Sync zoneinfo database with tzdata2011m from munnari.oz.au
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34850bd5 1# <pre>
e9ad9bde 2# @(#)europe 8.39
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3# This file is in the public domain, so clarified as of
4# 2009-05-17 by Arthur David Olson.
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5
6# This data is by no means authoritative; if you think you know better,
7# go ahead and edit the file (and please send any changes to
8# tz@elsie.nci.nih.gov for general use in the future).
9
bd7414aa 10# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
984263bc 11# A good source for time zone historical data outside the U.S. is
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12# Thomas G. Shanks and Rique Pottenger, The International Atlas (6th edition),
13# San Diego: ACS Publications, Inc. (2003).
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14#
15# Gwillim Law writes that a good source
16# for recent time zone data is the International Air Transport
17# Association's Standard Schedules Information Manual (IATA SSIM),
18# published semiannually. Law sent in several helpful summaries
19# of the IATA's data after 1990.
20#
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21# Except where otherwise noted, Shanks & Pottenger is the source for
22# entries through 1991, and IATA SSIM is the source for entries afterwards.
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23#
24# Other sources occasionally used include:
25#
26# Edward W. Whitman, World Time Differences,
27# Whitman Publishing Co, 2 Niagara Av, Ealing, London (undated),
28# which I found in the UCLA library.
29#
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30# <a href="http://www.pettswoodvillage.co.uk/Daylight_Savings_William_Willett.pdf">
31# William Willett, The Waste of Daylight, 19th edition
32# </a> (1914-03)
33#
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34# Brazil's Departamento Servico da Hora (DSH),
35# <a href="http://pcdsh01.on.br/HISTHV.htm">
36# History of Summer Time
37# </a> (1998-09-21, in Portuguese)
38
39#
40# I invented the abbreviations marked `*' in the following table;
41# the rest are from earlier versions of this file, or from other sources.
42# Corrections are welcome!
43# std dst 2dst
44# LMT Local Mean Time
45# -4:00 AST ADT Atlantic
46# -3:00 WGT WGST Western Greenland*
47# -1:00 EGT EGST Eastern Greenland*
48# 0:00 GMT BST BDST Greenwich, British Summer
49# 0:00 GMT IST Greenwich, Irish Summer
50# 0:00 WET WEST WEMT Western Europe
51# 0:19:32.13 AMT NST Amsterdam, Netherlands Summer (1835-1937)*
52# 0:20 NET NEST Netherlands (1937-1940)*
53# 1:00 CET CEST CEMT Central Europe
54# 1:00:14 SET Swedish (1879-1899)*
55# 2:00 EET EEST Eastern Europe
56# 3:00 MSK MSD Moscow
57#
58# A reliable and entertaining source about time zones, especially in Britain,
59# Derek Howse, Greenwich time and longitude, Philip Wilson Publishers (1997).
60
9ffe4b14 61# From Peter Ilieve (1994-12-04),
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62# The original six [EU members]: Belgium, France, (West) Germany, Italy,
63# Luxembourg, the Netherlands.
64# Plus, from 1 Jan 73: Denmark, Ireland, United Kingdom.
65# Plus, from 1 Jan 81: Greece.
66# Plus, from 1 Jan 86: Spain, Portugal.
67# Plus, from 1 Jan 95: Austria, Finland, Sweden. (Norway negotiated terms for
68# entry but in a referendum on 28 Nov 94 the people voted No by 52.2% to 47.8%
69# on a turnout of 88.6%. This was almost the same result as Norway's previous
70# referendum in 1972, they are the only country to have said No twice.
71# Referendums in the other three countries voted Yes.)
72# ...
73# Estonia ... uses EU dates but not at 01:00 GMT, they use midnight GMT.
74# I don't think they know yet what they will do from 1996 onwards.
75# ...
76# There shouldn't be any [current members who are not using EU rules].
77# A Directive has the force of law, member states are obliged to enact
78# national law to implement it. The only contentious issue was the
79# different end date for the UK and Ireland, and this was always allowed
80# in the Directive.
81
82
83###############################################################################
84
85# Britain (United Kingdom) and Ireland (Eire)
86
9ffe4b14 87# From Peter Ilieve (1994-07-06):
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88#
89# On 17 Jan 1994 the Independent, a UK quality newspaper, had a piece about
90# historical vistas along the Thames in west London. There was a photo
91# and a sketch map showing some of the sightlines involved. One paragraph
92# of the text said:
93#
94# `An old stone obelisk marking a forgotten terrestrial meridian stands
95# beside the river at Kew. In the 18th century, before time and longitude
96# was standardised by the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, scholars observed
97# this stone and the movement of stars from Kew Observatory nearby. They
98# made their calculations and set the time for the Horse Guards and Parliament,
99# but now the stone is obscured by scrubwood and can only be seen by walking
100# along the towpath within a few yards of it.'
101#
102# I have a one inch to one mile map of London and my estimate of the stone's
103# position is 51 deg. 28' 30" N, 0 deg. 18' 45" W. The longitude should
104# be within about +-2". The Ordnance Survey grid reference is TQ172761.
105#
106# [This yields GMTOFF = -0:01:15 for London LMT in the 18th century.]
107
9ffe4b14 108# From Paul Eggert (1993-11-18):
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109#
110# Howse writes that Britain was the first country to use standard time.
111# The railways cared most about the inconsistencies of local mean time,
112# and it was they who forced a uniform time on the country.
113# The original idea was credited to Dr. William Hyde Wollaston (1766-1828)
114# and was popularized by Abraham Follett Osler (1808-1903).
115# The first railway to adopt London time was the Great Western Railway
116# in November 1840; other railways followed suit, and by 1847 most
117# (though not all) railways used London time. On 1847-09-22 the
118# Railway Clearing House, an industry standards body, recommended that GMT be
119# adopted at all stations as soon as the General Post Office permitted it.
120# The transition occurred on 12-01 for the L&NW, the Caledonian,
121# and presumably other railways; the January 1848 Bradshaw's lists many
122# railways as using GMT. By 1855 the vast majority of public
123# clocks in Britain were set to GMT (though some, like the great clock
124# on Tom Tower at Christ Church, Oxford, were fitted with two minute hands,
125# one for local time and one for GMT). The last major holdout was the legal
126# system, which stubbornly stuck to local time for many years, leading
127# to oddities like polls opening at 08:13 and closing at 16:13.
128# The legal system finally switched to GMT when the Statutes (Definition
129# of Time) Act took effect; it received the Royal Assent on 1880-08-02.
130#
131# In the tables below, we condense this complicated story into a single
132# transition date for London, namely 1847-12-01. We don't know as much
133# about Dublin, so we use 1880-08-02, the legal transition time.
134
ba5ba9da 135# From Paul Eggert (2003-09-27):
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136# Summer Time was first seriously proposed by William Willett (1857-1915),
137# a London builder and member of the Royal Astronomical Society
138# who circulated a pamphlet ``The Waste of Daylight'' (1907)
139# that proposed advancing clocks 20 minutes on each of four Sundays in April,
140# and retarding them by the same amount on four Sundays in September.
141# A bill was drafted in 1909 and introduced in Parliament several times,
142# but it met with ridicule and opposition, especially from farming interests.
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143# Later editions of the pamphlet proposed one-hour summer time, and
144# it was eventually adopted as a wartime measure in 1916.
145# See: Summer Time Arrives Early, The Times (2000-05-18).
146# A monument to Willett was unveiled on 1927-05-21, in an open space in
147# a 45-acre wood near Chislehurst, Kent that was purchased by popular
148# subscription and open to the public. On the south face of the monolith,
e01e21dd 149# designed by G. W. Miller, is the...William Willett Memorial Sundial,
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150# which is permanently set to Summer Time.
151
152# From Winston Churchill (1934-04-28):
153# It is one of the paradoxes of history that we should owe the boon of
154# summer time, which gives every year to the people of this country
155# between 160 and 170 hours more daylight leisure, to a war which
156# plunged Europe into darkness for four years, and shook the
157# foundations of civilization throughout the world.
158# -- <a href="http://www.winstonchurchill.org/fh114willett.htm">
159# "A Silent Toast to William Willett", Pictorial Weekly
160# </a>
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161
162# From Paul Eggert (1996-09-03):
163# The OED Supplement says that the English originally said ``Daylight Saving''
164# when they were debating the adoption of DST in 1908; but by 1916 this
165# term appears only in quotes taken from DST's opponents, whereas the
166# proponents (who eventually won the argument) are quoted as using ``Summer''.
167
168# From Arthur David Olson (1989-01-19):
169#
170# A source at the British Information Office in New York avers that it's
171# known as "British" Summer Time in all parts of the United Kingdom.
172
173# Date: 4 Jan 89 08:57:25 GMT (Wed)
9ffe4b14 174# From: Jonathan Leffler
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175# [British Summer Time] is fixed annually by Act of Parliament.
176# If you can predict what Parliament will do, you should be in
177# politics making a fortune, not computing.
178
9ffe4b14 179# From Chris Carrier (1996-06-14):
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180# I remember reading in various wartime issues of the London Times the
181# acronym BDST for British Double Summer Time. Look for the published
182# time of sunrise and sunset in The Times, when BDST was in effect, and
183# if you find a zone reference it will say, "All times B.D.S.T."
184
185# From Joseph S. Myers (1999-09-02):
186# ... some military cables (WO 219/4100 - this is a copy from the
187# main SHAEF archives held in the US National Archives, SHAEF/5252/8/516)
188# agree that the usage is BDST (this appears in a message dated 17 Feb 1945).
189
190# From Joseph S. Myers (2000-10-03):
191# On 18th April 1941, Sir Stephen Tallents of the BBC wrote to Sir
192# Alexander Maxwell of the Home Office asking whether there was any
193# official designation; the reply of the 21st was that there wasn't
194# but he couldn't think of anything better than the "Double British
195# Summer Time" that the BBC had been using informally.
196# http://student.cusu.cam.ac.uk/~jsm28/british-time/bbc-19410418.png
197# http://student.cusu.cam.ac.uk/~jsm28/british-time/ho-19410421.png
198
199# From Sir Alexander Maxwell in the above-mentioned letter (1941-04-21):
200# [N]o official designation has as far as I know been adopted for the time
201# which is to be introduced in May....
202# I cannot think of anything better than "Double British Summer Time"
203# which could not be said to run counter to any official description.
204
205# From Paul Eggert (2000-10-02):
206# Howse writes (p 157) `DBST' too, but `BDST' seems to have been common
207# and follows the more usual convention of putting the location name first,
208# so we use `BDST'.
209
9ffe4b14 210# Peter Ilieve (1998-04-19) described at length
984263bc 211# the history of summer time legislation in the United Kingdom.
9ffe4b14 212# Since 1998 Joseph S. Myers has been updating
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213# and extending this list, which can be found in
214# <a href="http://student.cusu.cam.ac.uk/~jsm28/british-time/">
215# History of legal time in Britain
216# </a>
217
9ffe4b14 218# From Joseph S. Myers (1998-01-06):
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219#
220# The legal time in the UK outside of summer time is definitely GMT, not UTC;
221# see Lord Tanlaw's speech
222# <a href="http://www.parliament.the-stationery-office.co.uk/pa/ld199697/ldhansrd/pdvn/lds97/text/70611-20.htm#70611-20_head0">
223# (Lords Hansard 11 June 1997 columns 964 to 976)
224# </a>.
225
bd7414aa 226# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
984263bc 227#
bd7414aa 228# For lack of other data, follow Shanks & Pottenger for Eire in 1940-1948.
984263bc 229#
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230# Given Ilieve and Myers's data, the following claims by Shanks & Pottenger
231# are incorrect:
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232# * Wales did not switch from GMT to daylight saving time until
233# 1921 Apr 3, when they began to conform with the rest of Great Britain.
234# Actually, Wales was identical after 1880.
235# * Eire had two transitions on 1916 Oct 1.
236# It actually just had one transition.
237# * Northern Ireland used single daylight saving time throughout WW II.
238# Actually, it conformed to Britain.
239# * GB-Eire changed standard time to 1 hour ahead of GMT on 1968-02-18.
240# Actually, that date saw the usual switch to summer time.
241# Standard time was not changed until 1968-10-27 (the clocks didn't change).
242#
bd7414aa 243# Here is another incorrect claim by Shanks & Pottenger:
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244# * Jersey, Guernsey, and the Isle of Man did not switch from GMT
245# to daylight saving time until 1921 Apr 3, when they began to
246# conform with Great Britain.
247# S.R.&O. 1916, No. 382 and HO 45/10811/312364 (quoted above) say otherwise.
248#
bd7414aa 249# The following claim by Shanks & Pottenger is possible though doubtful;
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250# we'll ignore it for now.
251# * Dublin's 1971-10-31 switch was at 02:00, even though London's was 03:00.
252#
253#
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254# Whitman says Dublin Mean Time was -0:25:21, which is more precise than
255# Shanks & Pottenger.
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256# Perhaps this was Dunsink Observatory Time, as Dunsink Observatory
257# (8 km NW of Dublin's center) seemingly was to Dublin as Greenwich was
258# to London. For example:
259#
260# "Timeball on the ballast office is down. Dunsink time."
261# -- James Joyce, Ulysses
262
bc95ec93 263# From Joseph S. Myers (2005-01-26):
8393cd87 264# Irish laws are available online at www.irishstatutebook.ie. These include
bc95ec93 265# various relating to legal time, for example:
8393cd87 266#
bc95ec93 267# ZZA13Y1923.html ZZA12Y1924.html ZZA8Y1925.html ZZSIV20PG1267.html
8393cd87 268#
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269# ZZSI71Y1947.html ZZSI128Y1948.html ZZSI23Y1949.html ZZSI41Y1950.html
270# ZZSI27Y1951.html ZZSI73Y1952.html
8393cd87 271#
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272# ZZSI11Y1961.html ZZSI232Y1961.html ZZSI182Y1962.html
273# ZZSI167Y1963.html ZZSI257Y1964.html ZZSI198Y1967.html
274# ZZA23Y1968.html ZZA17Y1971.html
8393cd87 275#
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276# ZZSI67Y1981.html ZZSI212Y1982.html ZZSI45Y1986.html
277# ZZSI264Y1988.html ZZSI52Y1990.html ZZSI371Y1992.html
278# ZZSI395Y1994.html ZZSI484Y1997.html ZZSI506Y2001.html
279#
280# [These are all relative to the root, e.g., the first is
281# <http://www.irishstatutebook.ie/ZZA13Y1923.html>.]
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282#
283# (These are those I found, but there could be more. In any case these
284# should allow various updates to the comments in the europe file to cover
bc95ec93 285# the laws applicable in Ireland.)
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286#
287# (Note that the time in the Republic of Ireland since 1968 has been defined
288# in terms of standard time being GMT+1 with a period of winter time when it
289# is GMT, rather than standard time being GMT with a period of summer time
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290# being GMT+1.)
291
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292# From Paul Eggert (1999-03-28):
293# Clive Feather (<news:859845706.26043.0@office.demon.net>, 1997-03-31)
294# reports that Folkestone (Cheriton) Shuttle Terminal uses Concession Time
295# (CT), equivalent to French civil time.
296# Julian Hill (<news:36118128.5A14@virgin.net>, 1998-09-30) reports that
297# trains between Dollands Moor (the freight facility next door)
298# and Frethun run in CT.
299# My admittedly uninformed guess is that the terminal has two authorities,
300# the French concession operators and the British civil authorities,
301# and that the time depends on who you're talking to.
302# If, say, the British police were called to the station for some reason,
303# I would expect the official police report to use GMT/BST and not CET/CEST.
304# This is a borderline case, but for now let's stick to GMT/BST.
305
306# From an anonymous contributor (1996-06-02):
307# The law governing time in Ireland is under Statutory Instrument SI 395/94,
308# which gives force to European Union 7th Council Directive # 94/21/EC.
309# Under this directive, the Minister for Justice in Ireland makes appropriate
310# regulations. I spoke this morning with the Secretary of the Department of
311# Justice (tel +353 1 678 9711) who confirmed to me that the correct name is
312# "Irish Summer Time", abbreviated to "IST".
313
314# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
315# Summer Time Act, 1916
316Rule GB-Eire 1916 only - May 21 2:00s 1:00 BST
317Rule GB-Eire 1916 only - Oct 1 2:00s 0 GMT
318# S.R.&O. 1917, No. 358
319Rule GB-Eire 1917 only - Apr 8 2:00s 1:00 BST
320Rule GB-Eire 1917 only - Sep 17 2:00s 0 GMT
321# S.R.&O. 1918, No. 274
322Rule GB-Eire 1918 only - Mar 24 2:00s 1:00 BST
323Rule GB-Eire 1918 only - Sep 30 2:00s 0 GMT
324# S.R.&O. 1919, No. 297
325Rule GB-Eire 1919 only - Mar 30 2:00s 1:00 BST
326Rule GB-Eire 1919 only - Sep 29 2:00s 0 GMT
327# S.R.&O. 1920, No. 458
328Rule GB-Eire 1920 only - Mar 28 2:00s 1:00 BST
329# S.R.&O. 1920, No. 1844
330Rule GB-Eire 1920 only - Oct 25 2:00s 0 GMT
331# S.R.&O. 1921, No. 363
332Rule GB-Eire 1921 only - Apr 3 2:00s 1:00 BST
333Rule GB-Eire 1921 only - Oct 3 2:00s 0 GMT
334# S.R.&O. 1922, No. 264
335Rule GB-Eire 1922 only - Mar 26 2:00s 1:00 BST
336Rule GB-Eire 1922 only - Oct 8 2:00s 0 GMT
337# The Summer Time Act, 1922
338Rule GB-Eire 1923 only - Apr Sun>=16 2:00s 1:00 BST
339Rule GB-Eire 1923 1924 - Sep Sun>=16 2:00s 0 GMT
340Rule GB-Eire 1924 only - Apr Sun>=9 2:00s 1:00 BST
341Rule GB-Eire 1925 1926 - Apr Sun>=16 2:00s 1:00 BST
342# The Summer Time Act, 1925
343Rule GB-Eire 1925 1938 - Oct Sun>=2 2:00s 0 GMT
344Rule GB-Eire 1927 only - Apr Sun>=9 2:00s 1:00 BST
345Rule GB-Eire 1928 1929 - Apr Sun>=16 2:00s 1:00 BST
346Rule GB-Eire 1930 only - Apr Sun>=9 2:00s 1:00 BST
347Rule GB-Eire 1931 1932 - Apr Sun>=16 2:00s 1:00 BST
348Rule GB-Eire 1933 only - Apr Sun>=9 2:00s 1:00 BST
349Rule GB-Eire 1934 only - Apr Sun>=16 2:00s 1:00 BST
350Rule GB-Eire 1935 only - Apr Sun>=9 2:00s 1:00 BST
351Rule GB-Eire 1936 1937 - Apr Sun>=16 2:00s 1:00 BST
352Rule GB-Eire 1938 only - Apr Sun>=9 2:00s 1:00 BST
353Rule GB-Eire 1939 only - Apr Sun>=16 2:00s 1:00 BST
354# S.R.&O. 1939, No. 1379
355Rule GB-Eire 1939 only - Nov Sun>=16 2:00s 0 GMT
356# S.R.&O. 1940, No. 172 and No. 1883
357Rule GB-Eire 1940 only - Feb Sun>=23 2:00s 1:00 BST
358# S.R.&O. 1941, No. 476
359Rule GB-Eire 1941 only - May Sun>=2 1:00s 2:00 BDST
360Rule GB-Eire 1941 1943 - Aug Sun>=9 1:00s 1:00 BST
361# S.R.&O. 1942, No. 506
362Rule GB-Eire 1942 1944 - Apr Sun>=2 1:00s 2:00 BDST
363# S.R.&O. 1944, No. 932
364Rule GB-Eire 1944 only - Sep Sun>=16 1:00s 1:00 BST
365# S.R.&O. 1945, No. 312
366Rule GB-Eire 1945 only - Apr Mon>=2 1:00s 2:00 BDST
367Rule GB-Eire 1945 only - Jul Sun>=9 1:00s 1:00 BST
368# S.R.&O. 1945, No. 1208
369Rule GB-Eire 1945 1946 - Oct Sun>=2 2:00s 0 GMT
370Rule GB-Eire 1946 only - Apr Sun>=9 2:00s 1:00 BST
371# The Summer Time Act, 1947
372Rule GB-Eire 1947 only - Mar 16 2:00s 1:00 BST
373Rule GB-Eire 1947 only - Apr 13 1:00s 2:00 BDST
374Rule GB-Eire 1947 only - Aug 10 1:00s 1:00 BST
375Rule GB-Eire 1947 only - Nov 2 2:00s 0 GMT
376# Summer Time Order, 1948 (S.I. 1948/495)
377Rule GB-Eire 1948 only - Mar 14 2:00s 1:00 BST
378Rule GB-Eire 1948 only - Oct 31 2:00s 0 GMT
379# Summer Time Order, 1949 (S.I. 1949/373)
380Rule GB-Eire 1949 only - Apr 3 2:00s 1:00 BST
381Rule GB-Eire 1949 only - Oct 30 2:00s 0 GMT
382# Summer Time Order, 1950 (S.I. 1950/518)
383# Summer Time Order, 1951 (S.I. 1951/430)
384# Summer Time Order, 1952 (S.I. 1952/451)
385Rule GB-Eire 1950 1952 - Apr Sun>=14 2:00s 1:00 BST
386Rule GB-Eire 1950 1952 - Oct Sun>=21 2:00s 0 GMT
387# revert to the rules of the Summer Time Act, 1925
388Rule GB-Eire 1953 only - Apr Sun>=16 2:00s 1:00 BST
389Rule GB-Eire 1953 1960 - Oct Sun>=2 2:00s 0 GMT
390Rule GB-Eire 1954 only - Apr Sun>=9 2:00s 1:00 BST
391Rule GB-Eire 1955 1956 - Apr Sun>=16 2:00s 1:00 BST
392Rule GB-Eire 1957 only - Apr Sun>=9 2:00s 1:00 BST
393Rule GB-Eire 1958 1959 - Apr Sun>=16 2:00s 1:00 BST
394Rule GB-Eire 1960 only - Apr Sun>=9 2:00s 1:00 BST
395# Summer Time Order, 1961 (S.I. 1961/71)
396# Summer Time (1962) Order, 1961 (S.I. 1961/2465)
397# Summer Time Order, 1963 (S.I. 1963/81)
398Rule GB-Eire 1961 1963 - Mar lastSun 2:00s 1:00 BST
399Rule GB-Eire 1961 1968 - Oct Sun>=23 2:00s 0 GMT
400# Summer Time (1964) Order, 1963 (S.I. 1963/2101)
401# Summer Time Order, 1964 (S.I. 1964/1201)
402# Summer Time Order, 1967 (S.I. 1967/1148)
403Rule GB-Eire 1964 1967 - Mar Sun>=19 2:00s 1:00 BST
404# Summer Time Order, 1968 (S.I. 1968/117)
405Rule GB-Eire 1968 only - Feb 18 2:00s 1:00 BST
406# The British Standard Time Act, 1968
407# (no summer time)
408# The Summer Time Act, 1972
409Rule GB-Eire 1972 1980 - Mar Sun>=16 2:00s 1:00 BST
410Rule GB-Eire 1972 1980 - Oct Sun>=23 2:00s 0 GMT
411# Summer Time Order, 1980 (S.I. 1980/1089)
412# Summer Time Order, 1982 (S.I. 1982/1673)
413# Summer Time Order, 1986 (S.I. 1986/223)
414# Summer Time Order, 1988 (S.I. 1988/931)
415Rule GB-Eire 1981 1995 - Mar lastSun 1:00u 1:00 BST
416Rule GB-Eire 1981 1989 - Oct Sun>=23 1:00u 0 GMT
417# Summer Time Order, 1989 (S.I. 1989/985)
418# Summer Time Order, 1992 (S.I. 1992/1729)
419# Summer Time Order 1994 (S.I. 1994/2798)
420Rule GB-Eire 1990 1995 - Oct Sun>=22 1:00u 0 GMT
421# Summer Time Order 1997 (S.I. 1997/2982)
422# See EU for rules starting in 1996.
