA or its introduction in SA had anything to do with the genesis
1061# of this time zone. My hunch is that it's been around since well
1062# before 1975. I remember seeing it noted on road maps decades ago.
1063
1064# From Paul Eggert (2006-12-15):
1065# For lack of better info, assume the tradition dates back to the
1066# introduction of standard time in 1895.
1067
984263bc 1068
0e49ec84 1069# southeast Australia
984263bc 1070#
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1071# From Paul Eggert (2007-07-23):
1072# Starting autumn 2008 Victoria, NSW, South Australia, Tasmania and the ACT
1073# end DST the first Sunday in April and start DST the first Sunday in October.
1074# http://www.theage.com.au/news/national/daylight-savings-to-span-six-months/2007/06/27/1182623966703.html
1075
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1076
1077# South Australia
1078
1079# From Bradley White (1991-03-04):
1080# A recent excerpt from an Australian newspaper...
1081# ...South Australia...[has] agreed to end daylight saving
1082# at 3am tomorrow (March 3)...
1083
1084# From George Shepherd via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06):
1085# # The state of SOUTH AUSTRALIA....[ Courtesy of S.A. Dept of Labour ]
1086# # [ Nov 1990 ]
1087# ...
1088# Zone Australia/South 9:30 AS %sST
1089# ...
1090# Rule AS 1971 max - Oct lastSun 2:00 1:00 D
1091# Rule AS 1972 1985 - Mar Sun>=1 3:00 0 C
bd7414aa 1092# Rule AS 1986 1990 - Mar Sun>=15 3:00 0 C
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1093# Rule AS 1991 max - Mar Sun>=1 3:00 0 C
1094
1095# From Bradley White (1992-03-11):
1096# Recent correspondence with a friend in Adelaide
1097# contained the following exchange: "Due to the Adelaide Festival,
1098# South Australia delays setting back our clocks for a few weeks."
1099
1100# From Robert Elz (1992-03-13):
1101# I heard that apparently (or at least, it appears that)
1102# South Aus will have an extra 3 weeks daylight saving every even
1103# numbered year (from 1990). That's when the Adelaide Festival
1104# is on...
1105
1106# From Robert Elz (1992-03-16, 00:57:07 +1000):
1107# DST didn't end in Adelaide today (yesterday)....
1108# But whether it's "4th Sunday" or "2nd last Sunday" I have no idea whatever...
1109# (it's just as likely to be "the Sunday we pick for this year"...).
1110
1111# From Bradley White (1994-04-11):
1112# If Sun, 15 March, 1992 was at +1030 as kre asserts, but yet Sun, 20 March,
1113# 1994 was at +0930 as John Connolly's customer seems to assert, then I can
1114# only conclude that the actual rule is more complicated....
1115
9ffe4b14 1116# From John Warburton (1994-10-07):
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1117# The new Daylight Savings dates for South Australia ...
1118# was gazetted in the Government Hansard on Sep 26 1994....
1119# start on last Sunday in October and end in last sunday in March.
1120
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1121# From Paul Eggert (2007-07-23):
1122# See "southeast Australia" above for 2008 and later.
1123
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1124# Tasmania
1125
1126# The rules for 1967 through 1991 were reported by George Shepherd
1127# via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06):
1128# # The state of TASMANIA.. [Courtesy Tasmanian Dept of Premier + Cabinet ]
1129# # [ Nov 1990 ]
1130
1131# From Bill Hart via Guy Harris (1991-10-10):
1132# Oh yes, the new daylight savings rules are uniquely tasmanian, we have
1133# 6 weeks a year now when we are out of sync with the rest of Australia
1134# (but nothing new about that).
1135
1136# From Alex Livingston (1999-10-04):
1137# I heard on the ABC (Australian Broadcasting Corporation) radio news on the
1138# (long) weekend that Tasmania, which usually goes its own way in this regard,
1139# has decided to join with most of NSW, the ACT, and most of Victoria
1140# (Australia) and start daylight saving on the last Sunday in August in 2000
1141# instead of the first Sunday in October.
1142
1143# Sim Alam (2000-07-03) reported a legal citation for the 2000/2001 rules:
1144# http://www.thelaw.tas.gov.au/fragview/42++1968+GS3A@EN+2000070300
1145
0e49ec84
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1146# From Paul Eggert (2007-07-23):
1147# See "southeast Australia" above for 2008 and later.
