disklabel32/64: Add support for 'T' size specifier.
[dragonfly.git] / sbin / disklabel64 / disklabel64.8
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35.\" @(#)disklabel.8 8.2 (Berkeley) 4/19/94
36.\" $FreeBSD: src/sbin/disklabel/disklabel.8,v 1.15.2.22 2003/04/17 17:56:34 trhodes Exp $
0ffe40b3 37.\"
f61a91d2 38.Dd August 3, 2012
f5ba7fbd 39.Dt DISKLABEL64 8
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40.Os
41.Sh NAME
f5ba7fbd 42.Nm disklabel64
298905d1 43.Nd read and write 64 bit disk pack label
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44.Sh SYNOPSIS
45.Nm
46.Op Fl r
47.Ar disk
48.Nm
49.Fl w
50.Op Fl r
51.Op Fl n
8ab1915f 52.Ar disk Ar disktype Ns / Ns Cm auto
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53.Oo Ar packid Oc
54.Nm
55.Fl e
56.Op Fl r
57.Op Fl n
58.Ar disk
59.Nm
60.Fl R
61.Op Fl r
62.Op Fl n
63.Ar disk Ar protofile
64.Nm
65.Op Fl NW
66.Ar disk
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67.Pp
68.Nm
69.Fl B
70.Oo
71.Fl b Ar boot1
72.Fl s Ar boot2
73.Oc
74.Ar disk
75.Oo Ar disktype Ns / Ns Cm auto Oc
76.Nm
77.Fl w
78.Fl B
79.Op Fl n
80.Oo
81.Fl b Ar boot1
82.Fl s Ar boot2
83.Oc
84.Ar disk Ar disktype Ns / Ns Cm auto
85.Oo Ar packid Oc
86.Nm
87.Fl R
88.Fl B
89.Op Fl n
90.Oo
91.Fl b Ar boot1
92.Fl s Ar boot2
93.Oc
94.Ar disk Ar protofile
95.Oo Ar disktype Ns / Ns Cm auto Oc
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96.Sh DESCRIPTION
97The
98.Nm
99utility
298905d1 100installs, examines or modifies a 64 bit label on a disk drive or pack.
1784d35c 101When writing
0ffe40b3 102the label, it can be used to change the drive identification, the disk
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103partitions on the drive, or to replace a damaged label.
104There are several forms
105of the command that read (display), install or edit the label on a disk.
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106In
107addition,
108.Nm
109can install bootstrap code.
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110.Ss Raw or in-core label
111The disk label resides close to or at the beginning of each disk slice.
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112For faster access, the kernel maintains a copy in core at all times.
113By
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114default, most forms of the
115.Nm
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116command access the in-core copy of the label.
117To access the raw (on-disk)
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118copy, use the
119.Fl r
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120option.
121This option allows a label to be installed on a disk without kernel
0ffe40b3 122support for a label, such as when labels are first installed on a system; it
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123must be used when first installing a label on a disk.
124The specific effect of
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125.Fl r
126is described under each command.
127.Ss Disk device name
128All
129.Nm
130forms require a disk device name, which should always be the raw
1784d35c 131device name representing the disk or slice.
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132.Dx
133uses the following scheme for slice numbering:
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134If the disk doesn't use GPT (typically laid out by
135.Xr gpt 8 ) ,
136but e.g.\& MBR (typically laid out by
298905d1 137.Xr fdisk 8 ) ,
64fdb67a 138then slice 0, e.g.\&
298905d1 139.Pa da0s0 ,
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140represents the entire disk regardless of any DOS partitioning.
141Slice 0 is called the compatibility slice,
142and slice 1 and onward, e.g.\&
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143.Pa da0s1 ,
144represents a
145.Bx
146slice.
0fcbc539 147If the disk does use GPT, then all slices are
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148.Bx
149slices, slice 0 isn't special, it is just the first slice on the disk.
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150You do not have to include the
151.Pa /dev/
152path prefix when specifying the device.
153The
154.Nm
155utility will automatically prepend it.
156.Ss Reading the disk label
157To examine the label on a disk drive, use
158.Nm
159without options:
160.Pp
161.Nm
162.Op Fl r
163.Ar disk
164.Pp
165.Ar disk
166represents the raw disk in question, and may be in the form
80818344 167.Pa da0s1
0ffe40b3 168or
80818344 169.Pa /dev/da0s1 .