423
424# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
bd7414aa 425Zone Europe/London -0:01:15 - LMT 1847 Dec 1 0:00s
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426 0:00 GB-Eire %s 1968 Oct 27
427 1:00 - BST 1971 Oct 31 2:00u
428 0:00 GB-Eire %s 1996
429 0:00 EU GMT/BST
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430Link Europe/London Europe/Jersey
431Link Europe/London Europe/Guernsey
432Link Europe/London Europe/Isle_of_Man
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433Zone Europe/Dublin -0:25:00 - LMT 1880 Aug 2
434 -0:25:21 - DMT 1916 May 21 2:00
435 -0:25:21 1:00 IST 1916 Oct 1 2:00s
436 0:00 GB-Eire %s 1921 Dec 6 # independence
437 0:00 GB-Eire GMT/IST 1940 Feb 25 2:00
438 0:00 1:00 IST 1946 Oct 6 2:00
439 0:00 - GMT 1947 Mar 16 2:00
440 0:00 1:00 IST 1947 Nov 2 2:00
441 0:00 - GMT 1948 Apr 18 2:00
442 0:00 GB-Eire GMT/IST 1968 Oct 27
443 1:00 - IST 1971 Oct 31 2:00u
444 0:00 GB-Eire GMT/IST 1996
445 0:00 EU GMT/IST
446
447###############################################################################
448
0e49ec84 449# Europe
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450
451# EU rules are for the European Union, previously known as the EC, EEC,
452# Common Market, etc.
453
454# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
455Rule EU 1977 1980 - Apr Sun>=1 1:00u 1:00 S
456Rule EU 1977 only - Sep lastSun 1:00u 0 -
457Rule EU 1978 only - Oct 1 1:00u 0 -
458Rule EU 1979 1995 - Sep lastSun 1:00u 0 -
459Rule EU 1981 max - Mar lastSun 1:00u 1:00 S
460Rule EU 1996 max - Oct lastSun 1:00u 0 -
461# The most recent directive covers the years starting in 2002. See:
ca05ab86 462# <a="http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:32000L0084:EN:NOT">
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463# Directive 2000/84/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council
464# of 19 January 2001 on summer-time arrangements.
465# </a>
466
467# W-Eur differs from EU only in that W-Eur uses standard time.
468Rule W-Eur 1977 1980 - Apr Sun>=1 1:00s 1:00 S
469Rule W-Eur 1977 only - Sep lastSun 1:00s 0 -
470Rule W-Eur 1978 only - Oct 1 1:00s 0 -
471Rule W-Eur 1979 1995 - Sep lastSun 1:00s 0 -
472Rule W-Eur 1981 max - Mar lastSun 1:00s 1:00 S
473Rule W-Eur 1996 max - Oct lastSun 1:00s 0 -
474
475# Older C-Eur rules are for convenience in the tables.
476# From 1977 on, C-Eur differs from EU only in that C-Eur uses standard time.
477Rule C-Eur 1916 only - Apr 30 23:00 1:00 S
478Rule C-Eur 1916 only - Oct 1 1:00 0 -
479Rule C-Eur 1917 1918 - Apr Mon>=15 2:00s 1:00 S
480Rule C-Eur 1917 1918 - Sep Mon>=15 2:00s 0 -
481Rule C-Eur 1940 only - Apr 1 2:00s 1:00 S
482Rule C-Eur 1942 only - Nov 2 2:00s 0 -
483Rule C-Eur 1943 only - Mar 29 2:00s 1:00 S
484Rule C-Eur 1943 only - Oct 4 2:00s 0 -
a36b983e 485Rule C-Eur 1944 1945 - Apr Mon>=1 2:00s 1:00 S
bd7414aa 486# Whitman gives 1944 Oct 7; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
984263bc 487Rule C-Eur 1944 only - Oct 2 2:00s 0 -
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488# From Jesper Norgaard Welen (2008-07-13):
489#
490# I found what is probably a typo of 2:00 which should perhaps be 2:00s
491# in the C-Eur rule from tz database version 2008d (this part was
492# corrected in version 2008d). The circumstancial evidence is simply the
493# tz database itself, as seen below:
494#
495# Zone Europe/Paris 0:09:21 - LMT 1891 Mar 15 0:01
496# 0:00 France WE%sT 1945 Sep 16 3:00
497#
498# Zone Europe/Monaco 0:29:32 - LMT 1891 Mar 15
499# 0:00 France WE%sT 1945 Sep 16 3:00
500#
501# Zone Europe/Belgrade 1:22:00 - LMT 1884
502# 1:00 1:00 CEST 1945 Sep 16 2:00s
503#
504# Rule France 1945 only - Sep 16 3:00 0 -
505# Rule Belgium 1945 only - Sep 16 2:00s 0 -
506# Rule Neth 1945 only - Sep 16 2:00s 0 -
507#
508# The rule line to be changed is:
509#
510# Rule C-Eur 1945 only - Sep 16 2:00 0 -
511#
512# It seems that Paris, Monaco, Rule France, Rule Belgium all agree on
513# 2:00 standard time, e.g. 3:00 local time. However there are no
514# countries that use C-Eur rules in September 1945, so the only items
515# affected are apparently these ficticious zones that translates acronyms
516# CET and MET:
517#
518# Zone CET 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT
519# Zone MET 1:00 C-Eur ME%sT
520#
521# It this is right then the corrected version would look like:
522#
523# Rule C-Eur 1945 only - Sep 16 2:00s 0 -
524#
525# A small step for mankind though 8-)
526Rule C-Eur 1945 only - Sep 16 2:00s 0 -
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527Rule C-Eur 1977 1980 - Apr Sun>=1 2:00s 1:00 S
528Rule C-Eur 1977 only - Sep lastSun 2:00s 0 -
529Rule C-Eur 1978 only - Oct 1 2:00s 0 -
530Rule C-Eur 1979 1995 - Sep lastSun 2:00s 0 -
531Rule C-Eur 1981 max - Mar lastSun 2:00s 1:00 S
532Rule C-Eur 1996 max - Oct lastSun 2:00s 0 -
533
534# E-Eur differs from EU only in that E-Eur switches at midnight local time.
535Rule E-Eur 1977 1980 - Apr Sun>=1 0:00 1:00 S
536Rule E-Eur 1977 only - Sep lastSun 0:00 0 -
537Rule E-Eur 1978 only - Oct 1 0:00 0 -
538Rule E-Eur 1979 1995 - Sep lastSun 0:00 0 -
539Rule E-Eur 1981 max - Mar lastSun 0:00 1:00 S
540Rule E-Eur 1996 max - Oct lastSun 0:00 0 -
541
542# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
543Rule Russia 1917 only - Jul 1 23:00 1:00 MST # Moscow Summer Time
544Rule Russia 1917 only - Dec 28 0:00 0 MMT # Moscow Mean Time
545Rule Russia 1918 only - May 31 22:00 2:00 MDST # Moscow Double Summer Time
546Rule Russia 1918 only - Sep 16 1:00 1:00 MST
547Rule Russia 1919 only - May 31 23:00 2:00 MDST
548Rule Russia 1919 only - Jul 1 2:00 1:00 S
549Rule Russia 1919 only - Aug 16 0:00 0 -
550Rule Russia 1921 only - Feb 14 23:00 1:00 S
551Rule Russia 1921 only - Mar 20 23:00 2:00 M # Midsummer
552Rule Russia 1921 only - Sep 1 0:00 1:00 S
553Rule Russia 1921 only - Oct 1 0:00 0 -
554# Act No.925 of the Council of Ministers of the USSR (1980-10-24):
555Rule Russia 1981 1984 - Apr 1 0:00 1:00 S
556Rule Russia 1981 1983 - Oct 1 0:00 0 -
557# Act No.967 of the Council of Ministers of the USSR (1984-09-13), repeated in
558# Act No.227 of the Council of Ministers of the USSR (1989-03-14):
559Rule Russia 1984 1991 - Sep lastSun 2:00s 0 -
560Rule Russia 1985 1991 - Mar lastSun 2:00s 1:00 S
561#
562Rule Russia 1992 only - Mar lastSat 23:00 1:00 S
563Rule Russia 1992 only - Sep lastSat 23:00 0 -
8e329db9 564Rule Russia 1993 2010 - Mar lastSun 2:00s 1:00 S
984263bc 565Rule Russia 1993 1995 - Sep lastSun 2:00s 0 -
8e329db9 566Rule Russia 1996 2010 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 0 -
984263bc 567
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568# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2011-06-14):
569# According to Kremlin press service, Russian President Dmitry Medvedev
570# signed a federal law "On calculation of time" on June 9, 2011.
571# According to the law Russia is abolishing daylight saving time.
572#
573# Medvedev signed a law "On the Calculation of Time" (in russian):
574# <a href="http://bmockbe.ru/events/?ID=7583">
575# http://bmockbe.ru/events/?ID=7583
576# </a>
577#
578# Medvedev signed a law on the calculation of the time (in russian):
579# <a href="http://www.regnum.ru/news/polit/1413906.html">
580# http://www.regnum.ru/news/polit/1413906.html
581# </a>
582
583# From Arthur David Olson (2011-06-15):
584# Take "abolishing daylight saving time" to mean that time is now considered
585# to be standard.
ffa9a577 586
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587# These are for backward compatibility with older versions.
588
589# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
590Zone WET 0:00 EU WE%sT
591Zone CET 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT
592Zone MET 1:00 C-Eur ME%sT
593Zone EET 2:00 EU EE%sT
594
595# Previous editions of this database used abbreviations like MET DST
596# for Central European Summer Time, but this didn't agree with common usage.
597
9ffe4b14 598# From Markus Kuhn (1996-07-12):
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599# The official German names ... are
600#
601# Mitteleuropaeische Zeit (MEZ) = UTC+01:00
602# Mitteleuropaeische Sommerzeit (MESZ) = UTC+02:00
603#
604# as defined in the German Time Act (Gesetz ueber die Zeitbestimmung (ZeitG),
605# 1978-07-25, Bundesgesetzblatt, Jahrgang 1978, Teil I, S. 1110-1111)....
606# I wrote ... to the German Federal Physical-Technical Institution
607#
608# Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB)
609# Laboratorium 4.41 "Zeiteinheit"
610# Postfach 3345
611# D-38023 Braunschweig
612# phone: +49 531 592-0
613#
614# ... I received today an answer letter from Dr. Peter Hetzel, head of the PTB
615# department for time and frequency transmission. He explained that the
616# PTB translates MEZ and MESZ into English as
617#
618# Central European Time (CET) = UTC+01:00
619# Central European Summer Time (CEST) = UTC+02:00
620
621
622# Albania
623# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
624Rule Albania 1940 only - Jun 16 0:00 1:00 S
625Rule Albania 1942 only - Nov 2 3:00 0 -
626Rule Albania 1943 only - Mar 29 2:00 1:00 S
627Rule Albania 1943 only - Apr 10 3:00 0 -
628Rule Albania 1974 only - May 4 0:00 1:00 S
629Rule Albania 1974 only - Oct 2 0:00 0 -
630Rule Albania 1975 only - May 1 0:00 1:00 S
631Rule Albania 1975 only - Oct 2 0:00 0 -
632Rule Albania 1976 only - May 2 0:00 1:00 S
633Rule Albania 1976 only - Oct 3 0:00 0 -
634Rule Albania 1977 only - May 8 0:00 1:00 S
635Rule Albania 1977 only - Oct 2 0:00 0 -
636Rule Albania 1978 only - May 6 0:00 1:00 S
637Rule Albania 1978 only - Oct 1 0:00 0 -
638Rule Albania 1979 only - May 5 0:00 1:00 S
639Rule Albania 1979 only - Sep 30 0:00 0 -
640Rule Albania 1980 only - May 3 0:00 1:00 S
641Rule Albania 1980 only - Oct 4 0:00 0 -
642Rule Albania 1981 only - Apr 26 0:00 1:00 S
643Rule Albania 1981 only - Sep 27 0:00 0 -
644Rule Albania 1982 only - May 2 0:00 1:00 S
645Rule Albania 1982 only - Oct 3 0:00 0 -
646Rule Albania 1983 only - Apr 18 0:00 1:00 S
647Rule Albania 1983 only - Oct 1 0:00 0 -
648Rule Albania 1984 only - Apr 1 0:00 1:00 S
649# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
650Zone Europe/Tirane 1:19:20 - LMT 1914
651 1:00 - CET 1940 Jun 16
652 1:00 Albania CE%sT 1984 Jul
653 1:00 EU CE%sT
654
655# Andorra
656# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
657Zone Europe/Andorra 0:06:04 - LMT 1901
658 0:00 - WET 1946 Sep 30
659 1:00 - CET 1985 Mar 31 2:00
660 1:00 EU CE%sT
661
662# Austria
663
bd7414aa 664# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22): Shanks & Pottenger give 1918-06-16 and
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665# 1945-11-18, but the Austrian Federal Office of Metrology and
666# Surveying (BEV) gives 1918-09-16 and for Vienna gives the "alleged"
667# date of 1945-04-12 with no time. For the 1980-04-06 transition
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668# Shanks & Pottenger give 02:00, the BEV 00:00. Go with the BEV,
669# and guess 02:00 for 1945-04-12.
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670
671# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
672Rule Austria 1920 only - Apr 5 2:00s 1:00 S
673Rule Austria 1920 only - Sep 13 2:00s 0 -
674Rule Austria 1946 only - Apr 14 2:00s 1:00 S
675Rule Austria 1946 1948 - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
676Rule Austria 1947 only - Apr 6 2:00s 1:00 S
677Rule Austria 1948 only - Apr 18 2:00s 1:00 S
678Rule Austria 1980 only - Apr 6 0:00 1:00 S
679Rule Austria 1980 only - Sep 28 0:00 0 -
680# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
681Zone Europe/Vienna 1:05:20 - LMT 1893 Apr
682 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1920
683 1:00 Austria CE%sT 1940 Apr 1 2:00s
684 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945 Apr 2 2:00s
685 1:00 1:00 CEST 1945 Apr 12 2:00s
686 1:00 - CET 1946
687 1:00 Austria CE%sT 1981
688 1:00 EU CE%sT
689
690# Belarus
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691# From Yauhen Kharuzhy (2011-09-16):
692# By latest Belarus government act Europe/Minsk timezone was changed to
693# GMT+3 without DST (was GMT+2 with DST).
694#
695# Sources (Russian language):
696# 1.
697# <a href="http://www.belta.by/ru/all_news/society/V-Belarusi-otmenjaetsja-perexod-na-sezonnoe-vremja_i_572952.html">
698# http://www.belta.by/ru/all_news/society/V-Belarusi-otmenjaetsja-perexod-na-sezonnoe-vremja_i_572952.html
699# </a>
700# 2.
701# <a href="http://naviny.by/rubrics/society/2011/09/16/ic_articles_116_175144/">
702# http://naviny.by/rubrics/society/2011/09/16/ic_articles_116_175144/
703# </a>
704# 3.
705# <a href="http://news.tut.by/society/250578.html">
706# http://news.tut.by/society/250578.html
707# </a>
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708# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
709Zone Europe/Minsk 1:50:16 - LMT 1880
710 1:50 - MMT 1924 May 2 # Minsk Mean Time
711 2:00 - EET 1930 Jun 21
712 3:00 - MSK 1941 Jun 28
713 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Jul 3
714 3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1990
715 3:00 - MSK 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
716 2:00 1:00 EEST 1991 Sep 29 2:00s
717 2:00 - EET 1992 Mar 29 0:00s
718 2:00 1:00 EEST 1992 Sep 27 0:00s
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719 2:00 Russia EE%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s
720 3:00 - FET # Further-eastern European Time
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721
722# Belgium
723#
724# From Paul Eggert (1997-07-02):
725# Entries from 1918 through 1991 are taken from:
726# Annuaire de L'Observatoire Royal de Belgique,
727# Avenue Circulaire, 3, B-1180 BRUXELLES, CLVIIe annee, 1991
728# (Imprimerie HAYEZ, s.p.r.l., Rue Fin, 4, 1080 BRUXELLES, MCMXC),
729# pp 8-9.
730# LMT before 1892 was 0:17:30, according to the official journal of Belgium:
731# Moniteur Belge, Samedi 30 Avril 1892, N.121.
9ffe4b14 732# Thanks to Pascal Delmoitie for these references.
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733# The 1918 rules are listed for completeness; they apply to unoccupied Belgium.
734# Assume Brussels switched to WET in 1918 when the armistice took effect.
735#
736# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
737Rule Belgium 1918 only - Mar 9 0:00s 1:00 S
738Rule Belgium 1918 1919 - Oct Sat>=1 23:00s 0 -
739Rule Belgium 1919 only - Mar 1 23:00s 1:00 S
740Rule Belgium 1920 only - Feb 14 23:00s 1:00 S
741Rule Belgium 1920 only - Oct 23 23:00s 0 -
742Rule Belgium 1921 only - Mar 14 23:00s 1:00 S
743Rule Belgium 1921 only - Oct 25 23:00s 0 -
744Rule Belgium 1922 only - Mar 25 23:00s 1:00 S
745Rule Belgium 1922 1927 - Oct Sat>=1 23:00s 0 -
746Rule Belgium 1923 only - Apr 21 23:00s 1:00 S
747Rule Belgium 1924 only - Mar 29 23:00s 1:00 S
748Rule Belgium 1925 only - Apr 4 23:00s 1:00 S
749# DSH writes that a royal decree of 1926-02-22 specified the Sun following 3rd
750# Sat in Apr (except if it's Easter, in which case it's one Sunday earlier),
751# to Sun following 1st Sat in Oct, and that a royal decree of 1928-09-15
752# changed the transition times to 02:00 GMT.
