Sync zoneinfo database with tzdata2010n from elsie.nci.nih.gov
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34850bd5 1# <pre>
fe5ecec3 2# @(#)australasia 8.19
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3# This file is in the public domain, so clarified as of
4# 2009-05-17 by Arthur David Olson.
34850bd5 5
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6# This file also includes Pacific islands.
7
8# Notes are at the end of this file
9
10###############################################################################
11
12# Australia
13
14# Please see the notes below for the controversy about "EST" versus "AEST" etc.
15
16# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
17Rule Aus 1917 only - Jan 1 0:01 1:00 -
18Rule Aus 1917 only - Mar 25 2:00 0 -
19Rule Aus 1942 only - Jan 1 2:00 1:00 -
20Rule Aus 1942 only - Mar 29 2:00 0 -
21Rule Aus 1942 only - Sep 27 2:00 1:00 -
22Rule Aus 1943 1944 - Mar lastSun 2:00 0 -
23Rule Aus 1943 only - Oct 3 2:00 1:00 -
24# Go with Whitman and the Australian National Standards Commission, which
25# says W Australia didn't use DST in 1943/1944. Ignore Whitman's claim that
26# 1944/1945 was just like 1943/1944.
27
28# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
29# Northern Territory
30Zone Australia/Darwin 8:43:20 - LMT 1895 Feb
31 9:00 - CST 1899 May
32 9:30 Aus CST
33# Western Australia
37cabc10 34#
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35# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
36Rule AW 1974 only - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 -
37Rule AW 1975 only - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
38Rule AW 1983 only - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 -
39Rule AW 1984 only - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
40Rule AW 1991 only - Nov 17 2:00s 1:00 -
41Rule AW 1992 only - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
42Rule AW 2006 only - Dec 3 2:00s 1:00 -
43Rule AW 2007 2009 - Mar lastSun 2:00s 0 -
44Rule AW 2007 2008 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 -
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45Zone Australia/Perth 7:43:24 - LMT 1895 Dec
46 8:00 Aus WST 1943 Jul
37cabc10 47 8:00 AW WST
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48Zone Australia/Eucla 8:35:28 - LMT 1895 Dec
49 8:45 Aus CWST 1943 Jul
50 8:45 AW CWST
51
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52# Queensland
53#
9ffe4b14 54# From Alex Livingston (1996-11-01):
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55# I have heard or read more than once that some resort islands off the coast
56# of Queensland chose to keep observing daylight-saving time even after
57# Queensland ceased to.
58#
59# From Paul Eggert (1996-11-22):
60# IATA SSIM (1993-02/1994-09) say that the Holiday Islands (Hayman, Lindeman,
61# Hamilton) observed DST for two years after the rest of Queensland stopped.
62# Hamilton is the largest, but there is also a Hamilton in Victoria,
63# so use Lindeman.
64#
65# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
66Rule AQ 1971 only - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 -
67Rule AQ 1972 only - Feb lastSun 2:00s 0 -
68Rule AQ 1989 1991 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 -
69Rule AQ 1990 1992 - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
70Rule Holiday 1992 1993 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 -
71Rule Holiday 1993 1994 - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
72Zone Australia/Brisbane 10:12:08 - LMT 1895
73 10:00 Aus EST 1971
74 10:00 AQ EST
75Zone Australia/Lindeman 9:55:56 - LMT 1895
76 10:00 Aus EST 1971
77 10:00 AQ EST 1992 Jul
78 10:00 Holiday EST
79
80# South Australia
81# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
82Rule AS 1971 1985 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 -
83Rule AS 1986 only - Oct 19 2:00s 1:00 -
0e49ec84 84Rule AS 1987 2007 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 -
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85Rule AS 1972 only - Feb 27 2:00s 0 -
86Rule AS 1973 1985 - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
87Rule AS 1986 1989 - Mar Sun>=15 2:00s 0 -
88Rule AS 1990 only - Mar Sun>=18 2:00s 0 -
89Rule AS 1991 only - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
90Rule AS 1992 only - Mar Sun>=18 2:00s 0 -
91Rule AS 1993 only - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
92Rule AS 1994 only - Mar Sun>=18 2:00s 0 -
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93Rule AS 1995 2005 - Mar lastSun 2:00s 0 -
94Rule AS 2006 only - Apr Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
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95Rule AS 2007 only - Mar lastSun 2:00s 0 -
96Rule AS 2008 max - Apr Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
97Rule AS 2008 max - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 1:00 -
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98# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
99Zone Australia/Adelaide 9:14:20 - LMT 1895 Feb
100 9:00 - CST 1899 May
101 9:30 Aus CST 1971
102 9:30 AS CST
103
104# Tasmania
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105#
106# From Paul Eggert (2005-08-16):
107# <http://www.bom.gov.au/climate/averages/tables/dst_times.shtml>
108# says King Island didn't observe DST from WWII until late 1971.