1148
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1149# Victoria
1150
1151# The rules for 1971 through 1991 were reported by George Shepherd
1152# via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06):
1153# # The state of VICTORIA.. [ Courtesy of Vic. Dept of Premier + Cabinet ]
1154# # [ Nov 1990 ]
1155
1156# From Scott Harrington (2001-08-29):
1157# On KQED's "City Arts and Lectures" program last night I heard an
1158# interesting story about daylight savings time. Dr. John Heilbron was
1159# discussing his book "The Sun in the Church: Cathedrals as Solar
1160# Observatories"[1], and in particular the Shrine of Remembrance[2] located
1161# in Melbourne, Australia.
1162#
1163# Apparently the shrine's main purpose is a beam of sunlight which
1164# illuminates a special spot on the floor at the 11th hour of the 11th day
1165# of the 11th month (Remembrance Day) every year in memory of Australia's
1166# fallen WWI soldiers. And if you go there on Nov. 11, at 11am local time,
1167# you will indeed see the sunbeam illuminate the special spot at the
1168# expected time.
1169#
1170# However, that is only because of some special mirror contraption that had
1171# to be employed, since due to daylight savings time, the true solar time of
1172# the remembrance moment occurs one hour later (or earlier?). Perhaps
1173# someone with more information on this jury-rig can tell us more.
1174#
1175# [1] http://www.hup.harvard.edu/catalog/HEISUN.html
1176# [2] http://www.shrine.org.au
1177
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1178# From Paul Eggert (2007-07-23):
1179# See "southeast Australia" above for 2008 and later.
1180
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1181# New South Wales
1182
1183# From Arthur David Olson:
1184# New South Wales and subjurisdictions have their own ideas of a fun time.
9ffe4b14 1185# Based on law library research by John Mackin,
984263bc
MD
1186# who notes:
1187# In Australia, time is not legislated federally, but rather by the
1188# individual states. Thus, while such terms as ``Eastern Standard Time''
1189# [I mean, of course, Australian EST, not any other kind] are in common
1190# use, _they have NO REAL MEANING_, as they are not defined in the
1191# legislation. This is very important to understand.
1192# I have researched New South Wales time only...
1193
9ffe4b14 1194# From Eric Ulevik (1999-05-26):
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1195# DST will start in NSW on the last Sunday of August, rather than the usual
1196# October in 2000. [See: Matthew Moore,
1197# <a href="http://www.smh.com.au/news/9905/26/pageone/pageone4.html">
1198# Two months more daylight saving
1199# </a>
1200# Sydney Morning Herald (1999-05-26).]
1201
1202# From Paul Eggert (1999-09-27):
1203# See the following official NSW source:
1204# <a href="http://dir.gis.nsw.gov.au/cgi-bin/genobject/document/other/daylightsaving/tigGmZ">
1205# Daylight Saving in New South Wales.
1206# </a>
1207#
1208# Narrabri Shire (NSW) council has announced it will ignore the extension of
1209# daylight saving next year. See:
1210# <a href="http://abc.net.au/news/regionals/neweng/monthly/regeng-22jul1999-1.htm">
1211# Narrabri Council to ignore daylight saving
1212# </a> (1999-07-22). For now, we'll wait to see if this really happens.
1213#
1214# Victoria will following NSW. See:
1215# <a href="http://abc.net.au/local/news/olympics/1999/07/item19990728112314_1.htm">
1216# Vic to extend daylight saving
1217# </a> (1999-07-28).
1218#
1219# However, South Australia rejected the DST request. See:
1220# <a href="http://abc.net.au/news/olympics/1999/07/item19990719151754_1.htm">
1221# South Australia rejects Olympics daylight savings request
1222# </a> (1999-07-19).
1223#
1224# Queensland also will not observe DST for the Olympics. See:
1225# <a href="http://abc.net.au/news/olympics/1999/06/item19990601114608_1.htm">
1226# Qld says no to daylight savings for Olympics
1227# </a> (1999-06-01), which quotes Queensland Premier Peter Beattie as saying
1228# ``Look you've got to remember in my family when this came up last time
1229# I voted for it, my wife voted against it and she said to me it's all very
1230# well for you, you don't have to worry about getting the children out of
1231# bed, getting them to school, getting them to sleep at night.