753Rule Belgium 1926 only - Apr 17 23:00s 1:00 S
754Rule Belgium 1927 only - Apr 9 23:00s 1:00 S
755Rule Belgium 1928 only - Apr 14 23:00s 1:00 S
756Rule Belgium 1928 1938 - Oct Sun>=2 2:00s 0 -
757Rule Belgium 1929 only - Apr 21 2:00s 1:00 S
758Rule Belgium 1930 only - Apr 13 2:00s 1:00 S
759Rule Belgium 1931 only - Apr 19 2:00s 1:00 S
760Rule Belgium 1932 only - Apr 3 2:00s 1:00 S
761Rule Belgium 1933 only - Mar 26 2:00s 1:00 S
762Rule Belgium 1934 only - Apr 8 2:00s 1:00 S
763Rule Belgium 1935 only - Mar 31 2:00s 1:00 S
764Rule Belgium 1936 only - Apr 19 2:00s 1:00 S
765Rule Belgium 1937 only - Apr 4 2:00s 1:00 S
766Rule Belgium 1938 only - Mar 27 2:00s 1:00 S
767Rule Belgium 1939 only - Apr 16 2:00s 1:00 S
768Rule Belgium 1939 only - Nov 19 2:00s 0 -
769Rule Belgium 1940 only - Feb 25 2:00s 1:00 S
770Rule Belgium 1944 only - Sep 17 2:00s 0 -
771Rule Belgium 1945 only - Apr 2 2:00s 1:00 S
772Rule Belgium 1945 only - Sep 16 2:00s 0 -
773Rule Belgium 1946 only - May 19 2:00s 1:00 S
774Rule Belgium 1946 only - Oct 7 2:00s 0 -
775# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
776Zone Europe/Brussels 0:17:30 - LMT 1880
777 0:17:30 - BMT 1892 May 1 12:00 # Brussels MT
778 0:00 - WET 1914 Nov 8
779 1:00 - CET 1916 May 1 0:00
780 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1918 Nov 11 11:00u
781 0:00 Belgium WE%sT 1940 May 20 2:00s
782 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Sep 3
783 1:00 Belgium CE%sT 1977
784 1:00 EU CE%sT
785
786# Bosnia and Herzegovina
17f48456 787# see Serbia
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788
789# Bulgaria
790#
9ffe4b14 791# From Plamen Simenov via Steffen Thorsen (1999-09-09):
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792# A document of Government of Bulgaria (No.94/1997) says:
793# EET --> EETDST is in 03:00 Local time in last Sunday of March ...
794# EETDST --> EET is in 04:00 Local time in last Sunday of October
795#
796# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
797Rule Bulg 1979 only - Mar 31 23:00 1:00 S
798Rule Bulg 1979 only - Oct 1 1:00 0 -
bd7414aa 799Rule Bulg 1980 1982 - Apr Sat>=1 23:00 1:00 S
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800Rule Bulg 1980 only - Sep 29 1:00 0 -
801Rule Bulg 1981 only - Sep 27 2:00 0 -
802# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
803Zone Europe/Sofia 1:33:16 - LMT 1880
804 1:56:56 - IMT 1894 Nov 30 # Istanbul MT?
805 2:00 - EET 1942 Nov 2 3:00
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806 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945
807 1:00 - CET 1945 Apr 2 3:00
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808 2:00 - EET 1979 Mar 31 23:00
809 2:00 Bulg EE%sT 1982 Sep 26 2:00
810 2:00 C-Eur EE%sT 1991
811 2:00 E-Eur EE%sT 1997
812 2:00 EU EE%sT
813
814# Croatia
17f48456 815# see Serbia
984263bc 816
ba5ba9da 817# Cyprus
bc95ec93 818# Please see the `asia' file for Asia/Nicosia.
ba5ba9da 819
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820# Czech Republic
821# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
822Rule Czech 1945 only - Apr 8 2:00s 1:00 S
823Rule Czech 1945 only - Nov 18 2:00s 0 -
824Rule Czech 1946 only - May 6 2:00s 1:00 S
825Rule Czech 1946 1949 - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
826Rule Czech 1947 only - Apr 20 2:00s 1:00 S
827Rule Czech 1948 only - Apr 18 2:00s 1:00 S
828Rule Czech 1949 only - Apr 9 2:00s 1:00 S
829# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
830Zone Europe/Prague 0:57:44 - LMT 1850
831 0:57:44 - PMT 1891 Oct # Prague Mean Time
832 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Sep 17 2:00s
833 1:00 Czech CE%sT 1979
834 1:00 EU CE%sT
835
880368e2 836# Denmark, Faroe Islands, and Greenland
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837
838# From Jesper Norgaard Welen (2005-04-26):
839# http://www.hum.aau.dk/~poe/tid/tine/DanskTid.htm says that the law
840# [introducing standard time] was in effect from 1894-01-01....
841# The page http://www.retsinfo.dk/_GETDOCI_/ACCN/A18930008330-REGL
842# confirms this, and states that the law was put forth 1893-03-29.
843#
844# The EU treaty with effect from 1973:
845# http://www.retsinfo.dk/_GETDOCI_/ACCN/A19722110030-REGL
846#
847# This provoked a new law from 1974 to make possible summer time changes
848# in subsequenet decrees with the law
849# http://www.retsinfo.dk/_GETDOCI_/ACCN/A19740022330-REGL
850#
851# It seems however that no decree was set forward until 1980. I have
852# not found any decree, but in another related law, the effecting DST
853# changes are stated explicitly to be from 1980-04-06 at 02:00 to
854# 1980-09-28 at 02:00. If this is true, this differs slightly from
855# the EU rule in that DST runs to 02:00, not 03:00. We don't know
856# when Denmark began using the EU rule correctly, but we have only
857# confirmation of the 1980-time, so I presume it was correct in 1981:
858# The law is about the management of the extra hour, concerning
859# working hours reported and effect on obligatory-rest rules (which
860# was suspended on that night):
861# http://www.retsinfo.dk/_GETDOCI_/ACCN/C19801120554-REGL
862
863# From Jesper Norgaard Welen (2005-06-11):
864# The Herning Folkeblad (1980-09-26) reported that the night between
865# Saturday and Sunday the clock is set back from three to two.
866
867# From Paul Eggert (2005-06-11):
868# Hence the "02:00" of the 1980 law refers to standard time, not
869# wall-clock time, and so the EU rules were in effect in 1980.
870
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871# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
872Rule Denmark 1916 only - May 14 23:00 1:00 S
873Rule Denmark 1916 only - Sep 30 23:00 0 -
874Rule Denmark 1940 only - May 15 0:00 1:00 S
875Rule Denmark 1945 only - Apr 2 2:00s 1:00 S
876Rule Denmark 1945 only - Aug 15 2:00s 0 -
877Rule Denmark 1946 only - May 1 2:00s 1:00 S
878Rule Denmark 1946 only - Sep 1 2:00s 0 -
879Rule Denmark 1947 only - May 4 2:00s 1:00 S
880Rule Denmark 1947 only - Aug 10 2:00s 0 -
881Rule Denmark 1948 only - May 9 2:00s 1:00 S
882Rule Denmark 1948 only - Aug 8 2:00s 0 -
984263bc 883#
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884# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
885Zone Europe/Copenhagen 0:50:20 - LMT 1890
9ffe4b14 886 0:50:20 - CMT 1894 Jan 1 # Copenhagen MT
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887 1:00 Denmark CE%sT 1942 Nov 2 2:00s
888 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945 Apr 2 2:00
889 1:00 Denmark CE%sT 1980
890 1:00 EU CE%sT
880368e2 891Zone Atlantic/Faroe -0:27:04 - LMT 1908 Jan 11 # Torshavn
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892 0:00 - WET 1981
893 0:00 EU WE%sT
894#
bc95ec93
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895# From Paul Eggert (2004-10-31):
896# During World War II, Germany maintained secret manned weather stations in
897# East Greenland and Franz Josef Land, but we don't know their time zones.
898# My source for this is Wilhelm Dege's book mentioned under Svalbard.
899#
bd7414aa 900# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
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901# Greenland joined the EU as part of Denmark, obtained home rule on 1979-05-01,
902# and left the EU on 1985-02-01. It therefore should have been using EU
bd7414aa 903# rules at least through 1984. Shanks & Pottenger say Scoresbysund and Godthab
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904# used C-Eur rules after 1980, but IATA SSIM (1991/1996) says they use EU
905# rules since at least 1991. Assume EU rules since 1980.
906
907# From Gwillin Law (2001-06-06), citing
908# <http://www.statkart.no/efs/efshefter/2001/efs5-2001.pdf> (2001-03-15),
909# and with translations corrected by Steffen Thorsen:
910#
911# Greenland has four local times, and the relation to UTC
912# is according to the following time line:
913#
914# The military zone near Thule UTC-4
915# Standard Greenland time UTC-3
916# Scoresbysund UTC-1
917# Danmarkshavn UTC
918#
919# In the military area near Thule and in Danmarkshavn DST will not be
920# introduced.
921
922# From Rives McDow (2001-11-01):
923#
924# I correspond regularly with the Dansk Polarcenter, and wrote them at
925# the time to clarify the situation in Thule. Unfortunately, I have
926# not heard back from them regarding my recent letter. [But I have
927# info from earlier correspondence.]
928#
929# According to the center, a very small local time zone around Thule
930# Air Base keeps the time according to UTC-4, implementing daylight
931# savings using North America rules, changing the time at 02:00 local time....
932#
933# The east coast of Greenland north of the community of Scoresbysund
934# uses UTC in the same way as in Iceland, year round, with no dst.
935# There are just a few stations on this coast, including the
936# Danmarkshavn ICAO weather station mentioned in your September 29th
937# email. The other stations are two sledge patrol stations in
938# Mestersvig and Daneborg, the air force base at Station Nord, and the
939# DPC research station at Zackenberg.
940#
941# Scoresbysund and two small villages nearby keep time UTC-1 and use
942# the same daylight savings time period as in West Greenland (Godthab).
943#
944# The rest of Greenland, including Godthab (this area, although it
945# includes central Greenland, is known as west Greenland), keeps time
946# UTC-3, with daylight savings methods according to European rules.
947#
948# It is common procedure to use UTC 0 in the wilderness of East and
949# North Greenland, because it is mainly Icelandic aircraft operators
950# maintaining traffic in these areas. However, the official status of
951# this area is that it sticks with Godthab time. This area might be
952# considered a dual time zone in some respects because of this.
953
954# From Rives McDow (2001-11-19):
955# I heard back from someone stationed at Thule; the time change took place
956# there at 2:00 AM.
957
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SW
958# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
959# From 1997 on the CIA map shows Danmarkshavn on GMT;
960# the 1995 map as like Godthab.
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MD
961# For lack of better info, assume they were like Godthab before 1996.
962# startkart.no says Thule does not observe DST, but this is clearly an error,
bd7414aa
SW
963# so go with Shanks & Pottenger for Thule transitions until this year.
964# For 2007 on assume Thule will stay in sync with US DST rules.
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MD
965#
966# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
967Rule Thule 1991 1992 - Mar lastSun 2:00 1:00 D
968Rule Thule 1991 1992 - Sep lastSun 2:00 0 S
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SW
969Rule Thule 1993 2006 - Apr Sun>=1 2:00 1:00 D
970Rule Thule 1993 2006 - Oct lastSun 2:00 0 S
971Rule Thule 2007 max - Mar Sun>=8 2:00 1:00 D
972Rule Thule 2007 max - Nov Sun>=1 2:00 0 S
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MD
973#
974# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
975Zone America/Danmarkshavn -1:14:40 - LMT 1916 Jul 28
976 -3:00 - WGT 1980 Apr 6 2:00
977 -3:00 EU WG%sT 1996
978 0:00 - GMT
bd7414aa 979Zone America/Scoresbysund -1:27:52 - LMT 1916 Jul 28 # Ittoqqortoormiit
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MD
980 -2:00 - CGT 1980 Apr 6 2:00
981 -2:00 C-Eur CG%sT 1981 Mar 29
982 -1:00 EU EG%sT
983Zone America/Godthab -3:26:56 - LMT 1916 Jul 28 # Nuuk
984 -3:00 - WGT 1980 Apr 6 2:00
985 -3:00 EU WG%sT
986Zone America/Thule -4:35:08 - LMT 1916 Jul 28 # Pituffik air base
987 -4:00 Thule A%sT
988
989# Estonia
9ffe4b14 990# From Peter Ilieve (1994-10-15):
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MD
991# A relative in Tallinn confirms the accuracy of the data for 1989 onwards
992# [through 1994] and gives the legal authority for it,
993# a regulation of the Government of Estonia, No. 111 of 1989....
994#
9ffe4b14 995# From Peter Ilieve (1996-10-28):
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MD
996# [IATA SSIM (1992/1996) claims that the Baltic republics switch at 01:00s,
997# but a relative confirms that Estonia still switches at 02:00s, writing:]
998# ``I do not [know] exactly but there are some little different
999# (confusing) rules for International Air and Railway Transport Schedules
1000# conversion in Sunday connected with end of summer time in Estonia....
1001# A discussion is running about the summer time efficiency and effect on
1002# human physiology. It seems that Estonia maybe will not change to
1003# summer time next spring.''
1004
9ffe4b14 1005# From Peter Ilieve (1998-11-04), heavily edited:
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MD
1006# <a href="http://trip.rk.ee/cgi-bin/thw?${BASE}=akt&${OOHTML}=rtd&TA=1998&TO=1&AN=1390">
1007# The 1998-09-22 Estonian time law
1008# </a>
1009# refers to the Eighth Directive and cites the association agreement between
1010# the EU and Estonia, ratified by the Estonian law (RT II 1995, 22--27, 120).
1011#
1012# I also asked [my relative] whether they use any standard abbreviation
1013# for their standard and summer times. He says no, they use "suveaeg"
1014# (summer time) and "talveaeg" (winter time).
1015
1016# From <a href="http://www.baltictimes.com/">The Baltic Times</a> (1999-09-09)
1017# via Steffen Thorsen:
1018# This year will mark the last time Estonia shifts to summer time,
1019# a council of the ruling coalition announced Sept. 6....
1020# But what this could mean for Estonia's chances of joining the European
1021# Union are still unclear. In 1994, the EU declared summer time compulsory
1022# for all member states until 2001. Brussels has yet to decide what to do
1023# after that.
1024
1025# From Mart Oruaas (2000-01-29):
1026# Regulation no. 301 (1999-10-12) obsoletes previous regulation
1027# no. 206 (1998-09-22) and thus sticks Estonia to +02:00 GMT for all
1028# the year round. The regulation is effective 1999-11-01.
1029
1030# From Toomas Soome (2002-02-21):
1031# The Estonian government has changed once again timezone politics.
1032# Now we are using again EU rules.
1033#
1034# From Urmet Jaanes (2002-03-28):
1035# The legislative reference is Government decree No. 84 on 2002-02-21.
1036
1037# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
1038Zone Europe/Tallinn 1:39:00 - LMT 1880
1039 1:39:00 - TMT 1918 Feb # Tallinn Mean Time
1040 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1919 Jul
1041 1:39:00 - TMT 1921 May
1042 2:00 - EET 1940 Aug 6
1043 3:00 - MSK 1941 Sep 15
1044 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Sep 22
1045 3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1989 Mar 26 2:00s
1046 2:00 1:00 EEST 1989 Sep 24 2:00s
1047 2:00 C-Eur EE%sT 1998 Sep 22
1048 2:00 EU EE%sT 1999 Nov 1
1049 2:00 - EET 2002 Feb 21
1050 2:00 EU EE%sT
1051
1052# Finland
25d38d10 1053
bd7414aa 1054# From Hannu Strang (1994-09-25 06:03:37 UTC):
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MD
1055# Well, here in Helsinki we're just changing from summer time to regular one,
1056# and it's supposed to change at 4am...
25d38d10
SW
1057
1058# From Janne Snabb (2010-0715):
984263bc 1059#
25d38d10
SW
1060# I noticed that the Finland data is not accurate for years 1981 and 1982.
1061# During these two first trial years the DST adjustment was made one hour
1062# earlier than in forthcoming years. Starting 1983 the adjustment was made
1063# according to the central European standards.
1064#
1065# This is documented in Heikki Oja: Aikakirja 2007, published by The Almanac
1066# Office of University of Helsinki, ISBN 952-10-3221-9, available online (in
1067# Finnish) at
1068#
1069# <a href="http://almanakka.helsinki.fi/aikakirja/Aikakirja2007kokonaan.pdf">
1070# http://almanakka.helsinki.fi/aikakirja/Aikakirja2007kokonaan.pdf
1071# </a>
1072#
1073# Page 105 (56 in PDF version) has a handy table of all past daylight savings
1074# transitions. It is easy enough to interpret without Finnish skills.
1075#
1076# This is also confirmed by Finnish Broadcasting Company's archive at:
984263bc 1077#
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SW
1078# <a href="http://www.yle.fi/elavaarkisto/?s=s&g=1&ag=5&t=&a=3401">
1079# http://www.yle.fi/elavaarkisto/?s=s&g=1&ag=5&t=&a=3401
1080# </a>
1081#
1082# The news clip from 1981 says that "the time between 2 and 3 o'clock does not
1083# exist tonight."
1084
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MD
1085# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
1086Rule Finland 1942 only - Apr 3 0:00 1:00 S
1087Rule Finland 1942 only - Oct 3 0:00 0 -
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SW
1088Rule Finland 1981 1982 - Mar lastSun 2:00 1:00 S
1089Rule Finland 1981 1982 - Sep lastSun 3:00 0 -
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MD
1090# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
1091Zone Europe/Helsinki 1:39:52 - LMT 1878 May 31
1092 1:39:52 - HMT 1921 May # Helsinki Mean Time
25d38d10 1093 2:00 Finland EE%sT 1983
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MD
1094 2:00 EU EE%sT
1095
ba5ba9da
JR
1096# Aaland Is
1097Link Europe/Helsinki Europe/Mariehamn
1098
1099
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MD
1100# France
1101
1102# From Ciro Discepolo (2000-12-20):
1103#
1104# Henri Le Corre, Regimes Horaires pour le monde entier, Editions
1105# Traditionnelles - Paris 2 books, 1993
1106#
1107# Gabriel, Traite de l'heure dans le monde, Guy Tredaniel editeur,
1108# Paris, 1991
1109#
1110# Francoise Gauquelin, Problemes de l'heure resolus en astrologie,
1111# Guy tredaniel, Paris 1987
1112
1113
1114#
bd7414aa 1115# Shank & Pottenger seem to use `24:00' ambiguously; resolve it with Whitman.
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MD
1116# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
1117Rule France 1916 only - Jun 14 23:00s 1:00 S
1118Rule France 1916 1919 - Oct Sun>=1 23:00s 0 -
1119Rule France 1917 only - Mar 24 23:00s 1:00 S
1120Rule France 1918 only - Mar 9 23:00s 1:00 S
1121Rule France 1919 only - Mar 1 23:00s 1:00 S
1122Rule France 1920 only - Feb 14 23:00s 1:00 S
1123Rule France 1920 only - Oct 23 23:00s 0 -
1124Rule France 1921 only - Mar 14 23:00s 1:00 S
1125Rule France 1921 only - Oct 25 23:00s 0 -
1126Rule France 1922 only - Mar 25 23:00s 1:00 S
1127# DSH writes that a law of 1923-05-24 specified 3rd Sat in Apr at 23:00 to 1st
1128# Sat in Oct at 24:00; and that in 1930, because of Easter, the transitions
bd7414aa 1129# were Apr 12 and Oct 5. Go with Shanks & Pottenger.