0ffe40b3 170It will display all of the parameters associated with the drive and its
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171partition layout.
172Unless the
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173.Fl r
174flag is given,
175the kernel's in-core copy of the label is displayed;
176if the disk has no label, or the partition types on the disk are incorrect,
177the kernel may have constructed or modified the label.
178If the
179.Fl r
180flag is given,
181.Nm
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182reads the label from the raw disk and displays it.
183Both versions are usually
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184identical except in the case where a label has not yet been initialized or
185is corrupt.
186.Ss Writing a standard label
187To write a standard label, use the form
188.Pp
189.Nm
190.Fl w
191.Op Fl r
192.Op Fl n
8ab1915f 193.Ar disk Ar disktype Ns / Ns Cm auto
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194.Oo Ar packid Oc
195.Pp
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196The required arguments to
197.Nm
198are the drive to be labeled and the drive type as described in the
199.Xr disktab 5
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200file.
201The drive parameters and partitions are taken from that file.
202If
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203different disks of the same physical type are to have different partitions, it
204will be necessary to have separate disktab entries describing each, or to edit
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205the label after installation as described below.
206The optional argument is a
207pack identification string, up to 16 characters long.
208The pack id must be
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209quoted if it contains blanks.
210.Pp
211If the
212.Fl n
213flag is given, no data will be written to the device, and instead the
214disklabel that would have been written will be printed to stdout.
215.Pp
216If the
217.Fl r
0fcbc539 218flag is given, the disk sectors containing the label and bootstrap
0ffe40b3 219will be written directly.
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220A side-effect of this is that any existing bootstrap code will be overwritten
221and the disk rendered unbootable.
222See the boot options below for a method of
223writing the label and the bootstrap at the same time.
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224If
225.Fl r
226is not specified,
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227the existing label will be updated via the in-core copy and any bootstrap
228code will be unaffected.
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229If the disk does not already have a label, the
230.Fl r
231flag must be used.
232In either case, the kernel's in-core label is replaced.
233.Pp
234For a virgin disk that is not known to
235.Xr disktab 5 ,
236.Ar disktype
237can be specified as
8ab1915f 238.Cm auto .
0ffe40b3 239In this case, the driver is requested to produce a virgin label for the
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240disk.
241This might or might not be successful, depending on whether the
0ffe40b3 242driver for the disk is able to get the required data without reading
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243anything from the disk at all.
244It will likely succeed for all SCSI
245disks, most IDE disks, and vnode devices.
246Writing a label to the
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247disk is the only supported operation, and the
248.Ar disk
1784d35c 249itself must be provided as the canonical name, i.e.\& not as a full
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250path name.
251.Pp
252For most harddisks, a label based on percentages for most partitions (and
253one partition with a size of
254.Ql * )
255will produce a reasonable configuration.
256.Pp
257PC-based systems have special requirements in order for the BIOS to properly
258recognize a
259.Dx
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260disklabel.
261Older systems may require what is known as a
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262.Dq dangerously dedicated
263disklabel, which creates a fake DOS partition to work around problems older
264BIOSes have with modern disk geometries.
265On newer systems you generally want
266to create a normal DOS partition using
267.Ar fdisk
268and then create a
269.Dx
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270disklabel within that slice.
271This is described
0ffe40b3 272later on in this page.
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273.Pp
274Installing a new disklabel does not in of itself allow your system to boot
275a kernel using that label.
276You must also install boot blocks, which is
277described later on in this manual page.
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278.Ss Editing an existing disk label
279To edit an existing disk label, use the form
280.Pp
281.Nm
282.Fl e
283.Op Fl r
284.Op Fl n
285.Ar disk
286.Pp
287This command reads the label from the in-core kernel copy, or directly from the
288disk if the
289.Fl r
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290flag is also specified.
291The label is written to a file in ASCII and then
292supplied to an editor for changes.
293If no editor is specified in an
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294.Ev EDITOR
295environment variable,
296.Xr vi 1
1784d35c 297is used.
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298When the editor terminates, the label file is used to rewrite the disk label.
299Existing bootstrap code is unchanged regardless of whether
300.Fl r
301was specified.
1784d35c 302If
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303.Fl n
304is specified, no data will be written to the device, and instead the
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305disklabel that would have been written will be printed to stdout.
306This is
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307useful to see how a partitioning scheme will work out for a specific disk.