1232# I've been through all this argument domestically...my wife rules.''
1233#
1234# Broken Hill will stick with South Australian time in 2000. See:
1235# <a href="http://abc.net.au/news/regionals/brokenh/monthly/regbrok-21jul1999-6.htm">
1236# Broken Hill to be behind the times
1237# </a> (1999-07-21).
1238
1239# IATA SSIM (1998-09) says that the spring 2000 change for Australian
1240# Capital Territory, New South Wales except Lord Howe Island and Broken
1241# Hill, and Victoria will be August 27, presumably due to the Sydney Olympics.
1242
1243# From Eric Ulevik, referring to Sydney's Sun Herald (2000-08-13), page 29:
1244# The Queensland Premier Peter Beattie is encouraging northern NSW
1245# towns to use Queensland time.
1246
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1247# From Paul Eggert (2007-07-23):
1248# See "southeast Australia" above for 2008 and later.
1249
984263bc
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1250# Yancowinna
1251
1252# From John Mackin (1989-01-04):
1253# `Broken Hill' means the County of Yancowinna.
1254
1255# From George Shepherd via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06):
1256# # YANCOWINNA.. [ Confirmation courtesy of Broken Hill Postmaster ]
1257# # [ Dec 1990 ]
1258# ...
1259# # Yancowinna uses Central Standard Time, despite [its] location on the
1260# # New South Wales side of the S.A. border. Most business and social dealings
1261# # are with CST zones, therefore CST is legislated by local government
1262# # although the switch to Summer Time occurs in line with N.S.W. There have
1263# # been years when this did not apply, but the historical data is not
1264# # presently available.
1265# Zone Australia/Yancowinna 9:30 AY %sST
1266# ...
1267# Rule AY 1971 1985 - Oct lastSun 2:00 1:00 D
1268# Rule AY 1972 only - Feb lastSun 3:00 0 C
1269# [followed by other Rules]
1270
1271# Lord Howe Island
1272
1273# From George Shepherd via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06):
34850bd5 1274# LHI... [ Courtesy of Pauline Van Winsen ]
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1275# [ Dec 1990 ]
1276# Lord Howe Island is located off the New South Wales coast, and is half an
1277# hour ahead of NSW time.
1278
1279# From James Lonergan, Secretary, Lord Howe Island Board (2000-01-27):
1280# Lord Howe Island summer time in 2000/2001 will commence on the same
1281# date as the rest of NSW (i.e. 2000-08-27). For your information the
1282# Lord Howe Island Board (controlling authority for the Island) is
1283# seeking the community's views on various options for summer time
1284# arrangements on the Island, e.g. advance clocks by 1 full hour
939d3005 1285# instead of only 30 minutes. [Dependent] on the wishes of residents
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1286# the Board may approach the NSW government to change the existing
1287# arrangements. The starting date for summer time on the Island will
1288# however always coincide with the rest of NSW.
1289
1290# From James Lonergan, Secretary, Lord Howe Island Board (2000-10-25):
1291# Lord Howe Island advances clocks by 30 minutes during DST in NSW and retards
1292# clocks by 30 minutes when DST finishes. Since DST was most recently
1293# introduced in NSW, the "changeover" time on the Island has been 02:00 as
1294# shown on clocks on LHI. I guess this means that for 30 minutes at the start
1295# of DST, LHI is actually 1 hour ahead of the rest of NSW.
1296
bd7414aa
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1297# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
1298# For Lord Howe dates we use Shanks & Pottenger through 1989, and
1299# Lonergan thereafter. For times we use Lonergan.
984263bc 1300
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1301# From Paul Eggert (2007-07-23):
1302# See "southeast Australia" above for 2008 and later.
1303
3dbe7164
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1304# From Steffen Thorsen (2009-04-28):
1305# According to the official press release, South Australia's extended daylight
1306# saving period will continue with the same rules as used during the 2008-2009
1307# summer (southern hemisphere).
1308#
1309# From
1310# <a href="http://www.safework.sa.gov.au/uploaded_files/DaylightDatesSet.pdf">
1311# http://www.safework.sa.gov.au/uploaded_files/DaylightDatesSet.pdf
1312# </a>
1313# The extended daylight saving period that South Australia has been trialling
1314# for over the last year is now set to be ongoing.