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MD
1130Rule France 1922 1938 - Oct Sat>=1 23:00s 0 -
1131Rule France 1923 only - May 26 23:00s 1:00 S
1132Rule France 1924 only - Mar 29 23:00s 1:00 S
1133Rule France 1925 only - Apr 4 23:00s 1:00 S
1134Rule France 1926 only - Apr 17 23:00s 1:00 S
1135Rule France 1927 only - Apr 9 23:00s 1:00 S
1136Rule France 1928 only - Apr 14 23:00s 1:00 S
1137Rule France 1929 only - Apr 20 23:00s 1:00 S
1138Rule France 1930 only - Apr 12 23:00s 1:00 S
1139Rule France 1931 only - Apr 18 23:00s 1:00 S
1140Rule France 1932 only - Apr 2 23:00s 1:00 S
1141Rule France 1933 only - Mar 25 23:00s 1:00 S
1142Rule France 1934 only - Apr 7 23:00s 1:00 S
1143Rule France 1935 only - Mar 30 23:00s 1:00 S
1144Rule France 1936 only - Apr 18 23:00s 1:00 S
1145Rule France 1937 only - Apr 3 23:00s 1:00 S
1146Rule France 1938 only - Mar 26 23:00s 1:00 S
1147Rule France 1939 only - Apr 15 23:00s 1:00 S
1148Rule France 1939 only - Nov 18 23:00s 0 -
1149Rule France 1940 only - Feb 25 2:00 1:00 S
bd7414aa
SW
1150# The French rules for 1941-1944 were not used in Paris, but Shanks & Pottenger
1151# write that they were used in Monaco and in many French locations.
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MD
1152# Le Corre writes that the upper limit of the free zone was Arneguy, Orthez,
1153# Mont-de-Marsan, Bazas, Langon, Lamotte-Montravel, Marouil, La
1154# Rochefoucault, Champagne-Mouton, La Roche-Posay, La Haye-Decartes,
1155# Loches, Montrichard, Vierzon, Bourges, Moulins, Digoin,
1156# Paray-le-Monial, Montceau-les-Mines, Chalons-sur-Saone, Arbois,
1157# Dole, Morez, St-Claude, and Collognes (Haute-Savioe).
1158Rule France 1941 only - May 5 0:00 2:00 M # Midsummer
bd7414aa 1159# Shanks & Pottenger say this transition occurred at Oct 6 1:00,
9ffe4b14 1160# but go with Denis Excoffier (1997-12-12),
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MD
1161# who quotes the Ephemerides Astronomiques for 1998 from Bureau des Longitudes
1162# as saying 5/10/41 22hUT.
1163Rule France 1941 only - Oct 6 0:00 1:00 S
1164Rule France 1942 only - Mar 9 0:00 2:00 M
1165Rule France 1942 only - Nov 2 3:00 1:00 S
1166Rule France 1943 only - Mar 29 2:00 2:00 M
1167Rule France 1943 only - Oct 4 3:00 1:00 S
1168Rule France 1944 only - Apr 3 2:00 2:00 M
1169Rule France 1944 only - Oct 8 1:00 1:00 S
1170Rule France 1945 only - Apr 2 2:00 2:00 M
1171Rule France 1945 only - Sep 16 3:00 0 -
bd7414aa 1172# Shanks & Pottenger give Mar 28 2:00 and Sep 26 3:00;
984263bc
MD
1173# go with Excoffier's 28/3/76 0hUT and 25/9/76 23hUT.
1174Rule France 1976 only - Mar 28 1:00 1:00 S
1175Rule France 1976 only - Sep 26 1:00 0 -
bd7414aa 1176# Shanks & Pottenger give 0:09:20 for Paris Mean Time, and Whitman 0:09:05,
984263bc
MD
1177# but Howse quotes the actual French legislation as saying 0:09:21.
1178# Go with Howse. Howse writes that the time in France was officially based
1179# on PMT-0:09:21 until 1978-08-09, when the time base finally switched to UTC.
1180# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
1181Zone Europe/Paris 0:09:21 - LMT 1891 Mar 15 0:01
1182 0:09:21 - PMT 1911 Mar 11 0:01 # Paris MT
bd7414aa 1183# Shanks & Pottenger give 1940 Jun 14 0:00; go with Excoffier and Le Corre.
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MD
1184 0:00 France WE%sT 1940 Jun 14 23:00
1185# Le Corre says Paris stuck with occupied-France time after the liberation;
bd7414aa 1186# go with Shanks & Pottenger.
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MD
1187 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Aug 25
1188 0:00 France WE%sT 1945 Sep 16 3:00
1189 1:00 France CE%sT 1977
1190 1:00 EU CE%sT
1191
1192# Germany
1193
9ffe4b14 1194# From Markus Kuhn (1998-09-29):
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MD
1195# The German time zone web site by the Physikalisch-Technische
1196# Bundesanstalt contains DST information back to 1916.
1197# [See tz-link.htm for the URL.]
1198
1199# From Joerg Schilling (2002-10-23):
3f249718
SW
1200# In 1945, Berlin was switched to Moscow Summer time (GMT+4) by
1201# <a href="http://www.dhm.de/lemo/html/biografien/BersarinNikolai/">
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MD
1202# General [Nikolai] Bersarin</a>.
1203
1204# From Paul Eggert (2003-03-08):
1205# <a href="http://www.parlament-berlin.de/pds-fraktion.nsf/727459127c8b66ee8525662300459099/defc77cb784f180ac1256c2b0030274b/$FILE/bersarint.pdf">
a36b983e
SW
1206# http://www.parlament-berlin.de/pds-fraktion.nsf/727459127c8b66ee8525662300459099/defc77cb784f180ac1256c2b0030274b/$FILE/bersarint.pdf
1207# </a>
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MD
1208# says that Bersarin issued an order to use Moscow time on May 20.
1209# However, Moscow did not observe daylight saving in 1945, so
1210# this was equivalent to CEMT (GMT+3), not GMT+4.
1211
1212
1213# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
984263bc
MD
1214Rule Germany 1946 only - Apr 14 2:00s 1:00 S
1215Rule Germany 1946 only - Oct 7 2:00s 0 -
1216Rule Germany 1947 1949 - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
a36b983e
SW
1217# http://www.ptb.de/de/org/4/44/441/salt.htm says the following transition
1218# occurred at 3:00 MEZ, not the 2:00 MEZ given in Shanks & Pottenger.
1219# Go with the PTB.
1220Rule Germany 1947 only - Apr 6 3:00s 1:00 S
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MD
1221Rule Germany 1947 only - May 11 2:00s 2:00 M
1222Rule Germany 1947 only - Jun 29 3:00 1:00 S
1223Rule Germany 1948 only - Apr 18 2:00s 1:00 S
1224Rule Germany 1949 only - Apr 10 2:00s 1:00 S
a36b983e
SW
1225
1226Rule SovietZone 1945 only - May 24 2:00 2:00 M # Midsummer
1227Rule SovietZone 1945 only - Sep 24 3:00 1:00 S
1228Rule SovietZone 1945 only - Nov 18 2:00s 0 -
1229
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MD
1230# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
1231Zone Europe/Berlin 0:53:28 - LMT 1893 Apr
a36b983e
SW
1232 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945 May 24 2:00
1233 1:00 SovietZone CE%sT 1946
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MD
1234 1:00 Germany CE%sT 1980
1235 1:00 EU CE%sT
1236
bc95ec93
SW
1237# Georgia
1238# Please see the "asia" file for Asia/Tbilisi.
1239# Herodotus (Histories, IV.45) says Georgia north of the Phasis (now Rioni)
1240# is in Europe. Our reference location Tbilisi is in the Asian part.
1241
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MD
1242# Gibraltar
1243# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
bd7414aa 1244Zone Europe/Gibraltar -0:21:24 - LMT 1880 Aug 2 0:00s
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MD
1245 0:00 GB-Eire %s 1957 Apr 14 2:00
1246 1:00 - CET 1982
1247 1:00 EU CE%sT
1248
1249# Greece
1250# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
bd7414aa 1251# Whitman gives 1932 Jul 5 - Nov 1; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
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MD
1252Rule Greece 1932 only - Jul 7 0:00 1:00 S
1253Rule Greece 1932 only - Sep 1 0:00 0 -
bd7414aa 1254# Whitman gives 1941 Apr 25 - ?; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
984263bc 1255Rule Greece 1941 only - Apr 7 0:00 1:00 S
bd7414aa 1256# Whitman gives 1942 Feb 2 - ?; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
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MD
1257Rule Greece 1942 only - Nov 2 3:00 0 -
1258Rule Greece 1943 only - Mar 30 0:00 1:00 S
1259Rule Greece 1943 only - Oct 4 0:00 0 -
bd7414aa 1260# Whitman gives 1944 Oct 3 - Oct 31; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
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MD
1261Rule Greece 1952 only - Jul 1 0:00 1:00 S
1262Rule Greece 1952 only - Nov 2 0:00 0 -
1263Rule Greece 1975 only - Apr 12 0:00s 1:00 S
1264Rule Greece 1975 only - Nov 26 0:00s 0 -
1265Rule Greece 1976 only - Apr 11 2:00s 1:00 S
1266Rule Greece 1976 only - Oct 10 2:00s 0 -
1267Rule Greece 1977 1978 - Apr Sun>=1 2:00s 1:00 S
1268Rule Greece 1977 only - Sep 26 2:00s 0 -
1269Rule Greece 1978 only - Sep 24 4:00 0 -
1270Rule Greece 1979 only - Apr 1 9:00 1:00 S
1271Rule Greece 1979 only - Sep 29 2:00 0 -
1272Rule Greece 1980 only - Apr 1 0:00 1:00 S
1273Rule Greece 1980 only - Sep 28 0:00 0 -
1274# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
1275Zone Europe/Athens 1:34:52 - LMT 1895 Sep 14
1276 1:34:52 - AMT 1916 Jul 28 0:01 # Athens MT
1277 2:00 Greece EE%sT 1941 Apr 30
1278 1:00 Greece CE%sT 1944 Apr 4
1279 2:00 Greece EE%sT 1981
bd7414aa 1280 # Shanks & Pottenger say it switched to C-Eur in 1981;
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MD
1281 # go with EU instead, since Greece joined it on Jan 1.
1282 2:00 EU EE%sT
1283
1284# Hungary
1285# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
1286Rule Hungary 1918 only - Apr 1 3:00 1:00 S
1287Rule Hungary 1918 only - Sep 29 3:00 0 -
1288Rule Hungary 1919 only - Apr 15 3:00 1:00 S
1289Rule Hungary 1919 only - Sep 15 3:00 0 -
1290Rule Hungary 1920 only - Apr 5 3:00 1:00 S
1291Rule Hungary 1920 only - Sep 30 3:00 0 -
1292Rule Hungary 1945 only - May 1 23:00 1:00 S
1293Rule Hungary 1945 only - Nov 3 0:00 0 -
1294Rule Hungary 1946 only - Mar 31 2:00s 1:00 S
1295Rule Hungary 1946 1949 - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
1296Rule Hungary 1947 1949 - Apr Sun>=4 2:00s 1:00 S
1297Rule Hungary 1950 only - Apr 17 2:00s 1:00 S
1298Rule Hungary 1950 only - Oct 23 2:00s 0 -
1299Rule Hungary 1954 1955 - May 23 0:00 1:00 S
1300Rule Hungary 1954 1955 - Oct 3 0:00 0 -
1301Rule Hungary 1956 only - Jun Sun>=1 0:00 1:00 S
1302Rule Hungary 1956 only - Sep lastSun 0:00 0 -
1303Rule Hungary 1957 only - Jun Sun>=1 1:00 1:00 S
1304Rule Hungary 1957 only - Sep lastSun 3:00 0 -
1305Rule Hungary 1980 only - Apr 6 1:00 1:00 S
1306# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
1307Zone Europe/Budapest 1:16:20 - LMT 1890 Oct
1308 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1918
1309 1:00 Hungary CE%sT 1941 Apr 6 2:00
3f249718 1310 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945
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MD
1311 1:00 Hungary CE%sT 1980 Sep 28 2:00s
1312 1:00 EU CE%sT
1313
1314# Iceland
1315#
9ffe4b14 1316# From Adam David (1993-11-06):
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MD
1317# The name of the timezone in Iceland for system / mail / news purposes is GMT.
1318#
1319# (1993-12-05):
1320# This material is paraphrased from the 1988 edition of the University of
1321# Iceland Almanak.
1322#
1323# From January 1st, 1908 the whole of Iceland was standardised at 1 hour
1324# behind GMT. Previously, local mean solar time was used in different parts
1325# of Iceland, the almanak had been based on Reykjavik mean solar time which
1326# was 1 hour and 28 minutes behind GMT.
1327#
1328# "first day of winter" referred to [below] means the first day of the 26 weeks
1329# of winter, according to the old icelandic calendar that dates back to the
1330# time the norsemen first settled Iceland. The first day of winter is always
1331# Saturday, but is not dependent on the Julian or Gregorian calendars.
1332#
1333# (1993-12-10):
1334# I have a reference from the Oxford Icelandic-English dictionary for the
1335# beginning of winter, which ties it to the ecclesiastical calendar (and thus
1336# to the julian/gregorian calendar) over the period in question.
1337# the winter begins on the Saturday next before St. Luke's day
1338# (old style), or on St. Luke's day, if a Saturday.
1339# St. Luke's day ought to be traceable from ecclesiastical sources. "old style"
1340# might be a reference to the Julian calendar as opposed to Gregorian, or it
1341# might mean something else (???).
1342#
bd7414aa
SW
1343# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
1344# The Iceland Almanak, Shanks & Pottenger, and Whitman disagree on many points.
1345# We go with the Almanak, except for one claim from Shanks & Pottenger, namely
1346# that Reykavik was 21W57 from 1837 to 1908, local mean time before that.
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MD
1347#
1348# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
1349Rule Iceland 1917 1918 - Feb 19 23:00 1:00 S
1350Rule Iceland 1917 only - Oct 21 1:00 0 -
1351Rule Iceland 1918 only - Nov 16 1:00 0 -
1352Rule Iceland 1939 only - Apr 29 23:00 1:00 S
1353Rule Iceland 1939 only - Nov 29 2:00 0 -
1354Rule Iceland 1940 only - Feb 25 2:00 1:00 S
1355Rule Iceland 1940 only - Nov 3 2:00 0 -
1356Rule Iceland 1941 only - Mar 2 1:00s 1:00 S
1357Rule Iceland 1941 only - Nov 2 1:00s 0 -
1358Rule Iceland 1942 only - Mar 8 1:00s 1:00 S
1359Rule Iceland 1942 only - Oct 25 1:00s 0 -
1360# 1943-1946 - first Sunday in March until first Sunday in winter
1361Rule Iceland 1943 1946 - Mar Sun>=1 1:00s 1:00 S
1362Rule Iceland 1943 1948 - Oct Sun>=22 1:00s 0 -
1363# 1947-1967 - first Sunday in April until first Sunday in winter
1364Rule Iceland 1947 1967 - Apr Sun>=1 1:00s 1:00 S
1365# 1949 Oct transition delayed by 1 week
1366Rule Iceland 1949 only - Oct 30 1:00s 0 -
1367Rule Iceland 1950 1966 - Oct Sun>=22 1:00s 0 -
1368Rule Iceland 1967 only - Oct 29 1:00s 0 -
1369# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
1370Zone Atlantic/Reykjavik -1:27:24 - LMT 1837
1371 -1:27:48 - RMT 1908 # Reykjavik Mean Time?
1372 -1:00 Iceland IS%sT 1968 Apr 7 1:00s
1373 0:00 - GMT
1374
1375# Italy
1376#
1377# From Paul Eggert (2001-03-06):
1378# Sicily and Sardinia each had their own time zones from 1866 to 1893,
1379# called Palermo Time (+00:53:28) and Cagliari Time (+00:36:32).
1380# During World War II, German-controlled Italy used German time.
1381# But these events all occurred before the 1970 cutoff,
1382# so record only the time in Rome.
1383#
bd7414aa
SW
1384# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
1385# For Italian DST we have three sources: Shanks & Pottenger, Whitman, and
1386# F. Pollastri
984263bc 1387# <a href="http://toi.iriti.cnr.it/uk/ienitlt.html">
bd7414aa 1388# Day-light Saving Time in Italy (2006-02-03)
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MD
1389# </a>
1390# (`FP' below), taken from an Italian National Electrotechnical Institute
1391# publication. When the three sources disagree, guess who's right, as follows:
1392#
bd7414aa 1393# year FP Shanks&P. (S) Whitman (W) Go with:
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MD
1394# 1916 06-03 06-03 24:00 06-03 00:00 FP & W
1395# 09-30 09-30 24:00 09-30 01:00 FP; guess 24:00s
1396# 1917 04-01 03-31 24:00 03-31 00:00 FP & S
1397# 09-30 09-29 24:00 09-30 01:00 FP & W
1398# 1918 03-09 03-09 24:00 03-09 00:00 FP & S
1399# 10-06 10-05 24:00 10-06 01:00 FP & W
1400# 1919 03-01 03-01 24:00 03-01 00:00 FP & S
1401# 10-04 10-04 24:00 10-04 01:00 FP; guess 24:00s
1402# 1920 03-20 03-20 24:00 03-20 00:00 FP & S
1403# 09-18 09-18 24:00 10-01 01:00 FP; guess 24:00s
1404# 1944 04-02 04-03 02:00 S (see C-Eur)
1405# 09-16 10-02 03:00 FP; guess 24:00s
1406# 1945 09-14 09-16 24:00 FP; guess 24:00s
1407# 1970 05-21 05-31 00:00 S
1408# 09-20 09-27 00:00 S
1409#
1410# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
1411Rule Italy 1916 only - Jun 3 0:00s 1:00 S
1412Rule Italy 1916 only - Oct 1 0:00s 0 -
1413Rule Italy 1917 only - Apr 1 0:00s 1:00 S
1414Rule Italy 1917 only - Sep 30 0:00s 0 -
1415Rule Italy 1918 only - Mar 10 0:00s 1:00 S
1416Rule Italy 1918 1919 - Oct Sun>=1 0:00s 0 -
1417Rule Italy 1919 only - Mar 2 0:00s 1:00 S
1418Rule Italy 1920 only - Mar 21 0:00s 1:00 S
1419Rule Italy 1920 only - Sep 19 0:00s 0 -
1420Rule Italy 1940 only - Jun 15 0:00s 1:00 S
1421Rule Italy 1944 only - Sep 17 0:00s 0 -
1422Rule Italy 1945 only - Apr 2 2:00 1:00 S
1423Rule Italy 1945 only - Sep 15 0:00s 0 -
1424Rule Italy 1946 only - Mar 17 2:00s 1:00 S
1425Rule Italy 1946 only - Oct 6 2:00s 0 -
1426Rule Italy 1947 only - Mar 16 0:00s 1:00 S
1427Rule Italy 1947 only - Oct 5 0:00s 0 -
1428Rule Italy 1948 only - Feb 29 2:00s 1:00 S
1429Rule Italy 1948 only - Oct 3 2:00s 0 -
1430Rule Italy 1966 1968 - May Sun>=22 0:00 1:00 S
1431Rule Italy 1966 1969 - Sep Sun>=22 0:00 0 -
1432Rule Italy 1969 only - Jun 1 0:00 1:00 S
1433Rule Italy 1970 only - May 31 0:00 1:00 S
1434Rule Italy 1970 only - Sep lastSun 0:00 0 -
1435Rule Italy 1971 1972 - May Sun>=22 0:00 1:00 S
1436Rule Italy 1971 only - Sep lastSun 1:00 0 -
1437Rule Italy 1972 only - Oct 1 0:00 0 -
1438Rule Italy 1973 only - Jun 3 0:00 1:00 S
1439Rule Italy 1973 1974 - Sep lastSun 0:00 0 -
1440Rule Italy 1974 only - May 26 0:00 1:00 S
1441Rule Italy 1975 only - Jun 1 0:00s 1:00 S
1442Rule Italy 1975 1977 - Sep lastSun 0:00s 0 -
1443Rule Italy 1976 only - May 30 0:00s 1:00 S
1444Rule Italy 1977 1979 - May Sun>=22 0:00s 1:00 S
1445Rule Italy 1978 only - Oct 1 0:00s 0 -
1446Rule Italy 1979 only - Sep 30 0:00s 0 -
1447# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
1448Zone Europe/Rome 0:49:56 - LMT 1866 Sep 22
bd7414aa 1449 0:49:56 - RMT 1893 Nov 1 0:00s # Rome Mean
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MD
1450 1:00 Italy CE%sT 1942 Nov 2 2:00s
1451 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Jul
1452 1:00 Italy CE%sT 1980
1453 1:00 EU CE%sT
1454
1455Link Europe/Rome Europe/Vatican
1456Link Europe/Rome Europe/San_Marino
1457
1458# Latvia
1459
9ffe4b14 1460# From Liene Kanepe (1998-09-17):
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MD
1461
1462# I asked about this matter Scientific Secretary of the Institute of Astronomy
1463# of The University of Latvia Dr. paed Mr. Ilgonis Vilks. I also searched the
1464# correct data in juridical acts and I found some juridical documents about
1465# changes in the counting of time in Latvia from 1981....