308.Ss Restoring a disk label from a file
309To restore a disk label from a file, use the form
310.Pp
311.Nm
312.Fl R
313.Op Fl r
314.Op Fl n
315.Ar disk Ar protofile
316.Pp
317.Nm
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318is capable of restoring a disk label that was previously saved in a file
319in ASCII format.
320The prototype file used to create the label should be in the same format
321as that produced when reading or editing a label.
1784d35c 322Comments are delimited by
8ab1915f 323.Ql #
1784d35c 324and newline.
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325As when writing a new label, any existing bootstrap code will be
326clobbered if
327.Fl r
328is specified and will be unaffected otherwise.
329See the boot options below for a
330method of restoring the label and writing the bootstrap at the same time.
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331If
332.Fl n
333is used, no data will be written to the device, and instead the
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334disklabel that would have been written will be printed to stdout.
335This is
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336useful to see how a partitioning scheme will work out for a specific disk.
337.Ss Enabling and disabling writing to the disk label area
338By default, it is not possible to write to the disk label area at the beginning
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339of a disk.
340The disk driver arranges for
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341.Xr write 2
342and similar system calls
343to return
344.Er EROFS
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345on any attempt to do so.
346If you need
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347to write to this area (for example, to obliterate the label), use the form
348.Pp
349.Nm
350.Fl W
351.Ar disk
352.Pp
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353To disallow writing to the label area after previously allowing it,
354use the command
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355.Pp
356.Nm
357.Fl N
358.Ar disk
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359.Ss Installing bootstraps
360The final three forms of
361.Nm
362are used to install bootstrap code, which allows boot from a
363.Xr HAMMER 5
364or
365.Xr UFS 5
366file system.
367If you are creating a
368.Dq dangerously-dedicated
369slice for compatibility with older PC systems,
370you generally want to specify the compatibility slice, such as
371.Pa da0s0 .
372If you are creating a label within an existing DOS slice,
373you should specify
374the slice name such as
375.Pa da0s1 .
376Making a slice bootable can be tricky.
377If you are using a normal DOS
378slice you typically install (or leave) a standard MBR on the base disk and
379then install the
380.Dx
381bootblocks in the slice.
382.Pp
383.Nm
384.Fl B
385.Oo
386.Fl b Ar boot1
387.Fl s Ar boot2
388.Oc
389.Ar disk
390.Oo Ar disktype Ns / Ns Cm auto Oc
391.Pp
392This form installs the bootstrap only.
393It does not change the disk label.
394You should never use this command on the compatibility slice unless you
395intend to create a
396.Dq dangerously-dedicated
397disk, such as
398.Ar da0s0 .
399This command is typically run on a
400.Bx
401slice such as
402.Ar da0s1 .
403.Pp
404.Nm
405.Fl w
406.Fl B
407.Op Fl n
408.Oo
409.Fl b Ar boot1
410.Fl s Ar boot2
411.Oc
412.Ar disk Ar disktype Ns / Ns Cm auto
413.Oo Ar packid Oc
414.Pp
415This form corresponds to the
416.Dq write label
417command described above.
418In addition to writing a new volume label, it also installs the bootstrap.
419If run on the compatibility slice this command will create a
420.Dq dangerously-dedicated
421label.
422This command is normally run on a
423.Bx
424slice rather than the compatibility slice.
425If
426.Fl n
427is used, no data will be written to the device, and instead the
428disklabel that would have been written will be printed to stdout.
429.Pp
430.Nm
431.Fl R
432.Fl B
433.Op Fl n
434.Oo
435.Fl b Ar boot1
436.Fl s Ar boot2
437.Oc
438.Ar disk Ar protofile
439.Oo Ar disktype Ns / Ns Cm auto Oc
440.Pp
441This form corresponds to the
442.Dq restore label
443command described above.
444In addition to restoring the volume label, it also installs the bootstrap.
445If run on the compatibility slice this command will create a
446.Dq dangerously-dedicated
447label.
448This command is normally run on a
449.Bx
450slice rather than the compatibility
451slice.
452.Pp
453The bootstrap commands always access the disk directly,
454so it is not necessary to specify the
455.Fl r
456flag.
457If
458.Fl n
459is used, no data will be written to the device, and instead the
460disklabel that would have been written will be printed to stdout.
461.Pp
462The bootstrap code is comprised of two boot programs.