1315# Daylight saving will continue to start on the first Sunday in October each
1316# year and finish on the first Sunday in April the following year.
1317# Industrial Relations Minister, Paul Caica, says this provides South Australia
1318# with a consistent half hour time difference with NSW, Victoria, Tasmania and
1319# the ACT for all 52 weeks of the year...
1320#
1321# We have a wrap-up here:
1322# <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/south-australia-extends-dst.html">
1323# http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/south-australia-extends-dst.html
1324# </a>
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1325###############################################################################
1326
1327# New Zealand
1328
1329# From Mark Davies (1990-10-03):
1330# the 1989/90 year was a trial of an extended "daylight saving" period.
1331# This trial was deemed successful and the extended period adopted for
1332# subsequent years (with the addition of a further week at the start).
1333# source -- phone call to Ministry of Internal Affairs Head Office.
1334
1335# From George Shepherd via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06):
1336# # The Country of New Zealand (Australia's east island -) Gee they hate that!
1337# # or is Australia the west island of N.Z.
34850bd5 1338# # [ courtesy of Geoff Tribble.. Auckland N.Z. ]
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1339# # [ Nov 1990 ]
1340# ...
1341# Rule NZ 1974 1988 - Oct lastSun 2:00 1:00 D
1342# Rule NZ 1989 max - Oct Sun>=1 2:00 1:00 D
1343# Rule NZ 1975 1989 - Mar Sun>=1 3:00 0 S
1344# Rule NZ 1990 max - Mar lastSun 3:00 0 S
1345# ...
1346# Zone NZ 12:00 NZ NZ%sT # New Zealand
1347# Zone NZ-CHAT 12:45 - NZ-CHAT # Chatham Island
1348
1349# From Arthur David Olson (1992-03-08):
1350# The chosen rules use the Davies October 8 values for the start of DST in 1989
1351# rather than the October 1 value.
1352
1353# From Paul Eggert (1995-12-19);
bd7414aa 1354# Shank & Pottenger report 2:00 for all autumn changes in Australia and NZ.
9ffe4b14 1355# Robert Uzgalis writes that the New Zealand Daylight
984263bc
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1356# Savings Time Order in Council dated 1990-06-18 specifies 2:00 standard
1357# time on both the first Sunday in October and the third Sunday in March.
1358# As with Australia, we'll assume the tradition is 2:00s, not 2:00.
1359#
bd7414aa 1360# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
ba5ba9da
JR
1361# The Department of Internal Affairs (DIA) maintains a brief history,
1362# as does Carol Squires; see tz-link.htm for the full references.
bd7414aa 1363# Use these sources in preference to Shanks & Pottenger.
ba5ba9da
JR
1364#
1365# For Chatham, IATA SSIM (1991/1999) gives the NZ rules but with
1366# transitions at 2:45 local standard time; this confirms that Chatham
1367# is always exactly 45 minutes ahead of Auckland.
984263bc 1368
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1369# From Colin Sharples (2007-04-30):
1370# DST will now start on the last Sunday in September, and end on the
1371# first Sunday in April. The changes take effect this year, meaning
1372# that DST will begin on 2007-09-30 2008-04-06.
1373# http://www.dia.govt.nz/diawebsite.nsf/wpg_URL/Services-Daylight-Saving-Daylight-saving-to-be-extended
1374
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1375###############################################################################
1376
1377
1378# Fiji
1379
1380# Howse writes (p 153) that in 1879 the British governor of Fiji
1381# enacted an ordinance standardizing the islands on Antipodean Time
1382# instead of the American system (which was one day behind).
1383
1384# From Rives McDow (1998-10-08):
1385# Fiji will introduce DST effective 0200 local time, 1998-11-01
1386# until 0300 local time 1999-02-28. Each year the DST period will
1387# be from the first Sunday in November until the last Sunday in February.
1388
1389# From Paul Eggert (2000-01-08):
1390# IATA SSIM (1999-09) says DST ends 0100 local time. Go with McDow.
1391
1392# From the BBC World Service (1998-10-31 11:32 UTC):
1393# The Fijiian government says the main reasons for the time change is to
1394# improve productivity and reduce road accidents. But correspondents say it
1395# also hopes the move will boost Fiji's ability to compete with other pacific
1396# islands in the effort to attract tourists to witness the dawning of the new
1397# millenium.