1466#
1467# Act No.35 of the Council of Ministers of Latvian SSR of 1981-01-22 ...
1468# according to the Act No.925 of the Council of Ministers of USSR of 1980-10-24
1469# ...: all year round the time of 2nd time zone + 1 hour, in addition turning
1470# the hands of the clock 1 hour forward on 1 April at 00:00 (GMT 31 March 21:00)
1471# and 1 hour backward on the 1 October at 00:00 (GMT 30 September 20:00).
1472#
1473# Act No.592 of the Council of Ministers of Latvian SSR of 1984-09-24 ...
1474# according to the Act No.967 of the Council of Ministers of USSR of 1984-09-13
1475# ...: all year round the time of 2nd time zone + 1 hour, in addition turning
1476# the hands of the clock 1 hour forward on the last Sunday of March at 02:00
1477# (GMT 23:00 on the previous day) and 1 hour backward on the last Sunday of
1478# September at 03:00 (GMT 23:00 on the previous day).
1479#
1480# Act No.81 of the Council of Ministers of Latvian SSR of 1989-03-22 ...
1481# according to the Act No.227 of the Council of Ministers of USSR of 1989-03-14
1482# ...: since the last Sunday of March 1989 in Lithuanian SSR, Latvian SSR,
1483# Estonian SSR and Kaliningrad region of Russian Federation all year round the
1484# time of 2nd time zone (Moscow time minus one hour). On the territory of Latvia
1485# transition to summer time is performed on the last Sunday of March at 02:00
1486# (GMT 00:00), turning the hands of the clock 1 hour forward. The end of
1487# daylight saving time is performed on the last Sunday of September at 03:00
1488# (GMT 00:00), turning the hands of the clock 1 hour backward. Exception is
1489# 1989-03-26, when we must not turn the hands of the clock....
1490#
1491# The Regulations of the Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Latvia of
1492# 1997-01-21 on transition to Summer time ... established the same order of
1493# daylight savings time settings as in the States of the European Union.
1494
1495# From Andrei Ivanov (2000-03-06):
1496# This year Latvia will not switch to Daylight Savings Time (as specified in
1497# <a href="http://www.lv-laiks.lv/wwwraksti/2000/071072/vd4.htm">
1498# The Regulations of the Cabinet of Ministers of the Rep. of Latvia of
1499# 29-Feb-2000 (#79)</a>, in Latvian for subscribers only).
1500
1501# <a href="http://www.rferl.org/newsline/2001/01/3-CEE/cee-030101.html">
1502# From RFE/RL Newsline (2001-01-03), noted after a heads-up by Rives McDow:
1503# </a>
1504# The Latvian government on 2 January decided that the country will
1505# institute daylight-saving time this spring, LETA reported.
1506# Last February the three Baltic states decided not to turn back their
1507# clocks one hour in the spring....
1508# Minister of Economy Aigars Kalvitis noted that Latvia had too few
1509# daylight hours and thus decided to comply with a draft European
1510# Commission directive that provides for instituting daylight-saving
1511# time in EU countries between 2002 and 2006. The Latvian government
1512# urged Lithuania and Estonia to adopt a similar time policy, but it
1513# appears that they will not do so....
1514
1515# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
1516Rule Latvia 1989 1996 - Mar lastSun 2:00s 1:00 S
1517Rule Latvia 1989 1996 - Sep lastSun 2:00s 0 -
1518# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
1519Zone Europe/Riga 1:36:24 - LMT 1880
1520 1:36:24 - RMT 1918 Apr 15 2:00 #Riga Mean Time
1521 1:36:24 1:00 LST 1918 Sep 16 3:00 #Latvian Summer
1522 1:36:24 - RMT 1919 Apr 1 2:00
1523 1:36:24 1:00 LST 1919 May 22 3:00
1524 1:36:24 - RMT 1926 May 11
1525 2:00 - EET 1940 Aug 5
1526 3:00 - MSK 1941 Jul
1527 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Oct 13
1528 3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1989 Mar lastSun 2:00s
1529 2:00 1:00 EEST 1989 Sep lastSun 2:00s
1530 2:00 Latvia EE%sT 1997 Jan 21
1531 2:00 EU EE%sT 2000 Feb 29
ba5ba9da 1532 2:00 - EET 2001 Jan 2
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MD
1533 2:00 EU EE%sT
1534
1535# Liechtenstein
1536# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
1537Zone Europe/Vaduz 0:38:04 - LMT 1894 Jun
1538 1:00 - CET 1981
1539 1:00 EU CE%sT
1540
1541# Lithuania
1542
1543# From Paul Eggert (1996-11-22):
1544# IATA SSIM (1992/1996) says Lithuania uses W-Eur rules, but since it is
1545# known to be wrong about Estonia and Latvia, assume it's wrong here too.
1546
9ffe4b14 1547# From Marius Gedminas (1998-08-07):
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MD
1548# I would like to inform that in this year Lithuanian time zone
1549# (Europe/Vilnius) was changed.
1550
1551# From <a href="http://www.elta.lt/">ELTA</a> No. 972 (2582) (1999-09-29),
1552# via Steffen Thorsen:
1553# Lithuania has shifted back to the second time zone (GMT plus two hours)
1554# to be valid here starting from October 31,
1555# as decided by the national government on Wednesday....
1556# The Lithuanian government also announced plans to consider a
1557# motion to give up shifting to summer time in spring, as it was
1558# already done by Estonia.
1559
1560# From the <a href="http://www.tourism.lt/informa/ff.htm">
1561# Fact File, Lithuanian State Department of Tourism
1562# </a> (2000-03-27): Local time is GMT+2 hours ..., no daylight saving.
1563
1564# From a user via Klaus Marten (2003-02-07):
1565# As a candidate for membership of the European Union, Lithuania will
1566# observe Summer Time in 2003, changing its clocks at the times laid
1567# down in EU Directive 2000/84 of 19.I.01 (i.e. at the same times as its
1568# neighbour Latvia). The text of the Lithuanian government Order of
1569# 7.XI.02 to this effect can be found at
1570# http://www.lrvk.lt/nut/11/n1749.htm
1571
1572
1573# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
1574Zone Europe/Vilnius 1:41:16 - LMT 1880
1575 1:24:00 - WMT 1917 # Warsaw Mean Time
1576 1:35:36 - KMT 1919 Oct 10 # Kaunas Mean Time
1577 1:00 - CET 1920 Jul 12
1578 2:00 - EET 1920 Oct 9
1579 1:00 - CET 1940 Aug 3
1580 3:00 - MSK 1941 Jun 24
1581 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Aug
1582 3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
1583 2:00 1:00 EEST 1991 Sep 29 2:00s
1584 2:00 C-Eur EE%sT 1998
1585 2:00 - EET 1998 Mar 29 1:00u
1586 1:00 EU CE%sT 1999 Oct 31 1:00u
1587 2:00 - EET 2003 Jan 1
1588 2:00 EU EE%sT
1589
1590# Luxembourg
bd7414aa
SW
1591# Whitman disagrees with most of these dates in minor ways;
1592# go with Shanks & Pottenger.
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MD
1593# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
1594Rule Lux 1916 only - May 14 23:00 1:00 S
1595Rule Lux 1916 only - Oct 1 1:00 0 -
1596Rule Lux 1917 only - Apr 28 23:00 1:00 S
1597Rule Lux 1917 only - Sep 17 1:00 0 -
1598Rule Lux 1918 only - Apr Mon>=15 2:00s 1:00 S
1599Rule Lux 1918 only - Sep Mon>=15 2:00s 0 -
1600Rule Lux 1919 only - Mar 1 23:00 1:00 S
1601Rule Lux 1919 only - Oct 5 3:00 0 -
1602Rule Lux 1920 only - Feb 14 23:00 1:00 S
1603Rule Lux 1920 only - Oct 24 2:00 0 -
1604Rule Lux 1921 only - Mar 14 23:00 1:00 S
1605Rule Lux 1921 only - Oct 26 2:00 0 -
1606Rule Lux 1922 only - Mar 25 23:00 1:00 S
1607Rule Lux 1922 only - Oct Sun>=2 1:00 0 -
1608Rule Lux 1923 only - Apr 21 23:00 1:00 S
1609Rule Lux 1923 only - Oct Sun>=2 2:00 0 -
1610Rule Lux 1924 only - Mar 29 23:00 1:00 S
1611Rule Lux 1924 1928 - Oct Sun>=2 1:00 0 -
1612Rule Lux 1925 only - Apr 5 23:00 1:00 S
1613Rule Lux 1926 only - Apr 17 23:00 1:00 S
1614Rule Lux 1927 only - Apr 9 23:00 1:00 S
1615Rule Lux 1928 only - Apr 14 23:00 1:00 S
1616Rule Lux 1929 only - Apr 20 23:00 1:00 S
1617# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
1618Zone Europe/Luxembourg 0:24:36 - LMT 1904 Jun
1619 1:00 Lux CE%sT 1918 Nov 25
1620 0:00 Lux WE%sT 1929 Oct 6 2:00s
1621 0:00 Belgium WE%sT 1940 May 14 3:00
1622 1:00 C-Eur WE%sT 1944 Sep 18 3:00
1623 1:00 Belgium CE%sT 1977
1624 1:00 EU CE%sT
1625
1626# Macedonia
17f48456 1627# see Serbia
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1628
1629# Malta
1630# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
1631Rule Malta 1973 only - Mar 31 0:00s 1:00 S
1632Rule Malta 1973 only - Sep 29 0:00s 0 -
1633Rule Malta 1974 only - Apr 21 0:00s 1:00 S
1634Rule Malta 1974 only - Sep 16 0:00s 0 -
1635Rule Malta 1975 1979 - Apr Sun>=15 2:00 1:00 S
1636Rule Malta 1975 1980 - Sep Sun>=15 2:00 0 -
1637Rule Malta 1980 only - Mar 31 2:00 1:00 S
1638# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
bd7414aa 1639Zone Europe/Malta 0:58:04 - LMT 1893 Nov 2 0:00s # Valletta
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MD
1640 1:00 Italy CE%sT 1942 Nov 2 2:00s
1641 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945 Apr 2 2:00s
1642 1:00 Italy CE%sT 1973 Mar 31
1643 1:00 Malta CE%sT 1981
1644 1:00 EU CE%sT
1645
1646# Moldova
1647
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SW
1648# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
1649# A previous version of this database followed Shanks & Pottenger, who write
1650# that Tiraspol switched to Moscow time on 1992-01-19 at 02:00.
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MD
1651# However, this is most likely an error, as Moldova declared independence
1652# on 1991-08-27 (the 1992-01-19 date is that of a Russian decree).
1653# In early 1992 there was large-scale interethnic violence in the area
1654# and it's possible that some Russophones continued to observe Moscow time.
9ffe4b14 1655# But [two people] separately reported via
984263bc
MD
1656# Jesper Norgaard that as of 2001-01-24 Tiraspol was like Chisinau.
1657# The Tiraspol entry has therefore been removed for now.
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SW
1658#
1659# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2011-10-17):
1660# Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic (PMR, also known as
1661# "Pridnestrovie") has abolished seasonal clock change (no transition
1662# to the Winter Time).
1663#
1664# News (in Russian):
1665# <a href="http://www.kyivpost.ua/russia/news/pridnestrove-otkazalos-ot-perehoda-na-zimnee-vremya-30954.html">
1666# http://www.kyivpost.ua/russia/news/pridnestrove-otkazalos-ot-perehoda-na-zimnee-vremya-30954.html
1667# </a>
1668#
1669# <a href="http://www.allmoldova.com/moldova-news/1249064116.html">
1670# http://www.allmoldova.com/moldova-news/1249064116.html
1671# </a>
1672#
1673# The substance of this change (reinstatement of the Tiraspol entry)
1674# is from a patch from Petr Machata (2011-10-17)
1675#
1676# From Tim Parenti (2011-10-19)
1677# In addition, being situated at +4651+2938 would give Tiraspol
1678# a pre-1880 LMT offset of 1:58:32.
1679#
1680# (which agrees with the earlier entry that had been removed)
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MD
1681
1682# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
1683Zone Europe/Chisinau 1:55:20 - LMT 1880
1684 1:55 - CMT 1918 Feb 15 # Chisinau MT
1685 1:44:24 - BMT 1931 Jul 24 # Bucharest MT
1686 2:00 Romania EE%sT 1940 Aug 15
1687 2:00 1:00 EEST 1941 Jul 17
1688 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Aug 24
1689 3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1990
1690 3:00 - MSK 1990 May 6
1691 2:00 - EET 1991
1692 2:00 Russia EE%sT 1992
1693 2:00 E-Eur EE%sT 1997
1694# See Romania commentary for the guessed 1997 transition to EU rules.
1695 2:00 EU EE%sT
1696
e9ad9bde
SW
1697Zone Europe/Tiraspol 1:58:32 - LMT 1880
1698 1:55 - CMT 1918 Feb 15 # Chisinau MT
1699 1:44:24 - BMT 1931 Jul 24 # Bucharest MT
1700 2:00 Romania EE%sT 1940 Aug 15
1701 2:00 1:00 EEST 1941 Jul 17
1702 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Aug 24
1703 3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1990
1704 3:00 - MSK 1990 May 6
1705 2:00 - EET 1991
1706 2:00 Russia EE%sT 1992
1707 2:00 E-Eur EE%sT 1997
1708# See Romania commentary for the guessed 1997 transition to EU rules.
1709 2:00 EU EE%sT 2011 Mar lastSun 1:00u
1710 3:00 - FET # Further-eastern European Time
1711
984263bc 1712# Monaco
bd7414aa
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1713# Shanks & Pottenger give 0:09:20 for Paris Mean Time; go with Howse's
1714# more precise 0:09:21.
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MD
1715# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
1716Zone Europe/Monaco 0:29:32 - LMT 1891 Mar 15
1717 0:09:21 - PMT 1911 Mar 11 # Paris Mean Time
1718 0:00 France WE%sT 1945 Sep 16 3:00
1719 1:00 France CE%sT 1977
1720 1:00 EU CE%sT
1721
17f48456
SW
1722# Montenegro
1723# see Serbia
1724
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MD
1725# Netherlands
1726
1727# Howse writes that the Netherlands' railways used GMT between 1892 and 1940,
1728# but for other purposes the Netherlands used Amsterdam mean time.
1729
1730# However, Robert H. van Gent writes (2001-04-01):
1731# Howse's statement is only correct up to 1909. From 1909-05-01 (00:00:00
1732# Amsterdam mean time) onwards, the whole of the Netherlands (including
1733# the Dutch railways) was required by law to observe Amsterdam mean time
1734# (19 minutes 32.13 seconds ahead of GMT). This had already been the
1735# common practice (except for the railways) for many decades but it was
1736# not until 1909 when the Dutch government finally defined this by law.
1737# On 1937-07-01 this was changed to 20 minutes (exactly) ahead of GMT and
1738# was generally known as Dutch Time ("Nederlandse Tijd").
1739#
1740# (2001-04-08):
1741# 1892-05-01 was the date when the Dutch railways were by law required to
1742# observe GMT while the remainder of the Netherlands adhered to the common
1743# practice of following Amsterdam mean time.
1744#
1745# (2001-04-09):
1746# In 1835 the authorities of the province of North Holland requested the
1747# municipal authorities of the towns and cities in the province to observe
1748# Amsterdam mean time but I do not know in how many cases this request was
1749# actually followed.
1750#
1751# From 1852 onwards the Dutch telegraph offices were by law required to
1752# observe Amsterdam mean time. As the time signals from the observatory of
1753# Leiden were also distributed by the telegraph system, I assume that most
1754# places linked up with the telegraph (and railway) system automatically
1755# adopted Amsterdam mean time.
1756#
1757# Although the early Dutch railway companies initially observed a variety
1758# of times, most of them had adopted Amsterdam mean time by 1858 but it
1759# was not until 1866 when they were all required by law to observe
1760# Amsterdam mean time.
1761
1762# The data before 1945 are taken from
1763# <http://www.phys.uu.nl/~vgent/wettijd/wettijd.htm>.
1764
1765# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
1766Rule Neth 1916 only - May 1 0:00 1:00 NST # Netherlands Summer Time
1767Rule Neth 1916 only - Oct 1 0:00 0 AMT # Amsterdam Mean Time
1768Rule Neth 1917 only - Apr 16 2:00s 1:00 NST
1769Rule Neth 1917 only - Sep 17 2:00s 0 AMT
1770Rule Neth 1918 1921 - Apr Mon>=1 2:00s 1:00 NST
1771Rule Neth 1918 1921 - Sep lastMon 2:00s 0 AMT
1772Rule Neth 1922 only - Mar lastSun 2:00s 1:00 NST
1773Rule Neth 1922 1936 - Oct Sun>=2 2:00s 0 AMT
1774Rule Neth 1923 only - Jun Fri>=1 2:00s 1:00 NST
1775Rule Neth 1924 only - Mar lastSun 2:00s 1:00 NST
1776Rule Neth 1925 only - Jun Fri>=1 2:00s 1:00 NST
1777# From 1926 through 1939 DST began 05-15, except that it was delayed by a week
1778# in years when 05-15 fell in the Pentecost weekend.
1779Rule Neth 1926 1931 - May 15 2:00s 1:00 NST
1780Rule Neth 1932 only - May 22 2:00s 1:00 NST
1781Rule Neth 1933 1936 - May 15 2:00s 1:00 NST
1782Rule Neth 1937 only - May 22 2:00s 1:00 NST
1783Rule Neth 1937 only - Jul 1 0:00 1:00 S
1784Rule Neth 1937 1939 - Oct Sun>=2 2:00s 0 -
1785Rule Neth 1938 1939 - May 15 2:00s 1:00 S
1786Rule Neth 1945 only - Apr 2 2:00s 1:00 S
1787Rule Neth 1945 only - Sep 16 2:00s 0 -
1788#
1789# Amsterdam Mean Time was +00:19:32.13 exactly, but the .13 is omitted
1790# below because the current format requires GMTOFF to be an integer.
1791# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
1792Zone Europe/Amsterdam 0:19:32 - LMT 1835
1793 0:19:32 Neth %s 1937 Jul 1
1794 0:20 Neth NE%sT 1940 May 16 0:00 # Dutch Time
1795 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945 Apr 2 2:00
1796 1:00 Neth CE%sT 1977
1797 1:00 EU CE%sT
1798
1799# Norway
bd7414aa
SW
1800# http://met.no/met/met_lex/q_u/sommertid.html (2004-01) agrees with Shanks &
1801# Pottenger.
984263bc 1802# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
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MD
1803Rule Norway 1916 only - May 22 1:00 1:00 S
1804Rule Norway 1916 only - Sep 30 0:00 0 -
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MD
1805Rule Norway 1945 only - Apr 2 2:00s 1:00 S
1806Rule Norway 1945 only - Oct 1 2:00s 0 -
1807Rule Norway 1959 1964 - Mar Sun>=15 2:00s 1:00 S
1808Rule Norway 1959 1965 - Sep Sun>=15 2:00s 0 -
1809Rule Norway 1965 only - Apr 25 2:00s 1:00 S
1810# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
1811Zone Europe/Oslo 0:43:00 - LMT 1895 Jan 1
1812 1:00 Norway CE%sT 1940 Aug 10 23:00
1813 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945 Apr 2 2:00
1814 1:00 Norway CE%sT 1980
1815 1:00 EU CE%sT
1816
1817# Svalbard & Jan Mayen
1818
1819# From Steffen Thorsen (2001-05-01):
1820# Although I could not find it explicitly, it seems that Jan Mayen and
1821# Svalbard have been using the same time as Norway at least since the
1822# time they were declared as parts of Norway. Svalbard was declared
1823# as a part of Norway by law of 1925-07-17 no 11, section 4 and Jan
1824# Mayen by law of 1930-02-27 no 2, section 2. (From
1825# http://www.lovdata.no/all/nl-19250717-011.html and
1826# http://www.lovdata.no/all/nl-19300227-002.html). The law/regulation
1827# for normal/standard time in Norway is from 1894-06-29 no 1 (came
1828# into operation on 1895-01-01) and Svalbard/Jan Mayen seem to be a
1829# part of this law since 1925/1930. (From
1830# http://www.lovdata.no/all/nl-18940629-001.html ) I have not been
1831# able to find if Jan Mayen used a different time zone (e.g. -0100)
1832# before 1930. Jan Mayen has only been "inhabitated" since 1921 by
1833# Norwegian meteorologists and maybe used the same time as Norway ever
1834# since 1921. Svalbard (Arctic/Longyearbyen) has been inhabited since
1835# before 1895, and therefore probably changed the local time somewhere
1836# between 1895 and 1925 (inclusive).