463Specify the name of the
464boot programs to be installed in one of these ways:
465.Bl -enum
466.It
467Specify the names explicitly with the
468.Fl b
469and
470.Fl s
471flags.
472.Fl b
473indicates the primary boot program and
474.Fl s
475the secondary boot program.
476The boot programs are normally located in
477.Pa /boot .
478.It
479If the
480.Fl b
481and
482.Fl s
483flags are not specified, but
484.Ar disktype
485was specified, the names of the programs are taken from the
486.Dq b0
487and
488.Dq b1
489parameters of the
490.Xr disktab 5
491entry for the disk if the disktab entry exists and includes those parameters.
492.It
493Otherwise, the default boot image names are used:
494.Pa /boot/boot1_64
495and
496.Pa /boot/boot2_64
497for the standard stage1 and stage2 boot images.
498.El
499.Ss Initializing/Formatting a bootable disk from scratch
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500To initialize a disk from scratch the following sequence is recommended.
501Please note that this will wipe everything that was previously on the disk,
502including any
503.No non- Ns Dx
504slices.
505.Bl -enum
506.It
507Use
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508.Xr gpt 8
509or
0ffe40b3 510.Xr fdisk 8
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511to initialize the hard disk, and create a GPT or MBR slice table,
512referred to as the
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513.Dq "partition table"
514in
515.Tn DOS .
516.It
517Use
518.Nm
0fcbc539 519or
c61a095d 520.Xr disklabel32 8
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521to define partitions on
522.Dx
523slices created in the previous step.
524.It
525Finally use
64fdb67a 526.Xr newfs_hammer 8
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527or
528.Xr newfs 8
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529to create file systems on new partitions.
530.El
531.Pp
532A typical partitioning scheme would be to have an
533.Ql a
534partition
80818344 535of approximately 512MB to hold the root file system, a
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536.Ql b
537partition for
80818344 538swap (usually 4GB), a
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539.Ql d
540partition for
541.Pa /var
80818344 542(usually 2GB), an
0ffe40b3 543.Ql e
0fcbc539 544partition for
0ffe40b3 545.Pa /var/tmp
80818344 546(usually 2GB), an
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547.Ql f
548partition for
549.Pa /usr
80818344 550(usually around 4GB),
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551and finally a
552.Ql g
553partition for
554.Pa /home
555(usually all remaining space).
64fdb67a 556If you are tight on space all sizes can be halved.
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557Your mileage may vary.
558.Pp
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559.Dl "gpt create da0"
560.Dl "gpt add da0"
561.Dl "disklabel64 -B -r -w da0s0 auto"
562.Dl "disklabel64 -e da0s0"
4921cba1 563.Sh ALIGNMENT
3da63b93 564When a virgin disklabel64 is laid down a
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565.Dx 2.5
566or later kernel will align the partition start offset relative to the
567physical drive instead of relative to the slice start.
568This overcomes the issue of fdisk creating a badly aligned slice by default.
569The kernel will use a 1MiB (1024 * 1024 byte) alignment.
570The purpose of this alignment is to match swap and cluster operations
571against the physical block size of the underlying device.
572.Pp
573Even though nearly all devices still report a logical sector size of 512,
574newer hard drives are starting to use larger physical sector sizes
575and, in particular, solid state drives (SSDs) use a physical block size
576of 64K (SLC) or 128K (MLC). We choose a 1 megabyte alignment to cover our
577bases down the road. 64-bit disklabels are not designed to be put on
578ultra-tiny storage devices.
579.Pp
580It is worth noting that aligning cluster operations is particularly
581important for SSDs and doubly so when
582.Xr swapcache 8
583is used with a SSD.
584Swapcache is able to use large bulk writes which greatly reduces the degree
585of write magnification on SSD media and it is possible to get upwards of
5865x more endurance out of the device than the vendor spec sheet indicates.
0ffe40b3 587.Sh FILES
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588.Bl -tag -width ".Pa /boot/boot2_64" -compact
589.It Pa /boot/boot1_64
590Default stage1 boot image.
591.It Pa /boot/boot2_64
592Default stage2 boot image.
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593.It Pa /etc/disktab
594Disk description file.
595.El
596.Sh SAVED FILE FORMAT
597The
598.Nm
0fcbc539 599utility uses an
0ffe40b3 600.Tn ASCII
0fcbc539 601version of the label when examining, editing, or restoring a disk label.