1398
1399# http://www.fiji.gov.fj/press/2000_09/2000_09_13-05.shtml (2000-09-13)
1400# reports that Fiji has discontinued DST.
1401
1402# Johnston
1403
1404# Johnston data is from usno1995.
1405
1406
1407# Kiribati
1408
1409# From Paul Eggert (1996-01-22):
1410# Today's _Wall Street Journal_ (page 1) reports that Kiribati
939d3005 1411# ``declared it the same day [throughout] the country as of Jan. 1, 1995''
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1412# as part of the competition to be first into the 21st century.
1413
1414
1415# Kwajalein
1416
1417# In comp.risks 14.87 (26 August 1993), Peter Neumann writes:
1418# I wonder what happened in Kwajalein, where there was NO Friday,
1419# 1993-08-20. Thursday night at midnight Kwajalein switched sides with
1420# respect to the International Date Line, to rejoin its fellow islands,
1421# going from 11:59 p.m. Thursday to 12:00 m. Saturday in a blink.
1422
1423
1424# N Mariana Is, Guam
1425
1426# Howse writes (p 153) ``The Spaniards, on the other hand, reached the
1427# Philippines and the Ladrones from America,'' and implies that the Ladrones
1428# (now called the Marianas) kept American date for quite some time.
1429# For now, we assume the Ladrones switched at the same time as the Philippines;
1430# see Asia/Manila.
1431
1432# US Public Law 106-564 (2000-12-23) made UTC+10 the official standard time,
1433# under the name "Chamorro Standard Time". There is no official abbreviation,
1434# but Congressman Robert A. Underwood, author of the bill that became law,
1435# wrote in a press release (2000-12-27) that he will seek the use of "ChST".
1436
1437
1438# Micronesia
1439
9ffe4b14 1440# Alan Eugene Davis writes (1996-03-16),
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1441# ``I am certain, having lived there for the past decade, that "Truk"
1442# (now properly known as Chuuk) ... is in the time zone GMT+10.''
1443#
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1444# Shanks & Pottenger write that Truk switched from UTC+10 to UTC+11
1445# on 1978-10-01; ignore this for now.
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1446
1447# From Paul Eggert (1999-10-29):
1448# The Federated States of Micronesia Visitors Board writes in
1449# <a href="http://www.fsmgov.org/info/clocks.html">
1450# The Federated States of Micronesia - Visitor Information
1451# </a> (1999-01-26)
1452# that Truk and Yap are UTC+10, and Ponape and Kosrae are UTC+11.
1453# We don't know when Kosrae switched from UTC+12; assume January 1 for now.
1454
1455
ba5ba9da
JR
1456# Midway
1457
1458# From Charles T O'Connor, KMTH DJ (1956),
1459# quoted in the KTMH section of the Radio Heritage Collection
1460# <http://radiodx.com/spdxr/KMTH.htm> (2002-12-31):
1461# For the past two months we've been on what is known as Daylight
1462# Saving Time. This time has put us on air at 5am in the morning,
1463# your time down there in New Zealand. Starting September 2, 1956
1464# we'll again go back to Standard Time. This'll mean that we'll go to
1465# air at 6am your time.
1466#
1467# From Paul Eggert (2003-03-23):
1468# We don't know the date of that quote, but we'll guess they
1469# started DST on June 3. Possibly DST was observed other years
1470# in Midway, but we have no record of it.
1471
1472
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1473# Pitcairn
1474
1475# From Rives McDow (1999-11-08):
1476# A Proclamation was signed by the Governor of Pitcairn on the 27th March 1998
1477# with regard to Pitcairn Standard Time. The Proclamation is as follows.
1478#
1479# The local time for general purposes in the Islands shall be
1480# Co-ordinated Universal time minus 8 hours and shall be known
1481# as Pitcairn Standard Time.
1482#
1483# ... I have also seen Pitcairn listed as UTC minus 9 hours in several
1484# references, and can only assume that this was an error in interpretation
1485# somehow in light of this proclamation.
1486
1487# From Rives McDow (1999-11-09):
1488# The Proclamation regarding Pitcairn time came into effect on 27 April 1998
1489# ... at midnight.