109#
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110# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
111Rule AT 1967 only - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 1:00 -
112Rule AT 1968 only - Mar lastSun 2:00s 0 -
113Rule AT 1968 1985 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 -
114Rule AT 1969 1971 - Mar Sun>=8 2:00s 0 -
115Rule AT 1972 only - Feb lastSun 2:00s 0 -
116Rule AT 1973 1981 - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
117Rule AT 1982 1983 - Mar lastSun 2:00s 0 -
118Rule AT 1984 1986 - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
119Rule AT 1986 only - Oct Sun>=15 2:00s 1:00 -
120Rule AT 1987 1990 - Mar Sun>=15 2:00s 0 -
121Rule AT 1987 only - Oct Sun>=22 2:00s 1:00 -
122Rule AT 1988 1990 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 -
123Rule AT 1991 1999 - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 1:00 -
9ffe4b14 124Rule AT 1991 2005 - Mar lastSun 2:00s 0 -
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125Rule AT 2000 only - Aug lastSun 2:00s 1:00 -
126Rule AT 2001 max - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 1:00 -
9ffe4b14 127Rule AT 2006 only - Apr Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
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128Rule AT 2007 only - Mar lastSun 2:00s 0 -
129Rule AT 2008 max - Apr Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
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130# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
131Zone Australia/Hobart 9:49:16 - LMT 1895 Sep
132 10:00 - EST 1916 Oct 1 2:00
133 10:00 1:00 EST 1917 Feb
134 10:00 Aus EST 1967
135 10:00 AT EST
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136Zone Australia/Currie 9:35:28 - LMT 1895 Sep
137 10:00 - EST 1916 Oct 1 2:00
138 10:00 1:00 EST 1917 Feb
139 10:00 Aus EST 1971 Jul
140 10:00 AT EST
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141
142# Victoria
143# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
144Rule AV 1971 1985 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 -
145Rule AV 1972 only - Feb lastSun 2:00s 0 -
146Rule AV 1973 1985 - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
147Rule AV 1986 1990 - Mar Sun>=15 2:00s 0 -
148Rule AV 1986 1987 - Oct Sun>=15 2:00s 1:00 -
149Rule AV 1988 1999 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 -
150Rule AV 1991 1994 - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
9ffe4b14 151Rule AV 1995 2005 - Mar lastSun 2:00s 0 -
984263bc 152Rule AV 2000 only - Aug lastSun 2:00s 1:00 -
0e49ec84 153Rule AV 2001 2007 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 -
9ffe4b14 154Rule AV 2006 only - Apr Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
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155Rule AV 2007 only - Mar lastSun 2:00s 0 -
156Rule AV 2008 max - Apr Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
157Rule AV 2008 max - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 1:00 -
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158# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
159Zone Australia/Melbourne 9:39:52 - LMT 1895 Feb
160 10:00 Aus EST 1971
161 10:00 AV EST
162
163# New South Wales
164# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
165Rule AN 1971 1985 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 -
166Rule AN 1972 only - Feb 27 2:00s 0 -
167Rule AN 1973 1981 - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
168Rule AN 1982 only - Apr Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
169Rule AN 1983 1985 - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
170Rule AN 1986 1989 - Mar Sun>=15 2:00s 0 -
171Rule AN 1986 only - Oct 19 2:00s 1:00 -
172Rule AN 1987 1999 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 -
173Rule AN 1990 1995 - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
9ffe4b14 174Rule AN 1996 2005 - Mar lastSun 2:00s 0 -
984263bc 175Rule AN 2000 only - Aug lastSun 2:00s 1:00 -
0e49ec84 176Rule AN 2001 2007 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 -
9ffe4b14 177Rule AN 2006 only - Apr Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
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178Rule AN 2007 only - Mar lastSun 2:00s 0 -
179Rule AN 2008 max - Apr Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
180Rule AN 2008 max - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 1:00 -
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181# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
182Zone Australia/Sydney 10:04:52 - LMT 1895 Feb
183 10:00 Aus EST 1971
184 10:00 AN EST
185Zone Australia/Broken_Hill 9:25:48 - LMT 1895 Feb
186 10:00 - EST 1896 Aug 23
187 9:00 - CST 1899 May
188 9:30 Aus CST 1971
189 9:30 AN CST 2000
190 9:30 AS CST
191
192# Lord Howe Island
193# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
194Rule LH 1981 1984 - Oct lastSun 2:00 1:00 -
195Rule LH 1982 1985 - Mar Sun>=1 2:00 0 -
196Rule LH 1985 only - Oct lastSun 2:00 0:30 -
197Rule LH 1986 1989 - Mar Sun>=15 2:00 0 -
198Rule LH 1986 only - Oct 19 2:00 0:30 -
199Rule LH 1987 1999 - Oct lastSun 2:00 0:30 -
200Rule LH 1990 1995 - Mar Sun>=1 2:00 0 -