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602The format is:
603.Bd -literal -offset 4n
80818344
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604# /dev/ad4s4:
605#
606# Informational fields calculated from the above
607# All byte equivalent offsets must be aligned
608#
609# boot space: 32768 bytes
610# data space: 121790552 blocks # 118936.09 MB (124713525248 bytes)
611#
612diskid: 5e3ef4db-4e24-11dd-8318-010e0cd0bad1
917db758 613label:
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614boot2 data base: 0x000000001000
615partitions data base: 0x000000009000
616partitions data stop: 0x001d0981f000
617backup label: 0x001d0981f000
618total size: 0x001d09820000 # 118936.12 MB
619alignment: 4096
620display block size: 1024 # for partition display only
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621
62216 partitions:
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623# size offset fstype fsuuid
624 a: 524288 0 4.2BSD # 512.000MB
625 b: 4194304 524288 swap # 4096.000MB
626 d: 2097152 4718592 4.2BSD # 2048.000MB
627 e: 2097152 6815744 4.2BSD # 2048.000MB
628 f: 4194304 8912896 4.2BSD # 4096.000MB
629 g: 4194304 13107200 4.2BSD # 4096.000MB
630 h: 94003288 17301504 HAMMER # 91800.086MB
631 i: 5242880 111304792 ccd # 5120.000MB
632 j: 5242880 116547672 vinum # 5120.000MB
633 a-stor_uuid: 4370efdb-4e25-11dd-8318-010e0cd0bad1
634 b-stor_uuid: 4370eff4-4e25-11dd-8318-010e0cd0bad1
635 d-stor_uuid: 4370f00b-4e25-11dd-8318-010e0cd0bad1
636 e-stor_uuid: 4370f024-4e25-11dd-8318-010e0cd0bad1
637 f-stor_uuid: 4370f03a-4e25-11dd-8318-010e0cd0bad1
638 g-stor_uuid: 4370f053-4e25-11dd-8318-010e0cd0bad1
639 h-stor_uuid: 4370f06a-4e25-11dd-8318-010e0cd0bad1
640 i-stor_uuid: 4370f083-4e25-11dd-8318-010e0cd0bad1
641 j-stor_uuid: 4370f099-4e25-11dd-8318-010e0cd0bad1
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642.Ed
643.Pp
644Lines starting with a
645.Ql #
646mark are comments.
298905d1 647The specifications which can be changed are:
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648.Bl -inset
649.It Ar label
650is an optional label, set by the
651.Ar packid
652option when writing a label.
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653.It Ar "the partition table"
654is the
655.Ux
656partition table, not the
657.Tn DOS
658partition table described in
659.Xr fdisk 8 .
660.El
661.Pp
662The partition table can have up to 16 entries.
663It contains the following information:
664.Bl -tag -width indent
665.It Ar #
666The partition identifier is a single letter in the range
667.Ql a
668to
80818344 669.Ql p .
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670.It Ar size
671The size of the partition in sectors,
672.Cm K
673(kilobytes - 1024),
674.Cm M
675(megabytes - 1024*1024),
676.Cm G
677(gigabytes - 1024*1024*1024),
f61a91d2
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678.Cm T
679(terabytes - 1024*1024*1024*1024),
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680.Cm %
681(percentage of free space
682.Em after
80818344 683removing any fixed-size partitions),
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684.Cm *
685(all remaining free space
686.Em after
687fixed-size and percentage partitions).
0ffe40b3 688Lowercase versions of
f61a91d2 689.Cm K , M , G ,
0ffe40b3 690and
f61a91d2 691.Cm T
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692are allowed.
693Size and type should be specified without any spaces between them.
694.Pp
695Example: 2097152, 1G, 1024M and 1048576K are all the same size
696(assuming 512-byte sectors).
697.It Ar offset
698The offset of the start of the partition from the beginning of the
699drive in sectors, or
700.Cm *
701to have
702.Nm
703calculate the correct offset to use (the end of the previous partition plus
80818344 704one.
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705.It Ar fstype
706Describes the purpose of the partition.
707The example shows all currently used partition types.
708For
167c1ad2 709.Xr UFS 5
80818344
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710file systems, use type
711.Cm 4.2BSD .
712For
320528fb 713.Xr HAMMER 5
80818344
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714file systems, use type
715.Cm HAMMER .
716For
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717.Xr ccd 4
718partitions, use type
80818344 719.Cm ccd .