1490
1491# From Howie Phelps (1999-11-10), who talked to a Pitcairner via shortwave:
1492# Betty Christian told me yesterday that their local time is the same as
1493# Pacific Standard Time. They used to be 1/2 hour different from us here in
1494# Sacramento but it was changed a couple of years ago.
1495
1496
1497# Samoa
1498
1499# Howse writes (p 153, citing p 10 of the 1883-11-18 New York Herald)
1500# that in 1879 the King of Samoa decided to change
1501# ``the date in his kingdom from the Antipodean to the American system,
1502# ordaining -- by a masterpiece of diplomatic flattery -- that
1503# the Fourth of July should be celebrated twice in that year.''
1504
1505
1506# Tonga
1507
1508# From Paul Eggert (1996-01-22):
1509# Today's _Wall Street Journal_ (p 1) reports that ``Tonga has been plotting
1510# to sneak ahead of [New Zealanders] by introducing daylight-saving time.''
1511# Since Kiribati has moved the Date Line it's not clear what Tonga will do.
1512
1513# Don Mundell writes in the 1997-02-20 Tonga Chronicle
1514# <a href="http://www.tongatapu.net.to/tonga/homeland/timebegins.htm">
1515# How Tonga became `The Land where Time Begins'
1516# </a>:
1517
1518# Until 1941 Tonga maintained a standard time 50 minutes ahead of NZST
1519# 12 hours and 20 minutes ahead of GMT. When New Zealand adjusted its
1520# standard time in 1940s, Tonga had the choice of subtracting from its
1521# local time to come on the same standard time as New Zealand or of
1522# advancing its time to maintain the differential of 13 degrees
1523# (approximately 50 minutes ahead of New Zealand time).
1524#
1525# Because His Majesty King Taufa'ahau Tupou IV, then Crown Prince
1526# Tungi, preferred to ensure Tonga's title as the land where time
1527# begins, the Legislative Assembly approved the latter change.
1528#
1529# But some of the older, more conservative members from the outer
1530# islands objected. "If at midnight on Dec. 31, we move ahead 40
1531# minutes, as your Royal Highness wishes, what becomes of the 40
1532# minutes we have lost?"
1533#
1534# The Crown Prince, presented an unanswerable argument: "Remember that
1535# on the World Day of Prayer, you would be the first people on Earth
1536# to say your prayers in the morning."
1537
bd7414aa
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1538# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
1539# Shanks & Pottenger say the transition was on 1968-10-01; go with Mundell.
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1540
1541# From Eric Ulevik (1999-05-03):
1542# Tonga's director of tourism, who is also secretary of the National Millenium
1543# Committee, has a plan to get Tonga back in front.
1544# He has proposed a one-off move to tropical daylight saving for Tonga from
1545# October to March, which has won approval in principle from the Tongan
1546# Government.
1547
9ffe4b14 1548# From Steffen Thorsen (1999-09-09):
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1549# * Tonga will introduce DST in November
1550#
9ffe4b14 1551# I was given this link by John Letts:
a36b983e 1552# <a href="http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/world/asia-pacific/newsid_424000/424764.stm">
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1553# http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/world/asia-pacific/newsid_424000/424764.stm
1554# </a>
1555#
1556# I have not been able to find exact dates for the transition in November
1557# yet. By reading this article it seems like Fiji will be 14 hours ahead
1558# of UTC as well, but as far as I know Fiji will only be 13 hours ahead
1559# (12 + 1 hour DST).
1560
9ffe4b14 1561# From Arthur David Olson (1999-09-20):
a36b983e 1562# According to <a href="http://www.tongaonline.com/news/sept1799.html">
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1563# http://www.tongaonline.com/news/sept1799.html
1564# </a>:
1565# "Daylight Savings Time will take effect on Oct. 2 through April 15, 2000
1566# and annually thereafter from the first Saturday in October through the
1567# third Saturday of April. Under the system approved by Privy Council on
1568# Sept. 10, clocks must be turned ahead one hour on the opening day and
1569# set back an hour on the closing date."
1570# Alas, no indication of the time of day.
1571
1572# From Rives McDow (1999-10-06):
1573# Tonga started its Daylight Saving on Saturday morning October 2nd at 0200am.