9ffe4b14 201Rule LH 1996 2005 - Mar lastSun 2:00 0 -
984263bc 202Rule LH 2000 only - Aug lastSun 2:00 0:30 -
0e49ec84 203Rule LH 2001 2007 - Oct lastSun 2:00 0:30 -
9ffe4b14 204Rule LH 2006 only - Apr Sun>=1 2:00 0 -
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205Rule LH 2007 only - Mar lastSun 2:00 0 -
206Rule LH 2008 max - Apr Sun>=1 2:00 0 -
207Rule LH 2008 max - Oct Sun>=1 2:00 0:30 -
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208Zone Australia/Lord_Howe 10:36:20 - LMT 1895 Feb
209 10:00 - EST 1981 Mar
210 10:30 LH LHST
211
212# Australian miscellany
213#
214# Ashmore Is, Cartier
215# no indigenous inhabitants; only seasonal caretakers
880368e2 216# no times are set
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217#
218# Coral Sea Is
219# no indigenous inhabitants; only meteorologists
880368e2 220# no times are set
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221#
222# Macquarie
223# permanent occupation (scientific station) since 1948;
224# sealing and penguin oil station operated 1888/1917
880368e2 225# like Australia/Hobart
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226
227# Christmas
228# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
229Zone Indian/Christmas 7:02:52 - LMT 1895 Feb
230 7:00 - CXT # Christmas Island Time
231
232# Cook Is
bd7414aa 233# From Shanks & Pottenger:
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234# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
235Rule Cook 1978 only - Nov 12 0:00 0:30 HS
236Rule Cook 1979 1991 - Mar Sun>=1 0:00 0 -
237Rule Cook 1979 1990 - Oct lastSun 0:00 0:30 HS
238# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
239Zone Pacific/Rarotonga -10:39:04 - LMT 1901 # Avarua
240 -10:30 - CKT 1978 Nov 12 # Cook Is Time
241 -10:00 Cook CK%sT
242
243# Cocos
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244# These islands were ruled by the Ross family from about 1830 to 1978.
245# We don't know when standard time was introduced; for now, we guess 1900.
984263bc 246# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
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247Zone Indian/Cocos 6:27:40 - LMT 1900
248 6:30 - CCT # Cocos Islands Time
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249
250# Fiji
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251# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-11-10):
252# According to Fiji Broadcasting Corporation, Fiji plans to re-introduce DST
253# from November 29th 2009 to April 25th 2010.
254#
255# "Daylight savings to commence this month"
256# <a href="http://www.radiofiji.com.fj/fullstory.php?id=23719">
257# http://www.radiofiji.com.fj/fullstory.php?id=23719
258# </a>
259# or
260# <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_fiji01.html">
261# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_fiji01.html
262# </a>
263
264# From Steffen Thorsen (2009-11-10):
265# The Fiji Government has posted some more details about the approved
266# amendments:
267# <a href="http://www.fiji.gov.fj/publish/page_16198.shtml">
268# http://www.fiji.gov.fj/publish/page_16198.shtml
269# </a>
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270
271# From Steffen Thorsen (2010-03-03):
272# The Cabinet in Fiji has decided to end DST about a month early, on
273# 2010-03-28 at 03:00.
274# The plan is to observe DST again, from 2010-10-24 to sometime in March
275# 2011 (last Sunday a good guess?).
276#
277# Official source:
278# <a href="http://www.fiji.gov.fj/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=1096:3310-cabinet-approves-change-in-daylight-savings-dates&catid=49:cabinet-releases&Itemid=166">
279# http://www.fiji.gov.fj/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=1096:3310-cabinet-approves-change-in-daylight-savings-dates&catid=49:cabinet-releases&Itemid=166
280# </a>
281#
282# A bit more background info here:
283# <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/fiji-dst-ends-march-2010.html">
284# http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/fiji-dst-ends-march-2010.html
285# </a>
286
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287# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
288Rule Fiji 1998 1999 - Nov Sun>=1 2:00 1:00 S
289Rule Fiji 1999 2000 - Feb lastSun 3:00 0 -
482f37b8 290Rule Fiji 2009 only - Nov 29 2:00 1:00 S
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291Rule Fiji 2010 only - Mar lastSun 3:00 0 -
292Rule Fiji 2010 only - Oct 24 2:00 1:00 S
293Rule Fiji 2011 only - Mar lastSun 3:00 0 -
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294# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
295Zone Pacific/Fiji 11:53:40 - LMT 1915 Oct 26 # Suva
296 12:00 Fiji FJ%sT # Fiji Time
297
298# French Polynesia
299# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
300Zone Pacific/Gambier -8:59:48 - LMT 1912 Oct # Rikitea
301 -9:00 - GAMT # Gambier Time
302Zone Pacific/Marquesas -9:18:00 - LMT 1912 Oct
303 -9:30 - MART # Marquesas Time
304Zone Pacific/Tahiti -9:58:16 - LMT 1912 Oct # Papeete
305 -10:00 - TAHT # Tahiti Time
306# Clipperton (near North America) is administered from French Polynesia;
307# it is uninhabited.