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720For Vinum drives, use type
721.Cm vinum .
722Other common types are
723.Cm swap
724and
725.Cm unused .
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726The
727.Nm
728utility
729also knows about a number of other partition types,
730none of which are in current use.
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731(See
732.Dv fstypenames
0ffe40b3 733in
80818344 734.In sys/dtype.h
0ffe40b3 735for more details).
0ffe40b3 736.El
80818344 737.Pp
0fcbc539
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738The remainder of the line is a comment and shows the size of
739the partition in MB.
0ffe40b3 740.Sh EXAMPLES
f5ba7fbd 741.Dl "disklabel64 da0s1"
0ffe40b3
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742.Pp
743Display the in-core label for the first slice of the
744.Pa da0
745disk, as obtained via
746.Pa /dev/da0s1 .
747(If the disk is
748.Dq dangerously-dedicated ,
80818344
TN
749the compatibility slice name should be specified, such as
750.Pa da0s0 . )
0ffe40b3 751.Pp
f5ba7fbd 752.Dl "disklabel64 da0s1 > savedlabel"
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753.Pp
754Save the in-core label for
755.Pa da0s1
756into the file
757.Pa savedlabel .
758This file can be used with the
759.Fl R
760option to restore the label at a later date.
761.Pp
f5ba7fbd 762.Dl "disklabel64 -w -r /dev/da0s1 da2212 foo"
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763.Pp
764Create a label for
765.Pa da0s1
766based on information for
767.Dq da2212
768found in
769.Pa /etc/disktab .
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770Any existing bootstrap code will be clobbered
771and the disk rendered unbootable.
0ffe40b3 772.Pp
f5ba7fbd 773.Dl "disklabel64 -e -r da0s1"
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774.Pp
775Read the on-disk label for
776.Pa da0s1 ,
777edit it, and reinstall in-core as well as on-disk.
0fcbc539 778Existing bootstrap code is unaffected.
0ffe40b3 779.Pp
f5ba7fbd 780.Dl "disklabel64 -e -r -n da0s1"
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781.Pp
782Read the on-disk label for
783.Pa da0s1 ,
784edit it, and display what the new label would be (in sectors).
785It does
786.Em not
787install the new label either in-core or on-disk.
788.Pp
f5ba7fbd 789.Dl "disklabel64 -r -w da0s1 auto"
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790.Pp
791Try to auto-detect the required information from
792.Pa da0s1 ,
793and write a new label to the disk.
794Use another
795.Nm Fl e
64fdb67a 796command to edit the partitioning information.
0ffe40b3 797.Pp
f5ba7fbd 798.Dl "disklabel64 -R da0s1 savedlabel"
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799.Pp
800Restore the on-disk and in-core label for
801.Pa da0s1
802from information in
803.Pa savedlabel .
0fcbc539 804Existing bootstrap code is unaffected.
0ffe40b3 805.Pp
f5ba7fbd 806.Dl "disklabel64 -R -n da0s1 label_layout"
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807.Pp
808Display what the label would be for
809.Pa da0s1
810using the partition layout in
811.Pa label_layout .
812This is useful for determining how much space would be allotted for various
813partitions with a labelling scheme using
814.Cm % Ns -based
815or
816.Cm *
817partition sizes.
818.Pp
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819.Dl "disklabel64 -B da0s1"
820.Pp
821Install a new bootstrap on
822.Pa da0s1 .
823The boot code comes from
824.Pa /boot/boot1_64
825and possibly
826.Pa /boot/boot2_64 .
827On-disk and in-core labels are unchanged.
828.Pp
829.Dl "disklabel64 -w -B /dev/da0s1 -b newboot1 -s newboot2 da2212"
830.Pp
831Install a new label and bootstrap.
832The label is derived from disktab information for
833.Dq da2212
834and installed both in-core and on-disk.
835The bootstrap code comes from the files
836.Pa newboot1
837and
838.Pa newboot2 .
839.Pp
840.Dl "dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/da0 bs=512 count=32"
841.Dl "fdisk -BI da0"
842.Dl "dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/da0s1 bs=512 count=32"
843.Dl "disklabel64 -w -B da0s1 auto"
844.Dl "disklabel64 -e da0s1"
845.Pp
846Completely wipe any prior information on the disk, creating a new bootable
847disk with a DOS partition table containing one
848.Dq whole-disk
849slice.