1837
1838# From Paul Eggert (2001-05-01):
1839#
1840# Actually, Jan Mayen was never occupied by Germany during World War II,
bc95ec93 1841# so it must have diverged from Oslo time during the war, as Oslo was
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MD
1842# keeping Berlin time.
1843#
1844# <http://home.no.net/janmayen/history.htm> says that the meteorologists
1845# burned down their station in 1940 and left the island, but returned in
1846# 1941 with a small Norwegian garrison and continued operations despite
1847# frequent air ttacks from Germans. In 1943 the Americans established a
1848# radiolocating station on the island, called "Atlantic City". Possibly
1849# the UTC offset changed during the war, but I think it unlikely that
1850# Jan Mayen used German daylight-saving rules.
1851#
1852# Svalbard is more complicated, as it was raided in August 1941 by an
1853# Allied party that evacuated the civilian population to England (says
1854# <http://www.bartleby.com/65/sv/Svalbard.html>). The Svalbard FAQ
1855# <http://www.svalbard.com/SvalbardFAQ.html> says that the Germans were
1856# expelled on 1942-05-14. However, small parties of Germans did return,
1857# and according to Wilhelm Dege's book "War North of 80" (1954)
bc95ec93 1858# <http://www.ucalgary.ca/UofC/departments/UP/1-55238/1-55238-110-2.html>
984263bc
MD
1859# the German armed forces at the Svalbard weather station code-named
1860# Haudegen did not surrender to the Allies until September 1945.
1861#
1862# All these events predate our cutoff date of 1970. Unless we can
1863# come up with more definitive info about the timekeeping during the
e01e21dd 1864# war years it's probably best just do...the following for now:
984263bc 1865Link Europe/Oslo Arctic/Longyearbyen
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MD
1866
1867# Poland
1868# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
1869Rule Poland 1918 1919 - Sep 16 2:00s 0 -
1870Rule Poland 1919 only - Apr 15 2:00s 1:00 S
bd7414aa
SW
1871Rule Poland 1944 only - Apr 3 2:00s 1:00 S
1872# Whitman gives 1944 Nov 30; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
984263bc 1873Rule Poland 1944 only - Oct 4 2:00 0 -
bd7414aa 1874# For 1944-1948 Whitman gives the previous day; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
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MD
1875Rule Poland 1945 only - Apr 29 0:00 1:00 S
1876Rule Poland 1945 only - Nov 1 0:00 0 -
9ffe4b14
SW
1877# For 1946 on the source is Kazimierz Borkowski,
1878# Torun Center for Astronomy, Dept. of Radio Astronomy, Nicolaus Copernicus U.,
1879# <http://www.astro.uni.torun.pl/~kb/Artykuly/U-PA/Czas2.htm#tth_tAb1>
1880# Thanks to Przemyslaw Augustyniak (2005-05-28) for this reference.
1881# He also gives these further references:
1882# Mon Pol nr 13, poz 162 (1995) <http://www.abc.com.pl/serwis/mp/1995/0162.htm>
1883# Druk nr 2180 (2003) <http://www.senat.gov.pl/k5/dok/sejm/053/2180.pdf>
1884Rule Poland 1946 only - Apr 14 0:00s 1:00 S
1885Rule Poland 1946 only - Oct 7 2:00s 0 -
1886Rule Poland 1947 only - May 4 2:00s 1:00 S
1887Rule Poland 1947 1949 - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
1888Rule Poland 1948 only - Apr 18 2:00s 1:00 S
1889Rule Poland 1949 only - Apr 10 2:00s 1:00 S
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MD
1890Rule Poland 1957 only - Jun 2 1:00s 1:00 S
1891Rule Poland 1957 1958 - Sep lastSun 1:00s 0 -
1892Rule Poland 1958 only - Mar 30 1:00s 1:00 S
1893Rule Poland 1959 only - May 31 1:00s 1:00 S
1894Rule Poland 1959 1961 - Oct Sun>=1 1:00s 0 -
1895Rule Poland 1960 only - Apr 3 1:00s 1:00 S
9ffe4b14 1896Rule Poland 1961 1964 - May lastSun 1:00s 1:00 S
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MD
1897Rule Poland 1962 1964 - Sep lastSun 1:00s 0 -
1898# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
1899Zone Europe/Warsaw 1:24:00 - LMT 1880
1900 1:24:00 - WMT 1915 Aug 5 # Warsaw Mean Time
1901 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1918 Sep 16 3:00
1902 2:00 Poland EE%sT 1922 Jun
1903 1:00 Poland CE%sT 1940 Jun 23 2:00
1904 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Oct
9ffe4b14
SW
1905 1:00 Poland CE%sT 1977
1906 1:00 W-Eur CE%sT 1988
984263bc
MD
1907 1:00 EU CE%sT
1908
1909# Portugal
1910#
9ffe4b14 1911# From Rui Pedro Salgueiro (1992-11-12):
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MD
1912# Portugal has recently (September, 27) changed timezone
1913# (from WET to MET or CET) to harmonize with EEC.
1914#
9ffe4b14 1915# Martin Bruckmann (1996-02-29) reports via Peter Ilieve
984263bc
MD
1916# that Portugal is reverting to 0:00 by not moving its clocks this spring.
1917# The new Prime Minister was fed up with getting up in the dark in the winter.
1918#
1919# From Paul Eggert (1996-11-12):
1920# IATA SSIM (1991-09) reports several 1991-09 and 1992-09 transitions
1921# at 02:00u, not 01:00u. Assume that these are typos.
1922# IATA SSIM (1991/1992) reports that the Azores were at -1:00.
1923# IATA SSIM (1993-02) says +0:00; later issues (through 1996-09) say -1:00.
1924# Guess that the Azores changed to EU rules in 1992 (since that's when Portugal
1925# harmonized with the EU), and that they stayed +0:00 that winter.
1926#
1927# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
1928# DSH writes that despite Decree 1,469 (1915), the change to the clocks was not
1929# done every year, depending on what Spain did, because of railroad schedules.
bd7414aa 1930# Go with Shanks & Pottenger.
984263bc 1931Rule Port 1916 only - Jun 17 23:00 1:00 S
bd7414aa 1932# Whitman gives 1916 Oct 31; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
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MD
1933Rule Port 1916 only - Nov 1 1:00 0 -
1934Rule Port 1917 only - Feb 28 23:00s 1:00 S
1935Rule Port 1917 1921 - Oct 14 23:00s 0 -
1936Rule Port 1918 only - Mar 1 23:00s 1:00 S
1937Rule Port 1919 only - Feb 28 23:00s 1:00 S
1938Rule Port 1920 only - Feb 29 23:00s 1:00 S
1939Rule Port 1921 only - Feb 28 23:00s 1:00 S
1940Rule Port 1924 only - Apr 16 23:00s 1:00 S
1941Rule Port 1924 only - Oct 14 23:00s 0 -
1942Rule Port 1926 only - Apr 17 23:00s 1:00 S
1943Rule Port 1926 1929 - Oct Sat>=1 23:00s 0 -
1944Rule Port 1927 only - Apr 9 23:00s 1:00 S
1945Rule Port 1928 only - Apr 14 23:00s 1:00 S
1946Rule Port 1929 only - Apr 20 23:00s 1:00 S
1947Rule Port 1931 only - Apr 18 23:00s 1:00 S
bd7414aa 1948# Whitman gives 1931 Oct 8; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
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MD
1949Rule Port 1931 1932 - Oct Sat>=1 23:00s 0 -
1950Rule Port 1932 only - Apr 2 23:00s 1:00 S
984263bc 1951Rule Port 1934 only - Apr 7 23:00s 1:00 S
bd7414aa 1952# Whitman gives 1934 Oct 5; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
984263bc 1953Rule Port 1934 1938 - Oct Sat>=1 23:00s 0 -
bd7414aa 1954# Shanks & Pottenger give 1935 Apr 30; go with Whitman.
984263bc
MD
1955Rule Port 1935 only - Mar 30 23:00s 1:00 S
1956Rule Port 1936 only - Apr 18 23:00s 1:00 S
bd7414aa 1957# Whitman gives 1937 Apr 2; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
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MD
1958Rule Port 1937 only - Apr 3 23:00s 1:00 S
1959Rule Port 1938 only - Mar 26 23:00s 1:00 S
1960Rule Port 1939 only - Apr 15 23:00s 1:00 S
bd7414aa 1961# Whitman gives 1939 Oct 7; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
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MD
1962Rule Port 1939 only - Nov 18 23:00s 0 -
1963Rule Port 1940 only - Feb 24 23:00s 1:00 S
bd7414aa 1964# Shanks & Pottenger give 1940 Oct 7; go with Whitman.
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MD
1965Rule Port 1940 1941 - Oct 5 23:00s 0 -
1966Rule Port 1941 only - Apr 5 23:00s 1:00 S
1967Rule Port 1942 1945 - Mar Sat>=8 23:00s 1:00 S
1968Rule Port 1942 only - Apr 25 22:00s 2:00 M # Midsummer
1969Rule Port 1942 only - Aug 15 22:00s 1:00 S
1970Rule Port 1942 1945 - Oct Sat>=24 23:00s 0 -
1971Rule Port 1943 only - Apr 17 22:00s 2:00 M
1972Rule Port 1943 1945 - Aug Sat>=25 22:00s 1:00 S
1973Rule Port 1944 1945 - Apr Sat>=21 22:00s 2:00 M
1974Rule Port 1946 only - Apr Sat>=1 23:00s 1:00 S
1975Rule Port 1946 only - Oct Sat>=1 23:00s 0 -
1976Rule Port 1947 1949 - Apr Sun>=1 2:00s 1:00 S
1977Rule Port 1947 1949 - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
bd7414aa
SW
1978# Shanks & Pottenger say DST was observed in 1950; go with Whitman.
1979# Whitman gives Oct lastSun for 1952 on; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
984263bc
MD
1980Rule Port 1951 1965 - Apr Sun>=1 2:00s 1:00 S
1981Rule Port 1951 1965 - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
1982Rule Port 1977 only - Mar 27 0:00s 1:00 S
1983Rule Port 1977 only - Sep 25 0:00s 0 -
1984Rule Port 1978 1979 - Apr Sun>=1 0:00s 1:00 S
1985Rule Port 1978 only - Oct 1 0:00s 0 -
1986Rule Port 1979 1982 - Sep lastSun 1:00s 0 -
1987Rule Port 1980 only - Mar lastSun 0:00s 1:00 S
1988Rule Port 1981 1982 - Mar lastSun 1:00s 1:00 S
1989Rule Port 1983 only - Mar lastSun 2:00s 1:00 S
1990# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
bd7414aa 1991# Shanks & Pottenger say the transition from LMT to WET occurred 1911-05-24;
ba5ba9da 1992# Willett says 1912-01-01. Go with Willett.
984263bc 1993Zone Europe/Lisbon -0:36:32 - LMT 1884
ba5ba9da 1994 -0:36:32 - LMT 1912 Jan 1 # Lisbon Mean Time
984263bc
MD
1995 0:00 Port WE%sT 1966 Apr 3 2:00
1996 1:00 - CET 1976 Sep 26 1:00
1997 0:00 Port WE%sT 1983 Sep 25 1:00s
1998 0:00 W-Eur WE%sT 1992 Sep 27 1:00s
1999 1:00 EU CE%sT 1996 Mar 31 1:00u
2000 0:00 EU WE%sT
2001Zone Atlantic/Azores -1:42:40 - LMT 1884 # Ponta Delgada
2002 -1:54:32 - HMT 1911 May 24 # Horta Mean Time
2003 -2:00 Port AZO%sT 1966 Apr 3 2:00 # Azores Time
2004 -1:00 Port AZO%sT 1983 Sep 25 1:00s
2005 -1:00 W-Eur AZO%sT 1992 Sep 27 1:00s
2006 0:00 EU WE%sT 1993 Mar 28 1:00u
2007 -1:00 EU AZO%sT
2008Zone Atlantic/Madeira -1:07:36 - LMT 1884 # Funchal
2009 -1:07:36 - FMT 1911 May 24 # Funchal Mean Time
2010 -1:00 Port MAD%sT 1966 Apr 3 2:00 # Madeira Time
2011 0:00 Port WE%sT 1983 Sep 25 1:00s
2012 0:00 EU WE%sT
2013
2014# Romania
2015#
2016# From Paul Eggert (1999-10-07):
2017# <a href="http://www.nineoclock.ro/POL/1778pol.html">
2018# Nine O'clock</a> (1998-10-23) reports that the switch occurred at
2019# 04:00 local time in fall 1998. For lack of better info,
2020# assume that Romania and Moldova switched to EU rules in 1997,
2021# the same year as Bulgaria.
2022#
2023# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
2024Rule Romania 1932 only - May 21 0:00s 1:00 S
2025Rule Romania 1932 1939 - Oct Sun>=1 0:00s 0 -
2026Rule Romania 1933 1939 - Apr Sun>=2 0:00s 1:00 S
2027Rule Romania 1979 only - May 27 0:00 1:00 S
2028Rule Romania 1979 only - Sep lastSun 0:00 0 -
2029Rule Romania 1980 only - Apr 5 23:00 1:00 S
2030Rule Romania 1980 only - Sep lastSun 1:00 0 -
2031Rule Romania 1991 1993 - Mar lastSun 0:00s 1:00 S
2032Rule Romania 1991 1993 - Sep lastSun 0:00s 0 -
2033# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
2034Zone Europe/Bucharest 1:44:24 - LMT 1891 Oct
2035 1:44:24 - BMT 1931 Jul 24 # Bucharest MT
2036 2:00 Romania EE%sT 1981 Mar 29 2:00s
2037 2:00 C-Eur EE%sT 1991
2038 2:00 Romania EE%sT 1994
2039 2:00 E-Eur EE%sT 1997
2040 2:00 EU EE%sT
2041
2042# Russia
2043
bd7414aa 2044# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
984263bc
MD
2045# Except for Moscow after 1919-07-01, I invented the time zone abbreviations.
2046# Moscow time zone abbreviations after 1919-07-01, and Moscow rules after 1991,
bd7414aa
SW
2047# are from Andrey A. Chernov. The rest is from Shanks & Pottenger,
2048# except we follow Chernov's report that 1992 DST transitions were Sat
2049# 23:00, not Sun 02:00s.
984263bc 2050#
9ffe4b14 2051# From Stanislaw A. Kuzikowski (1994-06-29):
984263bc
MD
2052# But now it is some months since Novosibirsk is 3 hours ahead of Moscow!
2053# I do not know why they have decided to make this change;
2054# as far as I remember it was done exactly during winter->summer switching
2055# so we (Novosibirsk) simply did not switch.
2056#
9ffe4b14 2057# From Andrey A. Chernov (1996-10-04):
984263bc 2058# `MSK' and `MSD' were born and used initially on Moscow computers with
ba5ba9da 2059# UNIX-like OSes by several developer groups (e.g. Demos group, Kiae group)....
984263bc
MD
2060# The next step was the UUCP network, the Relcom predecessor
2061# (used mainly for mail), and MSK/MSD was actively used there.
2062#
9ffe4b14 2063# From Chris Carrier (1996-10-30):
984263bc
MD
2064# According to a friend of mine who rode the Trans-Siberian Railroad from
2065# Moscow to Irkutsk in 1995, public air and rail transport in Russia ...
2066# still follows Moscow time, no matter where in Russia it is located.
2067#
2068# For Grozny, Chechnya, we have the following story from
2069# John Daniszewski, "Scavengers in the Rubble", Los Angeles Times (2001-02-07):
2070# News--often false--is spread by word of mouth. A rumor that it was
2071# time to move the clocks back put this whole city out of sync with
2072# the rest of Russia for two weeks--even soldiers stationed here began
2073# enforcing curfew at the wrong time.
2074#
2075# From Gwillim Law (2001-06-05):
2076# There's considerable evidence that Sakhalin Island used to be in
2077# UTC+11, and has changed to UTC+10, in this decade. I start with the
2078# SSIM, which listed Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk in zone RU10 along with Magadan
2079# until February 1997, and then in RU9 with Khabarovsk and Vladivostok
2080# since September 1997.... Although the Kuril Islands are
2081# administratively part of Sakhalin oblast', they appear to have
2082# remained on UTC+11 along with Magadan.
2083#
2084# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
2085#
2086# Kaliningradskaya oblast'.
2087Zone Europe/Kaliningrad 1:22:00 - LMT 1893 Apr
2088 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945
2089 2:00 Poland CE%sT 1946
2090 3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
ffa9a577 2091 2:00 Russia EE%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s
8e329db9 2092 3:00 - FET # Further-eastern European Time
984263bc
MD
2093#
2094# From Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25): [This region consists of]
bd7414aa 2095# Respublika Adygeya, Arkhangel'skaya oblast',
984263bc 2096# Belgorodskaya oblast', Bryanskaya oblast', Vladimirskaya oblast',
bd7414aa 2097# Vologodskaya oblast', Voronezhskaya oblast',
984263bc
MD
2098# Respublika Dagestan, Ivanovskaya oblast', Respublika Ingushetiya,
2099# Kabarbino-Balkarskaya Respublika, Respublika Kalmykiya,
2100# Kalyzhskaya oblast', Respublika Karachaevo-Cherkessiya,
bd7414aa 2101# Respublika Kareliya, Respublika Komi,
984263bc
MD
2102# Kostromskaya oblast', Krasnodarskij kraj, Kurskaya oblast',
2103# Leningradskaya oblast', Lipetskaya oblast', Respublika Marij El,
2104# Respublika Mordoviya, Moskva, Moskovskaya oblast',
2105# Murmanskaya oblast', Nenetskij avtonomnyj okrug,
2106# Nizhegorodskaya oblast', Novgorodskaya oblast', Orlovskaya oblast',
2107# Penzenskaya oblast', Pskovskaya oblast', Rostovskaya oblast',
bd7414aa 2108# Ryazanskaya oblast', Sankt-Peterburg,
984263bc
MD
2109# Respublika Severnaya Osetiya, Smolenskaya oblast',
2110# Stavropol'skij kraj, Tambovskaya oblast', Respublika Tatarstan,
2111# Tverskaya oblast', Tyl'skaya oblast', Ul'yanovskaya oblast',
2112# Chechenskaya Respublika, Chuvashskaya oblast',
2113# Yaroslavskaya oblast'
2114Zone Europe/Moscow 2:30:20 - LMT 1880
2115 2:30 - MMT 1916 Jul 3 # Moscow Mean Time
2116 2:30:48 Russia %s 1919 Jul 1 2:00
2117 3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1922 Oct
2118 2:00 - EET 1930 Jun 21
2119 3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
2120 2:00 Russia EE%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s
ffa9a577
SW
2121 3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 2011 Mar 27 2:00s
2122 4:00 - MSK
984263bc 2123#
bd7414aa
SW
2124# Astrakhanskaya oblast', Kirovskaya oblast', Saratovskaya oblast',
2125# Volgogradskaya oblast'. Shanks & Pottenger say Kirov is still at +0400
2126# but Wikipedia (2006-05-09) says +0300. Perhaps it switched after the
2127# others? But we have no data.
2128Zone Europe/Volgograd 2:57:40 - LMT 1920 Jan 3
2129 3:00 - TSAT 1925 Apr 6 # Tsaritsyn Time
2130 3:00 - STAT 1930 Jun 21 # Stalingrad Time
2131 4:00 - STAT 1961 Nov 11
2132 4:00 Russia VOL%sT 1989 Mar 26 2:00s # Volgograd T
2133 3:00 Russia VOL%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
2134 4:00 - VOLT 1992 Mar 29 2:00s
ffa9a577
SW
2135 3:00 Russia VOL%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s
2136 4:00 - VOLT
bd7414aa 2137#
984263bc
MD
2138# From Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25): [This region consists of]
2139# Samarskaya oblast', Udmyrtskaya respublika
2140Zone Europe/Samara 3:20:36 - LMT 1919 Jul 1 2:00
bd7414aa
SW
2141 3:00 - SAMT 1930 Jun 21
2142 4:00 - SAMT 1935 Jan 27
2143 4:00 Russia KUY%sT 1989 Mar 26 2:00s # Kuybyshev
984263bc
MD
2144 3:00 Russia KUY%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
2145 2:00 Russia KUY%sT 1991 Sep 29 2:00s
2146 3:00 - KUYT 1991 Oct 20 3:00
63c2ac5e 2147 4:00 Russia SAM%sT 2010 Mar 28 2:00s # Samara Time
ffa9a577
SW
2148 3:00 Russia SAM%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s
2149 4:00 - SAMT
63c2ac5e 2150
984263bc
MD
2151#
2152# From Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25): [This region consists of]
2153# Respublika Bashkortostan, Komi-Permyatskij avtonomnyj okrug,
2154# Kurganskaya oblast', Orenburgskaya oblast', Permskaya oblast',
2155# Sverdlovskaya oblast', Tyumenskaya oblast',
2156# Khanty-Manskijskij avtonomnyj okrug, Chelyabinskaya oblast',
2157# Yamalo-Nenetskij avtonomnyj okrug.