308
309# Guam
310# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
311Zone Pacific/Guam -14:21:00 - LMT 1844 Dec 31
312 9:39:00 - LMT 1901 # Agana
313 10:00 - GST 2000 Dec 23 # Guam
314 10:00 - ChST # Chamorro Standard Time
315
316# Kiribati
317# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
318Zone Pacific/Tarawa 11:32:04 - LMT 1901 # Bairiki
319 12:00 - GILT # Gilbert Is Time
320Zone Pacific/Enderbury -11:24:20 - LMT 1901
321 -12:00 - PHOT 1979 Oct # Phoenix Is Time
322 -11:00 - PHOT 1995
323 13:00 - PHOT
324Zone Pacific/Kiritimati -10:29:20 - LMT 1901
325 -10:40 - LINT 1979 Oct # Line Is Time
326 -10:00 - LINT 1995
327 14:00 - LINT
328
329# N Mariana Is
330# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
331Zone Pacific/Saipan -14:17:00 - LMT 1844 Dec 31
332 9:43:00 - LMT 1901
333 9:00 - MPT 1969 Oct # N Mariana Is Time
334 10:00 - MPT 2000 Dec 23
335 10:00 - ChST # Chamorro Standard Time
336
337# Marshall Is
338# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
339Zone Pacific/Majuro 11:24:48 - LMT 1901
340 11:00 - MHT 1969 Oct # Marshall Islands Time
341 12:00 - MHT
342Zone Pacific/Kwajalein 11:09:20 - LMT 1901
343 11:00 - MHT 1969 Oct
344 -12:00 - KWAT 1993 Aug 20 # Kwajalein Time
345 12:00 - MHT
346
347# Micronesia
348# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
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349Zone Pacific/Chuuk 10:07:08 - LMT 1901
350 10:00 - CHUT # Chuuk Time
351Zone Pacific/Pohnpei 10:32:52 - LMT 1901 # Kolonia
352 11:00 - PONT # Pohnpei Time
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353Zone Pacific/Kosrae 10:51:56 - LMT 1901
354 11:00 - KOST 1969 Oct # Kosrae Time
355 12:00 - KOST 1999
356 11:00 - KOST
357
358# Nauru
359# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
360Zone Pacific/Nauru 11:07:40 - LMT 1921 Jan 15 # Uaobe
361 11:30 - NRT 1942 Mar 15 # Nauru Time
362 9:00 - JST 1944 Aug 15
363 11:30 - NRT 1979 May
364 12:00 - NRT
365
366# New Caledonia
367# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
368Rule NC 1977 1978 - Dec Sun>=1 0:00 1:00 S
369Rule NC 1978 1979 - Feb 27 0:00 0 -
370Rule NC 1996 only - Dec 1 2:00s 1:00 S
bd7414aa 371# Shanks & Pottenger say the following was at 2:00; go with IATA.
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372Rule NC 1997 only - Mar 2 2:00s 0 -
373# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
374Zone Pacific/Noumea 11:05:48 - LMT 1912 Jan 13
375 11:00 NC NC%sT
376
377
378###############################################################################
379
380# New Zealand
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381
382# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
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383Rule NZ 1927 only - Nov 6 2:00 1:00 S
384Rule NZ 1928 only - Mar 4 2:00 0 M
385Rule NZ 1928 1933 - Oct Sun>=8 2:00 0:30 S
386Rule NZ 1929 1933 - Mar Sun>=15 2:00 0 M
387Rule NZ 1934 1940 - Apr lastSun 2:00 0 M
388Rule NZ 1934 1940 - Sep lastSun 2:00 0:30 S
389Rule NZ 1946 only - Jan 1 0:00 0 S
390# Since 1957 Chatham has been 45 minutes ahead of NZ, but there's no
391# convenient notation for this so we must duplicate the Rule lines.
984263bc 392Rule NZ 1974 only - Nov Sun>=1 2:00s 1:00 D
ba5ba9da 393Rule Chatham 1974 only - Nov Sun>=1 2:45s 1:00 D
984263bc 394Rule NZ 1975 only - Feb lastSun 2:00s 0 S
ba5ba9da 395Rule Chatham 1975 only - Feb lastSun 2:45s 0 S
984263bc 396Rule NZ 1975 1988 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 1:00 D
ba5ba9da 397Rule Chatham 1975 1988 - Oct lastSun 2:45s 1:00 D
984263bc 398Rule NZ 1976 1989 - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 S
ba5ba9da 399Rule Chatham 1976 1989 - Mar Sun>=1 2:45s 0 S
984263bc 400Rule NZ 1989 only - Oct Sun>=8 2:00s 1:00 D
ba5ba9da 401Rule Chatham 1989 only - Oct Sun>=8 2:45s 1:00 D
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402Rule NZ 1990 2006 - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 1:00 D
403Rule Chatham 1990 2006 - Oct Sun>=1 2:45s 1:00 D
404Rule NZ 1990 2007 - Mar Sun>=15 2:00s 0 S
405Rule Chatham 1990 2007 - Mar Sun>=15 2:45s 0 S
406Rule NZ 2007 max - Sep lastSun 2:00s 1:00 D
407Rule Chatham 2007 max - Sep lastSun 2:45s 1:00 D
408Rule NZ 2008 max - Apr Sun>=1 2:00s 0 S
409Rule Chatham 2008 max - Apr Sun>=1 2:45s 0 S
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410# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
411Zone Pacific/Auckland 11:39:04 - LMT 1868 Nov 2
ba5ba9da 412 11:30 NZ NZ%sT 1946 Jan 1
984263bc 413 12:00 NZ NZ%sT
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414Zone Pacific/Chatham 12:13:48 - LMT 1957 Jan 1
415 12:45 Chatham CHA%sT
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416
417
418# Auckland Is
419# uninhabited; Maori and Moriori, colonial settlers, pastoralists, sealers,