850Then
851initialize the slice, then edit it to your needs.
852The
853.Pa dd
854commands are optional, but may be necessary for some BIOSes to properly
855recognize the disk.
856.Pp
857.Dl "disklabel64 -W da0s1"
858.Dl "dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/da0s1 bs=512 count=32"
859.Dl "disklabel -r -w da0s1 auto"
860.Dl "disklabel -N da0s1"
861.Pp
862Completely wipe any prior information on the slice,
863changing label format to 32 bit.
864The wiping is needed as
865.Nm disklabel
866and
867.Nm ,
868as a safety measure,
869won't do any operations if label with other format is already installed.
870.Pp
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871This is an example disklabel that uses some of the new partition size types
872such as
873.Cm % , M , G ,
874and
875.Cm * ,
876which could be used as a source file for
877.Pp
0fcbc539 878.Dl "disklabel64 -R ad0s1 new_label_file"
0ffe40b3 879.Bd -literal -offset 4n
80818344
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880# /dev/ad4s4:
881#
882# Informational fields calculated from the above
883# All byte equivalent offsets must be aligned
884#
885# boot space: 32768 bytes
886# data space: 121790552 blocks # 118936.09 MB (124713525248 bytes)
887#
888diskid: b1db58a3-4e26-11dd-8318-010e0cd0bad1
917db758 889label:
80818344
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890boot2 data base: 0x000000001000
891partitions data base: 0x000000009000
892partitions data stop: 0x001d0981f000
893backup label: 0x001d0981f000
894total size: 0x001d09820000 # 118936.12 MB
895alignment: 4096
896display block size: 1024 # for partition display only
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897
89816 partitions:
80818344
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899# size offset fstype fsuuid
900 a: 512M 0 4.2BSD
901 b: 4G * swap
902 d: 2G * 4.2BSD
903 e: 2048M * 4.2BSD
904 f: 4G * 4.2BSD
905 g: 4G * 4.2BSD
906 h: * * HAMMER
907 i: 5g * ccd
908 j: 5120m * vinum
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909.Ed
910.Sh DIAGNOSTICS
911The kernel device drivers will not allow the size of a disk partition
912to be decreased or the offset of a partition to be changed while it is open.
913Some device drivers create a label containing only a single large partition
914if a disk is unlabeled; thus, the label must be written to the
8ab1915f 915.Ql a
1784d35c
SW
916partition of the disk while it is open.
917This sometimes requires the desired
0ffe40b3 918label to be set in two steps, the first one creating at least one other
80818344
TN
919partition, and the second setting the label on the new partition while
920shrinking the
8ab1915f 921.Ql a
0ffe40b3 922partition.
0ffe40b3 923.Sh SEE ALSO
64fdb67a 924.Xr dd 1 ,
298905d1 925.Xr uuid 3 ,
0ffe40b3 926.Xr ccd 4 ,
f5ba7fbd 927.Xr disklabel64 5 ,
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928.Xr disktab 5 ,
929.Xr boot0cfg 8 ,
930.Xr diskinfo 8 ,
c61a095d 931.Xr disklabel32 8 ,
0ffe40b3 932.Xr fdisk 8 ,
298905d1 933.Xr gpt 8 ,
64fdb67a
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934.Xr newfs 8 ,
935.Xr newfs_hammer 8 ,
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936.Xr vinum 8
937.Sh BUGS
0fcbc539
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938For the i386 architecture, the primary bootstrap sector contains
939an embedded
940.Em fdisk
941table.
942The
943.Nm
944utility takes care to not clobber it when installing a bootstrap only
945.Pq Fl B ,
946or when editing an existing label
947.Pq Fl e ,
948but it unconditionally writes the primary bootstrap program onto
949the disk for
950.Fl w
951or
952.Fl R ,
953thus replacing the
954.Em fdisk
955table by the dummy one in the bootstrap program.
956This is only of
957concern if the disk is fully dedicated, so that the
958.Bx
959disklabel
960starts at absolute block 0 on the disk.
961.Pp
0ffe40b3
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962The
963.Nm
964utility
1784d35c 965does not perform all possible error checking.
298905d1
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966Warning
967.Em is
968given if partitions
0fcbc539 969overlap; if an absolute offset does not match the expected offset; if a
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970partition runs past the end of the device; and a number of other errors; but
971no warning is given if space remains unused.