2158Zone Asia/Yekaterinburg 4:02:24 - LMT 1919 Jul 15 4:00
2159 4:00 - SVET 1930 Jun 21 # Sverdlovsk Time
2160 5:00 Russia SVE%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
2161 4:00 Russia SVE%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s
ffa9a577
SW
2162 5:00 Russia YEK%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s
2163 6:00 - YEKT # Yekaterinburg Time
984263bc
MD
2164#
2165# From Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25): [This region consists of]
2166# Respublika Altaj, Altajskij kraj, Omskaya oblast'.
2167Zone Asia/Omsk 4:53:36 - LMT 1919 Nov 14
2168 5:00 - OMST 1930 Jun 21 # Omsk TIme
2169 6:00 Russia OMS%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
2170 5:00 Russia OMS%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s
ffa9a577
SW
2171 6:00 Russia OMS%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s
2172 7:00 - OMST
984263bc 2173#
bd7414aa
SW
2174# From Paul Eggert (2006-08-19): I'm guessing about Tomsk here; it's
2175# not clear when it switched from +7 to +6.
2176# Novosibirskaya oblast', Tomskaya oblast'.
984263bc
MD
2177Zone Asia/Novosibirsk 5:31:40 - LMT 1919 Dec 14 6:00
2178 6:00 - NOVT 1930 Jun 21 # Novosibirsk Time
2179 7:00 Russia NOV%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
2180 6:00 Russia NOV%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s
bd7414aa 2181 7:00 Russia NOV%sT 1993 May 23 # say Shanks & P.
ffa9a577
SW
2182 6:00 Russia NOV%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s
2183 7:00 - NOVT
f4d6ca16
SW
2184
2185# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-10-13):
2186# Kemerovo oblast' (Kemerovo region) in Russia will change current time zone on
2187# March 28, 2010:
2188# from current Russia Zone 6 - Krasnoyarsk Time Zone (KRA) UTC +0700
2189# to Russia Zone 5 - Novosibirsk Time Zone (NOV) UTC +0600
2190#
2191# This is according to Government of Russia decree # 740, on September
2192# 14, 2009 "Application in the territory of the Kemerovo region the Fifth
2193# time zone." ("Russia Zone 5" or old "USSR Zone 5" is GMT +0600)
2194#
2195# Russian Government web site (Russian language)
2196# <a href="http://www.government.ru/content/governmentactivity/rfgovernmentdecisions/archiv">
2197# http://www.government.ru/content/governmentactivity/rfgovernmentdecisions/archive/2009/09/14/991633.htm
2198# </a>
2199# or Russian-English translation by WorldTimeZone.com with reference
2200# map to local region and new Russia Time Zone map after March 28, 2010
2201# <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_russia03.html">
2202# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_russia03.html
2203# </a>
2204#
2205# Thus, when Russia will switch to DST on the night of March 28, 2010
2206# Kemerovo region (Kemerovo oblast') will not change the clock.
2207#
2208# As a result, Kemerovo oblast' will be in the same time zone as
2209# Novosibirsk, Omsk, Tomsk, Barnaul and Altai Republic.
2210
2211Zone Asia/Novokuznetsk 5:48:48 - NMT 1920 Jan 6
2212 6:00 - KRAT 1930 Jun 21 # Krasnoyarsk Time
2213 7:00 Russia KRA%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
2214 6:00 Russia KRA%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s
2215 7:00 Russia KRA%sT 2010 Mar 28 2:00s
ffa9a577
SW
2216 6:00 Russia NOV%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s
2217 7:00 - NOVT # Novosibirsk/Novokuznetsk Time
f4d6ca16 2218
984263bc
MD
2219#
2220# From Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25): [This region consists of]
f4d6ca16 2221# Krasnoyarskij kraj,
bd7414aa 2222# Tajmyrskij (Dolgano-Nenetskij) avtonomnyj okrug,
984263bc
MD
2223# Respublika Tuva, Respublika Khakasiya, Evenkijskij avtonomnyj okrug.
2224Zone Asia/Krasnoyarsk 6:11:20 - LMT 1920 Jan 6
2225 6:00 - KRAT 1930 Jun 21 # Krasnoyarsk Time
2226 7:00 Russia KRA%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
2227 6:00 Russia KRA%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s
ffa9a577
SW
2228 7:00 Russia KRA%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s
2229 8:00 - KRAT
984263bc
MD
2230#
2231# From Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25): [This region consists of]
2232# Respublika Buryatiya, Irkutskaya oblast',
2233# Ust'-Ordynskij Buryatskij avtonomnyj okrug.
2234Zone Asia/Irkutsk 6:57:20 - LMT 1880
2235 6:57:20 - IMT 1920 Jan 25 # Irkutsk Mean Time
2236 7:00 - IRKT 1930 Jun 21 # Irkutsk Time
2237 8:00 Russia IRK%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
2238 7:00 Russia IRK%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s
ffa9a577
SW
2239 8:00 Russia IRK%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s
2240 9:00 - IRKT
984263bc 2241#
ba5ba9da 2242# From Oscar van Vlijmen (2003-10-18): [This region consists of]
984263bc
MD
2243# Aginskij Buryatskij avtonomnyj okrug, Amurskaya oblast',
2244# [parts of] Respublika Sakha (Yakutiya), Chitinskaya oblast'.
757483ac
SW
2245
2246# From Oscar van Vlijmen (2009-11-29):
8e329db9 2247# ...some regions of [Russia] were merged with others since 2005...
757483ac
SW
2248# Some names were changed, no big deal, except for one instance: a new name.
2249# YAK/YAKST: UTC+9 Zabajkal'skij kraj.
2250
2251# From Oscar van Vlijmen (2009-11-29):
ba5ba9da 2252# The Sakha districts are: Aldanskij, Amginskij, Anabarskij,
757483ac 2253# Verkhnevilyujskij, Vilyujskij, Gornyj,
ba5ba9da 2254# Zhiganskij, Kobyajskij, Lenskij, Megino-Kangalasskij, Mirninskij,
757483ac 2255# Namskij, Nyurbinskij, Olenyokskij, Olyokminskij,
ba5ba9da 2256# Suntarskij, Tattinskij, Ust'-Aldanskij, Khangalasskij,
757483ac
SW
2257# Churapchinskij, Eveno-Bytantajskij Natsional'nij.
2258
984263bc
MD
2259Zone Asia/Yakutsk 8:38:40 - LMT 1919 Dec 15
2260 8:00 - YAKT 1930 Jun 21 # Yakutsk Time
2261 9:00 Russia YAK%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
2262 8:00 Russia YAK%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s
ffa9a577
SW
2263 9:00 Russia YAK%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s
2264 10:00 - YAKT
984263bc 2265#
ba5ba9da 2266# From Oscar van Vlijmen (2003-10-18): [This region consists of]
984263bc
MD
2267# Evrejskaya avtonomnaya oblast', Khabarovskij kraj, Primorskij kraj,
2268# [parts of] Respublika Sakha (Yakutiya).
757483ac
SW
2269
2270# From Oscar van Vlijmen (2009-11-29):
2271# The Sakha districts are: Bulunskij, Verkhoyanskij, Tomponskij, Ust'-Majskij,
ba5ba9da 2272# Ust'-Yanskij.
984263bc
MD
2273Zone Asia/Vladivostok 8:47:44 - LMT 1922 Nov 15
2274 9:00 - VLAT 1930 Jun 21 # Vladivostok Time
2275 10:00 Russia VLA%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
2276 9:00 Russia VLA%sST 1992 Jan 19 2:00s
ffa9a577
SW
2277 10:00 Russia VLA%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s
2278 11:00 - VLAT
984263bc
MD
2279#
2280# Sakhalinskaya oblast'.
2281# The Zone name should be Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, but that's too long.
2282Zone Asia/Sakhalin 9:30:48 - LMT 1905 Aug 23
2283 9:00 - CJT 1938
2284 9:00 - JST 1945 Aug 25
2285 11:00 Russia SAK%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s # Sakhalin T.
2286 10:00 Russia SAK%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s
2287 11:00 Russia SAK%sT 1997 Mar lastSun 2:00s
ffa9a577
SW
2288 10:00 Russia SAK%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s
2289 11:00 - SAKT
984263bc 2290#
ba5ba9da 2291# From Oscar van Vlijmen (2003-10-18): [This region consists of]
984263bc 2292# Magadanskaya oblast', Respublika Sakha (Yakutiya).
ba5ba9da 2293# Probably also: Kuril Islands.
757483ac
SW
2294
2295# From Oscar van Vlijmen (2009-11-29):
2296# The Sakha districts are: Abyjskij, Allaikhovskij, Verkhhhnekolymskij, Momskij,
2297# Nizhnekolymskij, Ojmyakonskij, Srednekolymskij.
984263bc
MD
2298Zone Asia/Magadan 10:03:12 - LMT 1924 May 2
2299 10:00 - MAGT 1930 Jun 21 # Magadan Time
2300 11:00 Russia MAG%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
2301 10:00 Russia MAG%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s
ffa9a577
SW
2302 11:00 Russia MAG%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s
2303 12:00 - MAGT
984263bc
MD
2304#
2305# From Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25): [This region consists of]
2306# Kamchatskaya oblast', Koryakskij avtonomnyj okrug.
2307#
2308# The Zone name should be Asia/Petropavlovsk-Kamchatski, but that's too long.
2309Zone Asia/Kamchatka 10:34:36 - LMT 1922 Nov 10
2310 11:00 - PETT 1930 Jun 21 # P-K Time
2311 12:00 Russia PET%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
2312 11:00 Russia PET%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s
63c2ac5e 2313 12:00 Russia PET%sT 2010 Mar 28 2:00s
ffa9a577
SW
2314 11:00 Russia PET%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s
2315 12:00 - PETT
984263bc
MD
2316#
2317# Chukotskij avtonomnyj okrug
2318Zone Asia/Anadyr 11:49:56 - LMT 1924 May 2
2319 12:00 - ANAT 1930 Jun 21 # Anadyr Time
2320 13:00 Russia ANA%sT 1982 Apr 1 0:00s
2321 12:00 Russia ANA%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
2322 11:00 Russia ANA%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s
63c2ac5e 2323 12:00 Russia ANA%sT 2010 Mar 28 2:00s
ffa9a577
SW
2324 11:00 Russia ANA%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s
2325 12:00 - ANAT
984263bc 2326
17f48456 2327# Serbia
984263bc
MD
2328# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
2329Zone Europe/Belgrade 1:22:00 - LMT 1884
2330 1:00 - CET 1941 Apr 18 23:00
3f249718
SW
2331 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945
2332 1:00 - CET 1945 May 8 2:00s
984263bc 2333 1:00 1:00 CEST 1945 Sep 16 2:00s
9ffe4b14 2334# Metod Kozelj reports that the legal date of
984263bc 2335# transition to EU rules was 1982-11-27, for all of Yugoslavia at the time.
bd7414aa 2336# Shanks & Pottenger don't give as much detail, so go with Kozelj.
984263bc
MD
2337 1:00 - CET 1982 Nov 27
2338 1:00 EU CE%sT
2339Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Ljubljana # Slovenia
17f48456 2340Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Podgorica # Montenegro
984263bc
MD
2341Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Sarajevo # Bosnia and Herzegovina
2342Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Skopje # Macedonia
2343Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Zagreb # Croatia
2344
2345# Slovakia
2346Link Europe/Prague Europe/Bratislava
2347
2348# Slovenia
17f48456 2349# see Serbia
984263bc
MD
2350
2351# Spain
2352# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
bd7414aa
SW
2353# For 1917-1919 Whitman gives Apr Sat>=1 - Oct Sat>=1;
2354# go with Shanks & Pottenger.
984263bc
MD
2355Rule Spain 1917 only - May 5 23:00s 1:00 S
2356Rule Spain 1917 1919 - Oct 6 23:00s 0 -
2357Rule Spain 1918 only - Apr 15 23:00s 1:00 S
2358Rule Spain 1919 only - Apr 5 23:00s 1:00 S
bd7414aa 2359# Whitman gives 1921 Feb 28 - Oct 14; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
984263bc 2360Rule Spain 1924 only - Apr 16 23:00s 1:00 S
bd7414aa 2361# Whitman gives 1924 Oct 14; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
984263bc
MD
2362Rule Spain 1924 only - Oct 4 23:00s 0 -
2363Rule Spain 1926 only - Apr 17 23:00s 1:00 S
bd7414aa 2364# Whitman says no DST in 1929; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
984263bc
MD
2365Rule Spain 1926 1929 - Oct Sat>=1 23:00s 0 -
2366Rule Spain 1927 only - Apr 9 23:00s 1:00 S
2367Rule Spain 1928 only - Apr 14 23:00s 1:00 S
2368Rule Spain 1929 only - Apr 20 23:00s 1:00 S
bd7414aa
SW
2369# Whitman gives 1937 Jun 16, 1938 Apr 16, 1940 Apr 13;
2370# go with Shanks & Pottenger.
984263bc
MD
2371Rule Spain 1937 only - May 22 23:00s 1:00 S
2372Rule Spain 1937 1939 - Oct Sat>=1 23:00s 0 -
2373Rule Spain 1938 only - Mar 22 23:00s 1:00 S
2374Rule Spain 1939 only - Apr 15 23:00s 1:00 S
2375Rule Spain 1940 only - Mar 16 23:00s 1:00 S
bd7414aa 2376# Whitman says no DST 1942-1945; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
984263bc
MD
2377Rule Spain 1942 only - May 2 22:00s 2:00 M # Midsummer
2378Rule Spain 1942 only - Sep 1 22:00s 1:00 S
2379Rule Spain 1943 1946 - Apr Sat>=13 22:00s 2:00 M
2380Rule Spain 1943 only - Oct 3 22:00s 1:00 S
2381Rule Spain 1944 only - Oct 10 22:00s 1:00 S
2382Rule Spain 1945 only - Sep 30 1:00 1:00 S
2383Rule Spain 1946 only - Sep 30 0:00 0 -
2384Rule Spain 1949 only - Apr 30 23:00 1:00 S
2385Rule Spain 1949 only - Sep 30 1:00 0 -
2386Rule Spain 1974 1975 - Apr Sat>=13 23:00 1:00 S
2387Rule Spain 1974 1975 - Oct Sun>=1 1:00 0 -
2388Rule Spain 1976 only - Mar 27 23:00 1:00 S
2389Rule Spain 1976 1977 - Sep lastSun 1:00 0 -
2390Rule Spain 1977 1978 - Apr 2 23:00 1:00 S
2391Rule Spain 1978 only - Oct 1 1:00 0 -
2392# The following rules are copied from Morocco from 1967 through 1978.
2393Rule SpainAfrica 1967 only - Jun 3 12:00 1:00 S
2394Rule SpainAfrica 1967 only - Oct 1 0:00 0 -
2395Rule SpainAfrica 1974 only - Jun 24 0:00 1:00 S
2396Rule SpainAfrica 1974 only - Sep 1 0:00 0 -
2397Rule SpainAfrica 1976 1977 - May 1 0:00 1:00 S
2398Rule SpainAfrica 1976 only - Aug 1 0:00 0 -
2399Rule SpainAfrica 1977 only - Sep 28 0:00 0 -
2400Rule SpainAfrica 1978 only - Jun 1 0:00 1:00 S
2401Rule SpainAfrica 1978 only - Aug 4 0:00 0 -
2402# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
bd7414aa 2403Zone Europe/Madrid -0:14:44 - LMT 1901 Jan 1 0:00s
984263bc
MD
2404 0:00 Spain WE%sT 1946 Sep 30
2405 1:00 Spain CE%sT 1979
2406 1:00 EU CE%sT
2407Zone Africa/Ceuta -0:21:16 - LMT 1901
2408 0:00 - WET 1918 May 6 23:00
2409 0:00 1:00 WEST 1918 Oct 7 23:00
2410 0:00 - WET 1924
2411 0:00 Spain WE%sT 1929
2412 0:00 SpainAfrica WE%sT 1984 Mar 16
2413 1:00 - CET 1986
2414 1:00 EU CE%sT
2415Zone Atlantic/Canary -1:01:36 - LMT 1922 Mar # Las Palmas de Gran C.
2416 -1:00 - CANT 1946 Sep 30 1:00 # Canaries Time
2417 0:00 - WET 1980 Apr 6 0:00s
2418 0:00 1:00 WEST 1980 Sep 28 0:00s
2419 0:00 EU WE%sT
2420# IATA SSIM (1996-09) says the Canaries switch at 2:00u, not 1:00u.
2421# Ignore this for now, as the Canaries are part of the EU.
2422
2423# Sweden
2424
bd7414aa 2425# From Ivan Nilsson (2001-04-13), superseding Shanks & Pottenger:
984263bc
MD
2426#
2427# The law "Svensk forfattningssamling 1878, no 14" about standard time in 1879:
2428# From the beginning of 1879 (that is 01-01 00:00) the time for all
2429# places in the country is "the mean solar time for the meridian at
2430# three degrees, or twelve minutes of time, to the west of the
2431# meridian of the Observatory of Stockholm". The law is dated 1878-05-31.
2432#
2433# The observatory at that time had the meridian 18 degrees 03' 30"
2434# eastern longitude = 01:12:14 in time. Less 12 minutes gives the
2435# national standard time as 01:00:14 ahead of GMT....
2436#
2437# About the beginning of CET in Sweden. The lawtext ("Svensk
2438# forfattningssamling 1899, no 44") states, that "from the beginning
2439# of 1900... ... the same as the mean solar time for the meridian at
2440# the distance of one hour of time from the meridian of the English
2441# observatory at Greenwich, or at 12 minutes 14 seconds to the west
2442# from the meridian of the Observatory of Stockholm". The law is dated
2443# 1899-06-16. In short: At 1900-01-01 00:00:00 the new standard time
2444# in Sweden is 01:00:00 ahead of GMT.
2445#
2446# 1916: The lawtext ("Svensk forfattningssamling 1916, no 124") states
2447# that "1916-05-15 is considered to begin one hour earlier". It is
2448# pretty obvious that at 05-14 23:00 the clocks are set to 05-15 00:00....
2449# Further the law says, that "1916-09-30 is considered to end one hour later".
2450#
2451# The laws regulating [DST] are available on the site of the Swedish
2452# Parliament beginning with 1985 - the laws regulating 1980/1984 are
2453# not available on the site (to my knowledge they are only available
2454# in Swedish): <http://www.riksdagen.se/english/work/sfst.asp> (type
2455# "sommartid" without the quotes in the field "Fritext" and then click
2456# the Sok-button).
2457#
2458# (2001-05-13):
2459#
2460# I have now found a newspaper stating that at 1916-10-01 01:00
2461# summertime the church-clocks etc were set back one hour to show
2462# 1916-10-01 00:00 standard time. The article also reports that some
2463# people thought the switch to standard time would take place already
2464# at 1916-10-01 00:00 summer time, but they had to wait for another
2465# hour before the event took place.
2466#
2467# Source: The newspaper "Dagens Nyheter", 1916-10-01, page 7 upper left.
2468
2469# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
2470Zone Europe/Stockholm 1:12:12 - LMT 1879 Jan 1
2471 1:00:14 - SET 1900 Jan 1 # Swedish Time
2472 1:00 - CET 1916 May 14 23:00
2473 1:00 1:00 CEST 1916 Oct 1 01:00
2474 1:00 - CET 1980
2475 1:00 EU CE%sT
2476
2477# Switzerland
2478# From Howse:
2479# By the end of the 18th century clocks and watches became commonplace
2480# and their performance improved enormously. Communities began to keep
2481# mean time in preference to apparent time -- Geneva from 1780 ....
2482# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
2483# From Whitman (who writes ``Midnight?''):
09695390
SW
2484# Rule Swiss 1940 only - Nov 2 0:00 1:00 S
2485# Rule Swiss 1940 only - Dec 31 0:00 0 -
bd7414aa 2486# From Shanks & Pottenger:
09695390
SW
2487# Rule Swiss 1941 1942 - May Sun>=1 2:00 1:00 S
2488# Rule Swiss 1941 1942 - Oct Sun>=1 0:00 0 -
2489
2490# From Alois Treindl (2008-12-17):
2491# I have researched the DST usage in Switzerland during the 1940ies.