420# and scientific personnel have wintered
421
422# Campbell I
423# minor whaling stations operated 1909/1914
424# scientific station operated 1941/1995;
425# previously whalers, sealers, pastoralists, and scientific personnel wintered
426# was probably like Pacific/Auckland
427
428###############################################################################
429
430
431# Niue
432# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
433Zone Pacific/Niue -11:19:40 - LMT 1901 # Alofi
434 -11:20 - NUT 1951 # Niue Time
435 -11:30 - NUT 1978 Oct 1
436 -11:00 - NUT
437
438# Norfolk
439# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
440Zone Pacific/Norfolk 11:11:52 - LMT 1901 # Kingston
441 11:12 - NMT 1951 # Norfolk Mean Time
442 11:30 - NFT # Norfolk Time
443
444# Palau (Belau)
445# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
446Zone Pacific/Palau 8:57:56 - LMT 1901 # Koror
447 9:00 - PWT # Palau Time
448
449# Papua New Guinea
450# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
451Zone Pacific/Port_Moresby 9:48:40 - LMT 1880
452 9:48:32 - PMMT 1895 # Port Moresby Mean Time
453 10:00 - PGT # Papua New Guinea Time
454
455# Pitcairn
456# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
457Zone Pacific/Pitcairn -8:40:20 - LMT 1901 # Adamstown
458 -8:30 - PNT 1998 Apr 27 00:00
459 -8:00 - PST # Pitcairn Standard Time
460
461# American Samoa
462Zone Pacific/Pago_Pago 12:37:12 - LMT 1879 Jul 5
463 -11:22:48 - LMT 1911
464 -11:30 - SAMT 1950 # Samoa Time
465 -11:00 - NST 1967 Apr # N=Nome
466 -11:00 - BST 1983 Nov 30 # B=Bering
467 -11:00 - SST # S=Samoa
468
bc95ec93 469# Samoa
d2e76e66 470
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471# From Steffen Thorsen (2009-10-16):
472# We have been in contact with the government of Samoa again, and received
473# the following info:
d2e76e66 474#
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475# "Cabinet has now approved Daylight Saving to be effected next year
476# commencing from the last Sunday of September 2010 and conclude first
477# Sunday of April 2011."
ae8fda8f 478#
5a0c5ddc 479# Background info:
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480# <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/samoa-dst-plan-2009.html">
481# http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/samoa-dst-plan-2009.html
482# </a>
83c88d65 483#
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484# Samoa's Daylight Saving Time Act 2009 is available here, but does not
485# contain any dates:
486# <a href="http://www.parliament.gov.ws/documents/acts/Daylight%20Saving%20Act%20%202009%20%28English%29%20-%20Final%207-7-091.pdf">
487# http://www.parliament.gov.ws/documents/acts/Daylight%20Saving%20Act%20%202009%20%28English%29%20-%20Final%207-7-091.pdf
488# </a>
83c88d65 489
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490# From Raymond Hughes (2010-10-07):
491# Please see
492# <a href="http://www.mcil.gov.ws">
493# http://www.mcil.gov.ws
494# </a>,
495# the Ministry of Commerce, Industry and Labour (sideframe) "Last Sunday
496# September 2010 (26/09/10) - adjust clocks forward from 12:00 midnight
497# to 01:00am and First Sunday April 2011 (03/04/11) - adjust clocks
498# backwards from 1:00am to 12:00am"
499
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500Zone Pacific/Apia 12:33:04 - LMT 1879 Jul 5
501 -11:26:56 - LMT 1911
502 -11:30 - SAMT 1950 # Samoa Time
5756332b 503 -11:00 - WST 2010 Sep 26
fe5ecec3 504 -11:00 1:00 WSDT 2011 Apr 3 1:00
ae8fda8f 505 -11:00 - WST
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506
507# Solomon Is
508# excludes Bougainville, for which see Papua New Guinea
509# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
510Zone Pacific/Guadalcanal 10:39:48 - LMT 1912 Oct # Honiara
511 11:00 - SBT # Solomon Is Time
512
513# Tokelau Is
514# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
515Zone Pacific/Fakaofo -11:24:56 - LMT 1901
516 -10:00 - TKT # Tokelau Time
517
518# Tonga
519# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
520Rule Tonga 1999 only - Oct 7 2:00s 1:00 S
521Rule Tonga 2000 only - Mar 19 2:00s 0 -
522Rule Tonga 2000 2001 - Nov Sun>=1 2:00 1:00 S
523Rule Tonga 2001 2002 - Jan lastSun 2:00 0 -
524# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
525Zone Pacific/Tongatapu 12:19:20 - LMT 1901
526 12:20 - TOT 1941 # Tonga Time
527 13:00 - TOT 1999
528 13:00 Tonga TO%sT
529
530# Tuvalu
531# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
532Zone Pacific/Funafuti 11:56:52 - LMT 1901
533 12:00 - TVT # Tuvalu Time
534
535
536# US minor outlying islands
537
538# Howland, Baker
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539# Howland was mined for guano by American companies 1857-1878 and British
540# 1886-1891; Baker was similar but exact dates are not known.