1574# Daylight Saving ends on April 16 at 0300am which is Sunday morning.
1575
1576# From Steffen Thorsen (2000-10-31):
1577# Back in March I found a notice on the website http://www.tongaonline.com
1578# that Tonga changed back to standard time one month early, on March 19
1579# instead of the original reported date April 16. Unfortunately, the article
1580# is no longer available on the site, and I did not make a copy of the
1581# text, and I have forgotten to report it here.
1582# (Original URL was: http://www.tongaonline.com/news/march162000.htm )
1583
1584# From Rives McDow (2000-12-01):
1585# Tonga is observing DST as of 2000-11-04 and will stop on 2001-01-27.
1586
1587# From Sione Moala-Mafi (2001-09-20) via Rives McDow:
1588# At 2:00am on the first Sunday of November, the standard time in the Kingdom
1589# shall be moved forward by one hour to 3:00am. At 2:00am on the last Sunday
1590# of January the standard time in the Kingdom shall be moved backward by one
1591# hour to 1:00am.
1592
1593# From Pulu 'Anau (2002-11-05):
1594# The law was for 3 years, supposedly to get renewed. It wasn't.
1595
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1596
1597# Wake
1598
1599# From Vernice Anderson, Personal Secretary to Philip Jessup,
1600# US Ambassador At Large (oral history interview, 1971-02-02):
1601#
1602# Saturday, the 14th [of October, 1950] -- ... The time was all the
1603# more confusing at that point, because we had crossed the
1604# International Date Line, thus getting two Sundays. Furthermore, we
1605# discovered that Wake Island had two hours of daylight saving time
1606# making calculation of time in Washington difficult if not almost
1607# impossible.
1608#
1609# http://www.trumanlibrary.org/wake/meeting.htm
1610
1611# From Paul Eggert (2003-03-23):
1612# We have no other report of DST in Wake Island, so omit this info for now.
1613
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1614###############################################################################
1615
1616# The International Date Line
1617
1618# From Gwillim Law (2000-01-03):
1619#
1620# The International Date Line is not defined by any international standard,
1621# convention, or treaty. Mapmakers are free to draw it as they please.
1622# Reputable mapmakers will simply ensure that every point of land appears on
1623# the correct side of the IDL, according to the date legally observed there.
1624#
1625# When Kiribati adopted a uniform date in 1995, thereby moving the Phoenix and
1626# Line Islands to the west side of the IDL (or, if you prefer, moving the IDL
1627# to the east side of the Phoenix and Line Islands), I suppose that most
1628# mapmakers redrew the IDL following the boundary of Kiribati. Even that line
1629# has a rather arbitrary nature. The straight-line boundaries between Pacific
1630# island nations that are shown on many maps are based on an international
e1e23b59 1631# convention, but are not legally binding national borders.... The date is
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1632# governed by the IDL; therefore, even on the high seas, there may be some
1633# places as late as fourteen hours later than UTC. And, since the IDL is not
1634# an international standard, there are some places on the high seas where the
1635# correct date is ambiguous.
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1637# From Wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Time_zone> (2005-08-31):
1638# Before 1920, all ships kept local apparent time on the high seas by setting
1639# their clocks at night or at the morning sight so that, given the ship's
1640# speed and direction, it would be 12 o'clock when the Sun crossed the ship's
1641# meridian (12 o'clock = local apparent noon). During 1917, at the
1642# Anglo-French Conference on Time-keeping at Sea, it was recommended that all
1643# ships, both military and civilian, should adopt hourly standard time zones
1644# on the high seas. Whenever a ship was within the territorial waters of any
1645# nation it would use that nation's standard time. The captain was permitted
1646# to change his ship's clocks at a time of his choice following his ship's
1647# entry into another zone time--he often chose midnight. These zones were
1648# adopted by all major fleets between 1920 and 1925 but not by many
1649# independent merchant ships until World War II.
1650
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1651# From Paul Eggert, using references suggested by Oscar van Vlijmen
1652# (2005-03-20):
1653#
1654# The American Practical Navigator (2002)
1655# <http://pollux.nss.nima.mil/pubs/pubs_j_apn_sections.html?rid=187>
1656# talks only about the 180-degree meridian with respect to ships in
1657# international waters; it ignores the international date line.