2492#
2493# As I wrote in an earlier message, I suspected the current tzdata values
2494# to be wrong. This is now verified.
2495#
2496# I have found copies of the original ruling by the Swiss Federal
2497# government, in 'Eidgen[o]ssische Gesetzessammlung 1941 and 1942' (Swiss
2498# federal law collection)...
2499#
2500# DST began on Monday 5 May 1941, 1:00 am by shifting the clocks to 2:00 am
2501# DST ended on Monday 6 Oct 1941, 2:00 am by shifting the clocks to 1:00 am.
2502#
2503# DST began on Monday, 4 May 1942 at 01:00 am
2504# DST ended on Monday, 5 Oct 1942 at 02:00 am
2505#
2506# There was no DST in 1940, I have checked the law collection carefully.
2507# It is also indicated by the fact that the 1942 entry in the law
2508# collection points back to 1941 as a reference, but no reference to any
2509# other years are made.
2510#
2511# Newspaper articles I have read in the archives on 6 May 1941 reported
2512# about the introduction of DST (Sommerzeit in German) during the previous
2513# night as an absolute novelty, because this was the first time that such
2514# a thing had happened in Switzerland.
2515#
2516# I have also checked 1916, because one book source (Gabriel, Traite de
2517# l'heure dans le monde) claims that Switzerland had DST in 1916. This is
2518# false, no official document could be found. Probably Gabriel got misled
2519# by references to Germany, which introduced DST in 1916 for the first time.
2520#
2521# The tzdata rules for Switzerland must be changed to:
2522# Rule Swiss 1941 1942 - May Mon>=1 1:00 1:00 S
2523# Rule Swiss 1941 1942 - Oct Mon>=1 2:00 0 -
2524#
2525# The 1940 rules must be deleted.
2526#
2527# One further detail for Switzerland, which is probably out of scope for
2528# most users of tzdata:
2529# The zone file
2530# Zone Europe/Zurich 0:34:08 - LMT 1848 Sep 12
2531# 0:29:44 - BMT 1894 Jun #Bern Mean Time
2532# 1:00 Swiss CE%sT 1981
2533# 1:00 EU CE%sT
2534# describes all of Switzerland correctly, with the exception of
2535# the Cantone Geneve (Geneva, Genf). Between 1848 and 1894 Geneve did not
2536# follow Bern Mean Time but kept its own local mean time.
2537# To represent this, an extra zone would be needed.
2538
2539# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
2540Rule Swiss 1941 1942 - May Mon>=1 1:00 1:00 S
2541Rule Swiss 1941 1942 - Oct Mon>=1 2:00 0 -
984263bc
MD
2542# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
2543Zone Europe/Zurich 0:34:08 - LMT 1848 Sep 12
2544 0:29:44 - BMT 1894 Jun # Bern Mean Time
2545 1:00 Swiss CE%sT 1981
2546 1:00 EU CE%sT
2547
2548# Turkey
70fc4940
SW
2549
2550# From Amar Devegowda (2007-01-03):
2551# The time zone rules for Istanbul, Turkey have not been changed for years now.
2552# ... The latest rules are available at -
2553# http://www.timeanddate.com/worldclock/timezone.html?n=107
2554# From Steffen Thorsen (2007-01-03):
2555# I have been able to find press records back to 1996 which all say that
2556# DST started 01:00 local time and end at 02:00 local time. I am not sure
2557# what happened before that. One example for each year from 1996 to 2001:
2558# http://newspot.byegm.gov.tr/arsiv/1996/21/N4.htm
2559# http://www.byegm.gov.tr/YAYINLARIMIZ/CHR/ING97/03/97X03X25.TXT
2560# http://www.byegm.gov.tr/YAYINLARIMIZ/CHR/ING98/03/98X03X02.HTM
2561# http://www.byegm.gov.tr/YAYINLARIMIZ/CHR/ING99/10/99X10X26.HTM#%2016
2562# http://www.byegm.gov.tr/YAYINLARIMIZ/CHR/ING2000/03/00X03X06.HTM#%2021
2563# http://www.byegm.gov.tr/YAYINLARIMIZ/CHR/ING2001/03/23x03x01.HTM#%2027
2564# From Paul Eggert (2007-01-03):
2565# Prefer the above source to Shanks & Pottenger for time stamps after 1990.
2566
8393cd87
SW
2567# From Steffen Thorsen (2007-03-09):
2568# Starting 2007 though, it seems that they are adopting EU's 1:00 UTC
2569# start/end time, according to the following page (2007-03-07):
2570# http://www.ntvmsnbc.com/news/402029.asp
2571# The official document is located here - it is in Turkish...:
2572# http://rega.basbakanlik.gov.tr/eskiler/2007/03/20070307-7.htm
2573# I was able to locate the following seemingly official document
2574# (on a non-government server though) describing dates between 2002 and 2006:
2575# http://www.alomaliye.com/bkk_2002_3769.htm
2576
980da900 2577# From G&ouml;kdeniz Karada&#x011f; (2011-03-10):
234dfcd0 2578#
980da900
SW
2579# According to the articles linked below, Turkey will change into summer
2580# time zone (GMT+3) on March 28, 2011 at 3:00 a.m. instead of March 27.
2581# This change is due to a nationwide exam on 27th.
234dfcd0 2582#
980da900
SW
2583# <a href="http://www.worldbulletin.net/?aType=haber&ArticleID=70872">
2584# http://www.worldbulletin.net/?aType=haber&ArticleID=70872
2585# </a>
2586# Turkish:
2587# <a href="http://www.hurriyet.com.tr/ekonomi/17230464.asp?gid=373">
2588# http://www.hurriyet.com.tr/ekonomi/17230464.asp?gid=373
234dfcd0
SW
2589# </a>
2590
984263bc
MD
2591# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
2592Rule Turkey 1916 only - May 1 0:00 1:00 S
2593Rule Turkey 1916 only - Oct 1 0:00 0 -
2594Rule Turkey 1920 only - Mar 28 0:00 1:00 S
2595Rule Turkey 1920 only - Oct 25 0:00 0 -
2596Rule Turkey 1921 only - Apr 3 0:00 1:00 S
2597Rule Turkey 1921 only - Oct 3 0:00 0 -
2598Rule Turkey 1922 only - Mar 26 0:00 1:00 S
2599Rule Turkey 1922 only - Oct 8 0:00 0 -
bd7414aa
SW
2600# Whitman gives 1923 Apr 28 - Sep 16 and no DST in 1924-1925;
2601# go with Shanks & Pottenger.
984263bc
MD
2602Rule Turkey 1924 only - May 13 0:00 1:00 S
2603Rule Turkey 1924 1925 - Oct 1 0:00 0 -
2604Rule Turkey 1925 only - May 1 0:00 1:00 S
2605Rule Turkey 1940 only - Jun 30 0:00 1:00 S
2606Rule Turkey 1940 only - Oct 5 0:00 0 -
2607Rule Turkey 1940 only - Dec 1 0:00 1:00 S
2608Rule Turkey 1941 only - Sep 21 0:00 0 -
2609Rule Turkey 1942 only - Apr 1 0:00 1:00 S
bd7414aa
SW
2610# Whitman omits the next two transition and gives 1945 Oct 1;
2611# go with Shanks & Pottenger.
984263bc
MD
2612Rule Turkey 1942 only - Nov 1 0:00 0 -
2613Rule Turkey 1945 only - Apr 2 0:00 1:00 S
2614Rule Turkey 1945 only - Oct 8 0:00 0 -
2615Rule Turkey 1946 only - Jun 1 0:00 1:00 S
2616Rule Turkey 1946 only - Oct 1 0:00 0 -
2617Rule Turkey 1947 1948 - Apr Sun>=16 0:00 1:00 S
2618Rule Turkey 1947 1950 - Oct Sun>=2 0:00 0 -
2619Rule Turkey 1949 only - Apr 10 0:00 1:00 S
2620Rule Turkey 1950 only - Apr 19 0:00 1:00 S
2621Rule Turkey 1951 only - Apr 22 0:00 1:00 S
2622Rule Turkey 1951 only - Oct 8 0:00 0 -
2623Rule Turkey 1962 only - Jul 15 0:00 1:00 S
2624Rule Turkey 1962 only - Oct 8 0:00 0 -
2625Rule Turkey 1964 only - May 15 0:00 1:00 S
2626Rule Turkey 1964 only - Oct 1 0:00 0 -
2627Rule Turkey 1970 1972 - May Sun>=2 0:00 1:00 S
2628Rule Turkey 1970 1972 - Oct Sun>=2 0:00 0 -
2629Rule Turkey 1973 only - Jun 3 1:00 1:00 S
2630Rule Turkey 1973 only - Nov 4 3:00 0 -
2631Rule Turkey 1974 only - Mar 31 2:00 1:00 S
2632Rule Turkey 1974 only - Nov 3 5:00 0 -
2633Rule Turkey 1975 only - Mar 30 0:00 1:00 S
2634Rule Turkey 1975 1976 - Oct lastSun 0:00 0 -
2635Rule Turkey 1976 only - Jun 1 0:00 1:00 S
2636Rule Turkey 1977 1978 - Apr Sun>=1 0:00 1:00 S
2637Rule Turkey 1977 only - Oct 16 0:00 0 -
2638Rule Turkey 1979 1980 - Apr Sun>=1 3:00 1:00 S
2639Rule Turkey 1979 1982 - Oct Mon>=11 0:00 0 -
2640Rule Turkey 1981 1982 - Mar lastSun 3:00 1:00 S
2641Rule Turkey 1983 only - Jul 31 0:00 1:00 S
2642Rule Turkey 1983 only - Oct 2 0:00 0 -
2643Rule Turkey 1985 only - Apr 20 0:00 1:00 S
2644Rule Turkey 1985 only - Sep 28 0:00 0 -
70fc4940
SW
2645Rule Turkey 1986 1990 - Mar lastSun 2:00s 1:00 S
2646Rule Turkey 1986 1990 - Sep lastSun 2:00s 0 -
8393cd87 2647Rule Turkey 1991 2006 - Mar lastSun 1:00s 1:00 S
70fc4940 2648Rule Turkey 1991 1995 - Sep lastSun 1:00s 0 -
8393cd87 2649Rule Turkey 1996 2006 - Oct lastSun 1:00s 0 -
984263bc
MD
2650# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
2651Zone Europe/Istanbul 1:55:52 - LMT 1880
2652 1:56:56 - IMT 1910 Oct # Istanbul Mean Time?
2653 2:00 Turkey EE%sT 1978 Oct 15
2654 3:00 Turkey TR%sT 1985 Apr 20 # Turkey Time
8393cd87 2655 2:00 Turkey EE%sT 2007
980da900
SW
2656 2:00 EU EE%sT 2011 Mar 27 1:00u
2657 2:00 - EET 2011 Mar 28 1:00u
8393cd87 2658 2:00 EU EE%sT
984263bc
MD
2659Link Europe/Istanbul Asia/Istanbul # Istanbul is in both continents.
2660
2661# Ukraine
2662#
2663# From Igor Karpov, who works for the Ukranian Ministry of Justice,
2664# via Garrett Wollman (2003-01-27):
2665# BTW, I've found the official document on this matter. It's goverment
2666# regulations number 509, May 13, 1996. In my poor translation it says:
2667# "Time in Ukraine is set to second timezone (Kiev time). Each last Sunday
2668# of March at 3am the time is changing to 4am and each last Sunday of
2669# October the time at 4am is changing to 3am"
2670
8e329db9
SW
2671# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2011-09-20):
2672# On September 20, 2011 the deputies of the Verkhovna Rada agreed to
2673# abolish the transfer clock to winter time.
2674#
2675# Bill number 8330 of MP from the Party of Regions Oleg Nadoshi got
2676# approval from 266 deputies.
2677#
2678# Ukraine abolishes transter back to the winter time (in Russian)
2679# <a href="http://news.mail.ru/politics/6861560/">
2680# http://news.mail.ru/politics/6861560/
2681# </a>
2682#
2683# The Ukrainians will no longer change the clock (in Russian)
2684# <a href="http://www.segodnya.ua/news/14290482.html">
2685# http://www.segodnya.ua/news/14290482.html
2686# </a>
2687#
2688# Deputies cancelled the winter time (in Russian)
2689# <a href="http://www.pravda.com.ua/rus/news/2011/09/20/6600616/">
2690# http://www.pravda.com.ua/rus/news/2011/09/20/6600616/
2691# </a>
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2692#
2693# From Philip Pizzey (2011-10-18):
2694# Today my Ukrainian colleagues have informed me that the
2695# Ukrainian parliament have decided that they will go to winter
2696# time this year after all.
2697#
2698# From Udo Schwedt (2011-10-18):
2699# As far as I understand, the recent change to the Ukranian time zone
2700# (Europe/Kiev) to introduce permanent daylight saving time (similar
2701# to Russia) was reverted today:
2702#
2703# <a href="http://portal.rada.gov.ua/rada/control/en/publish/article/info_left?art_id=287324&cat_id=105995">
2704# http://portal.rada.gov.ua/rada/control/en/publish/article/info_left?art_id=287324&cat_id=105995
2705# </a>
2706#
2707# Also reported by Alexander Bokovoy (2011-10-18) who also noted:
2708# The law documents themselves are at
2709#
2710# <a href="http://w1.c1.rada.gov.ua/pls/zweb_n/webproc4_1?id=&pf3511=41484">
2711# http://w1.c1.rada.gov.ua/pls/zweb_n/webproc4_1?id=&pf3511=41484
2712# </a>
2713
8e329db9 2714
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2715# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
2716# Most of Ukraine since 1970 has been like Kiev.
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2717# "Kyiv" is the transliteration of the Ukrainian name, but
2718# "Kiev" is more common in English.
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2719Zone Europe/Kiev 2:02:04 - LMT 1880
2720 2:02:04 - KMT 1924 May 2 # Kiev Mean Time
2721 2:00 - EET 1930 Jun 21
2722 3:00 - MSK 1941 Sep 20
2723 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1943 Nov 6
2724 3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1990
2725 3:00 - MSK 1990 Jul 1 2:00
2726 2:00 - EET 1992
2727 2:00 E-Eur EE%sT 1995
e9ad9bde 2728 2:00 EU EE%sT
984263bc 2729# Ruthenia used CET 1990/1991.
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2730# "Uzhhorod" is the transliteration of the Ukrainian name, but
2731# "Uzhgorod" is more common in English.
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2732Zone Europe/Uzhgorod 1:29:12 - LMT 1890 Oct
2733 1:00 - CET 1940
2734 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Oct
2735 1:00 1:00 CEST 1944 Oct 26
2736 1:00 - CET 1945 Jun 29
2737 3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1990
2738 3:00 - MSK 1990 Jul 1 2:00
2739 1:00 - CET 1991 Mar 31 3:00
2740 2:00 - EET 1992
2741 2:00 E-Eur EE%sT 1995
e9ad9bde 2742 2:00 EU EE%sT
984263bc 2743# Zaporozh'ye and eastern Lugansk oblasts observed DST 1990/1991.
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2744# "Zaporizhia" is the transliteration of the Ukrainian name, but
2745# "Zaporozh'ye" is more common in English. Use the common English
2746# spelling, except omit the apostrophe as it is not allowed in
2747# portable Posix file names.
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2748Zone Europe/Zaporozhye 2:20:40 - LMT 1880
2749 2:20 - CUT 1924 May 2 # Central Ukraine T
2750 2:00 - EET 1930 Jun 21
2751 3:00 - MSK 1941 Aug 25
2752 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1943 Oct 25
2753 3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1991 Mar 31 2:00
2754 2:00 E-Eur EE%sT 1995
e9ad9bde 2755 2:00 EU EE%sT
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2756# Central Crimea used Moscow time 1994/1997.
2757Zone Europe/Simferopol 2:16:24 - LMT 1880
2758 2:16 - SMT 1924 May 2 # Simferopol Mean T
2759 2:00 - EET 1930 Jun 21
2760 3:00 - MSK 1941 Nov
2761 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Apr 13
2762 3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1990
2763 3:00 - MSK 1990 Jul 1 2:00
2764 2:00 - EET 1992
bd7414aa 2765# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
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2766# The _Economist_ (1994-05-28, p 45) reports that central Crimea switched
2767# from Kiev to Moscow time sometime after the January 1994 elections.
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2768# Shanks (1999) says ``date of change uncertain'', but implies that it happened
2769# sometime between the 1994 DST switches. Shanks & Pottenger simply say
2770# 1994-09-25 03:00, but that can't be right. For now, guess it
2771# changed in May.
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2772 2:00 E-Eur EE%sT 1994 May
2773# From IATA SSIM (1994/1997), which also says that Kerch is still like Kiev.
2774 3:00 E-Eur MSK/MSD 1996 Mar 31 3:00s
2775 3:00 1:00 MSD 1996 Oct 27 3:00s
2776# IATA SSIM (1997-09) says Crimea switched to EET/EEST.
2777# Assume it happened in March by not changing the clocks.
2778 3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1997
2779 3:00 - MSK 1997 Mar lastSun 1:00u
e9ad9bde 2780 2:00 EU EE%sT
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2781
2782###############################################################################
2783
2784# One source shows that Bulgaria, Cyprus, Finland, and Greece observe DST from
2785# the last Sunday in March to the last Sunday in September in 1986.
2786# The source shows Romania changing a day later than everybody else.
2787#
2788# According to Bernard Sieloff's source, Poland is in the MET time zone but
2789# uses the WE DST rules. The Western USSR uses EET+1 and ME DST rules.
2790# Bernard Sieloff's source claims Romania switches on the same day, but at
2791# 00:00 standard time (i.e., 01:00 DST). It also claims that Turkey
2792# switches on the same day, but switches on at 01:00 standard time
2793# and off at 00:00 standard time (i.e., 01:00 DST)
2794
2795# ...
2796# Date: Wed, 28 Jan 87 16:56:27 -0100
9ffe4b14 2797# From: Tom Hofmann
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2798# ...
2799#
2800# ...the European time rules are...standardized since 1981, when
2801# most European coun[tr]ies started DST. Before that year, only
2802# a few countries (UK, France, Italy) had DST, each according
2803# to own national rules. In 1981, however, DST started on
2804# 'Apr firstSun', and not on 'Mar lastSun' as in the following
2805# years...
2806# But also since 1981 there are some more national exceptions
2807# than listed in 'europe': Switzerland, for example, joined DST
2808# one year later, Denmark ended DST on 'Oct 1' instead of 'Sep
2809# lastSun' in 1981---I don't know how they handle now.
2810#
2811# Finally, DST ist always from 'Apr 1' to 'Oct 1' in the
2812# Soviet Union (as far as I know).
2813#
2814# Tom Hofmann, Scientific Computer Center, CIBA-GEIGY AG,
2815# 4002 Basle, Switzerland
9ffe4b14 2816# ...
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2817
2818# ...
2819# Date: Wed, 4 Feb 87 22:35:22 +0100
9ffe4b14 2820# From: Dik T. Winter
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2821# ...
2822#
2823# The information from Tom Hofmann is (as far as I know) not entirely correct.
2824# After a request from chongo at amdahl I tried to retrieve all information
2825# about DST in Europe. I was able to find all from about 1969.
2826#
2827# ...standardization on DST in Europe started in about 1977 with switches on
2828# first Sunday in April and last Sunday in September...
2829# In 1981 UK joined Europe insofar that
2830# the starting day for both shifted to last Sunday in March. And from 1982
2831# the whole of Europe used DST, with switch dates April 1 and October 1 in
2832# the Sov[i]et Union. In 1985 the SU reverted to standard Europe[a]n switch
2833# dates...
2834#
2835# It should also be remembered that time-zones are not constants; e.g.
2836# Portugal switched in 1976 from MET (or CET) to WET with DST...
2837# Note also that though there were rules for switch dates not
2838# all countries abided to these dates, and many individual deviations
2839# occurred, though not since 1982 I believe. Another note: it is always
2840# assumed that DST is 1 hour ahead of normal time, this need not be the
2841# case; at least in the Netherlands there have been times when DST was 2 hours
2842# in advance of normal time.
2843#
2844# ...
2845# dik t. winter, cwi, amsterdam, nederland
9ffe4b14 2846# ...
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2847
2848# From Bob Devine (1988-01-28):
2849# ...
2850# Greece: Last Sunday in April to last Sunday in September (iffy on dates).
2851# Since 1978. Change at midnight.
2852# ...
2853# Monaco: has same DST as France.
2854# ...