541# Inhabited by civilians 1935-1942; U.S. military bases 1943-1944;
542# uninhabited thereafter.
543# Howland observed Hawaii Standard Time (UTC-10:30) in 1937;
544# see page 206 of Elgen M. Long and Marie K. Long,
545# Amelia Earhart: the Mystery Solved, Simon & Schuster (2000).
546# So most likely Howland and Baker observed Hawaii Time from 1935
547# until they were abandoned after the war.
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548
549# Jarvis
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550# Mined for guano by American companies 1857-1879 and British 1883?-1891?.
551# Inhabited by civilians 1935-1942; IGY scientific base 1957-1958;
552# uninhabited thereafter.
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553# no information; was probably like Pacific/Kiritimati
554
555# Johnston
556# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
557Zone Pacific/Johnston -10:00 - HST
558
559# Kingman
560# uninhabited
561
562# Midway
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563#
564# From Mark Brader (2005-01-23):
565# [Fallacies and Fantasies of Air Transport History, by R.E.G. Davies,
566# published 1994 by Paladwr Press, McLean, VA, USA; ISBN 0-9626483-5-3]
567# reproduced a Pan American Airways timeables from 1936, for their weekly
568# "Orient Express" flights between San Francisco and Manila, and connecting
569# flights to Chicago and the US East Coast. As it uses some time zone
570# designations that I've never seen before:....
571# Fri. 6:30A Lv. HONOLOLU (Pearl Harbor), H.I. H.L.T. Ar. 5:30P Sun.
572# " 3:00P Ar. MIDWAY ISLAND . . . . . . . . . M.L.T. Lv. 6:00A "
573#
984263bc 574Zone Pacific/Midway -11:49:28 - LMT 1901
ba5ba9da
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575 -11:00 - NST 1956 Jun 3
576 -11:00 1:00 NDT 1956 Sep 2
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577 -11:00 - NST 1967 Apr # N=Nome
578 -11:00 - BST 1983 Nov 30 # B=Bering
579 -11:00 - SST # S=Samoa
580
581# Palmyra
582# uninhabited since World War II; was probably like Pacific/Kiritimati
583
584# Wake
585# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
586Zone Pacific/Wake 11:06:28 - LMT 1901
587 12:00 - WAKT # Wake Time
588
589
590# Vanuatu
591# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
592Rule Vanuatu 1983 only - Sep 25 0:00 1:00 S
593Rule Vanuatu 1984 1991 - Mar Sun>=23 0:00 0 -
594Rule Vanuatu 1984 only - Oct 23 0:00 1:00 S
595Rule Vanuatu 1985 1991 - Sep Sun>=23 0:00 1:00 S
596Rule Vanuatu 1992 1993 - Jan Sun>=23 0:00 0 -
597Rule Vanuatu 1992 only - Oct Sun>=23 0:00 1:00 S
598# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
599Zone Pacific/Efate 11:13:16 - LMT 1912 Jan 13 # Vila
600 11:00 Vanuatu VU%sT # Vanuatu Time
601
602# Wallis and Futuna
603# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
604Zone Pacific/Wallis 12:15:20 - LMT 1901
605 12:00 - WFT # Wallis & Futuna Time
606
607###############################################################################
608
609# NOTES
610
611# This data is by no means authoritative; if you think you know better,
612# go ahead and edit the file (and please send any changes to
613# tz@elsie.nci.nih.gov for general use in the future).
614
bd7414aa 615# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
984263bc 616# A good source for time zone historical data outside the U.S. is
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617# Thomas G. Shanks and Rique Pottenger, The International Atlas (6th edition),
618# San Diego: ACS Publications, Inc. (2003).
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619#
620# Gwillim Law writes that a good source
621# for recent time zone data is the International Air Transport
622# Association's Standard Schedules Information Manual (IATA SSIM),
623# published semiannually. Law sent in several helpful summaries
624# of the IATA's data after 1990.
625#
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626# Except where otherwise noted, Shanks & Pottenger is the source for
627# entries through 1990, and IATA SSIM is the source for entries afterwards.
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628#
629# Another source occasionally used is Edward W. Whitman, World Time Differences,
630# Whitman Publishing Co, 2 Niagara Av, Ealing, London (undated), which
631# I found in the UCLA library.
632#
633# A reliable and entertaining source about time zones is
634# Derek Howse, Greenwich time and longitude, Philip Wilson Publishers (1997).
635#
636# I invented the abbreviations marked `*' in the following table;
637# the rest are from earlier versions of this file, or from other sources.
638# Corrections are welcome!
639# std dst
640# LMT Local Mean Time
641# 8:00 WST WST Western Australia
880368e2 642# 8:45 CWST CWST Central Western Australia*
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643# 9:00 JST Japan
644# 9:30 CST CST Central Australia
645# 10:00 EST EST Eastern Australia
646# 10:00 ChST Chamorro
647# 10:30 LHST LHST Lord Howe*
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648# 11:30 NZMT NZST New Zealand through 1945
649# 12:00 NZST NZDT New Zealand 1946-present
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650# 12:45 CHAST CHADT Chatham*
651# -11:00 SST Samoa
652# -10:00 HST Hawaii
653# - 8:00 PST Pitcairn*
654#
655# See the `northamerica' file for Hawaii.
656# See the `southamerica' file for Easter I and the Galapagos Is.
657
658###############################################################################
659
660# Australia
661
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662# From Paul Eggert (2005-12-08):
663# <a href="http://www.bom.gov.au/climate/averages/tables/dst_times.shtml">
664# Implementation Dates of Daylight Saving Time within Australia
665# </a> summarizes daylight saving issues in Australia.
666
667# From Arthur David Olson (2005-12-12):
668# <a href="http://www.lawlink.nsw.gov.au/lawlink/Corporate/ll_agdinfo.nsf/pages/community_relations_daylight_saving">
669# Lawlink NSW:Daylight Saving in New South Wales
670# </a> covers New South Wales in particular.
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671
672# From John Mackin (1991-03-06):
673# We in Australia have _never_ referred to DST as `daylight' time.
674# It is called `summer' time. Now by a happy coincidence, `summer'
675# and `standard' happen to start with the same letter; hence, the
676# abbreviation does _not_ change...
677# The legislation does not actually define abbreviations, at least
678# in this State, but the abbreviation is just commonly taken to be the
679# initials of the phrase, and the legislation here uniformly uses
680# the phrase `summer time' and does not use the phrase `daylight
681# time'.
682# Announcers on the Commonwealth radio network, the ABC (for Australian
683# Broadcasting Commission), use the phrases `Eastern Standard Time'
684# or `Eastern Summer Time'. (Note, though, that as I say in the
685# current australasia file, there is really no such thing.) Announcers
686# on its overseas service, Radio Australia, use the same phrases
687# prefixed by the word `Australian' when referring to local times;
688# time announcements on that service, naturally enough, are made in UTC.
689
690# From Arthur David Olson (1992-03-08):
691# Given the above, what's chosen for year-round use is:
692# CST for any place operating at a GMTOFF of 9:30
693# WST for any place operating at a GMTOFF of 8:00
694# EST for any place operating at a GMTOFF of 10:00
695
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696# From Chuck Soper (2006-06-01):
697# I recently found this Australian government web page on time zones:
698# <http://www.australia.gov.au/about-australia-13time>
699# And this government web page lists time zone names and abbreviations:
700# <http://www.bom.gov.au/climate/averages/tables/daysavtm.shtml>
701
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702# From Paul Eggert (2001-04-05), summarizing a long discussion about "EST"
703# versus "AEST" etc.:
704#
705# I see the following points of dispute:
706#
707# * How important are unique time zone abbreviations?
708#
709# Here I tend to agree with the point (most recently made by Chris
710# Newman) that unique abbreviations should not be essential for proper
711# operation of software. We have other instances of ambiguity
712# (e.g. "IST" denoting both "Israel Standard Time" and "Indian
713# Standard Time"), and they are not likely to go away any time soon.
714# In the old days, some software mistakenly relied on unique
715# abbreviations, but this is becoming less true with time, and I don't
716# think it's that important to cater to such software these days.
717#
718# On the other hand, there is another motivation for unambiguous
719# abbreviations: it cuts down on human confusion. This is
720# particularly true for Australia, where "EST" can mean one thing for
721# time T and a different thing for time T plus 1 second.
722#
723# * Does the relevant legislation indicate which abbreviations should be used?
724#
725# Here I tend to think that things are a mess, just as they are in
726# many other countries. We Americans are currently disagreeing about
727# which abbreviation to use for the newly legislated Chamorro Standard
728# Time, for example.
729#
730# Personally, I would prefer to use common practice; I would like to
731# refer to legislation only for examples of common practice, or as a
732# tiebreaker.
733#
734# * Do Australians more often use "Eastern Daylight Time" or "Eastern
735# Summer Time"? Do they typically prefix the time zone names with
736# the word "Australian"?
737#
738# My own impression is that both "Daylight Time" and "Summer Time" are
739# common and are widely understood, but that "Summer Time" is more
740# popular; and that the leading "A" is also common but is omitted more
741# often than not. I just used AltaVista advanced search and got the
742# following count of page hits:
743#
744# 1,103 "Eastern Summer Time" AND domain:au
745# 971 "Australian Eastern Summer Time" AND domain:au
746# 613 "Eastern Daylight Time" AND domain:au
747# 127 "Australian Eastern Daylight Time" AND domain:au
748#
749# Here "Summer" seems quite a bit more popular than "Daylight",
750# particularly when we know the time zone is Australian and not US,
751# say. The "Australian" prefix seems to be popular for Eastern Summer
752# Time, but unpopular for Eastern Daylight Time.
753#
754# For abbreviations, tools like AltaVista are less useful because of
755# ambiguity. Many hits are not really time zones, unfortunately, and
756# many hits denote US time zones and not Australian ones. But here
757# are the hit counts anyway:
758#
759# 161,304 "EST" and domain:au
760# 25,156 "EDT" and domain:au
761# 18,263 "AEST" and domain:au
762# 10,416 "AEDT" and domain:au
763#
764# 14,538 "CST" and domain:au
765# 5,728 "CDT" and domain:au
766# 176 "ACST" and domain:au
767# 29 "ACDT" and domain:au
768#
769# 7,539 "WST" and domain:au
770# 68 "AWST" and domain:au
771#
772# This data suggest that Australians tend to omit the "A" prefix in
773# practice. The situation for "ST" versus "DT" is less clear, given
774# the ambiguities involved.
775#
776# * How do Australians feel about the abbreviations in the tz database?
777#
778# If you just count Australians on this list, I count 2 in favor and 3
779# against. One of the "against" votes (David Keegel) counseled delay,
780# saying that both AEST/AEDT and EST/EST are widely used and
781# understood in Australia.
782
783# From Paul Eggert (1995-12-19):
bd7414aa 784# Shanks & Pottenger report 2:00 for all autumn changes in Australia and NZ.
9ffe4b14 785# Mark Prior writes that his newspaper
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786# reports that NSW's fall 1995 change will occur at 2:00,
787# but Robert Elz says it's been 3:00 in Victoria since 1970
788# and perhaps the newspaper's `2:00' is referring to standard time.
789# For now we'll continue to assume 2:00s for changes since 1960.
790
9ffe4b14 791# From Eric Ulevik (1998-01-05):
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MD
792#
793# Here are some URLs to Australian time legislation. These URLs are stable,
794# and should probably be included in the data file. There are probably more
795# relevant entries in this database.
796#
797# NSW (including LHI and Broken Hill):
798# <a href="http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/nsw/consol_act/sta1987137/index.html">
799# Standard Time Act 1987 (updated 1995-04-04)
800# </a>
801# ACT
802# <a href="http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/act/consol_act/stasta1972279/index.html">
803# Standard Time and Summer Time Act 1972
804# </a>
805# SA
806# <a href="http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/sa/consol_act/sta1898137/index.html">
807# Standard Time Act, 1898
808# </a>
809
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810# From David Grosz (2005-06-13):
811# It was announced last week that Daylight Saving would be extended by
812# one week next year to allow for the 2006 Commonwealth Games.
813# Daylight Saving is now to end for next year only on the first Sunday
814# in April instead of the last Sunday in March.
815#
816# From Gwillim Law (2005-06-14):
817# I did some Googling and found that all of those states (and territory) plan
818# to extend DST together in 2006.
819# ACT: http://www.cmd.act.gov.au/mediareleases/fileread.cfm?file=86.txt
820# New South Wales: http://www.thecouriermail.news.com.au/common/story_page/0,5936,15538869%255E1702,00.html
821# South Australia: http://www.news.com.au/story/0,10117,15555031-1246,00.html
822# Tasmania: http://www.media.tas.gov.au/release.php?id=14772
823# Victoria: I wasn't able to find anything separate, but the other articles
824# allude to it.
825# But not Queensland
826# http://www.news.com.au/story/0,10117,15564030-1248,00.html.
827
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828# Northern Territory
829
830# From George Shepherd via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06):
831# # The NORTHERN TERRITORY.. [ Courtesy N.T. Dept of the Chief Minister ]
832# # [ Nov 1990 ]
833# # N.T. have never utilised any DST due to sub-tropical/tropical location.
834# ...
835# Zone Australia/North 9:30 - CST
836
837# From Bradley White (1991-03-04):
838# A recent excerpt from an Australian newspaper...
839# the Northern Territory do[es] not have daylight saving.
840
841# Western Australia
842
843# From George Shepherd via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06):
844# # The state of WESTERN AUSTRALIA.. [ Courtesy W.A. dept Premier+Cabinet ]
845# # [ Nov 1990 ]
846# # W.A. suffers from a great deal of public and political opposition to
847# # DST in principle. A bill is brought before parliament in most years, but
848# # usually defeated either in the upper house, or in party caucus
849# # before reaching parliament.
850# ...
851# Zone Australia/West 8:00 AW %sST
852# ...
853# Rule AW 1974 only - Oct lastSun 2:00 1:00 D
854# Rule AW 1975 only - Mar Sun>=1 3:00 0 W
855# Rule AW 1983 only - Oct lastSun 2:00 1:00 D
856# Rule AW 1984 only - Mar Sun>=1 3:00 0 W
857
858# From Bradley White (1991-03-04):
859# A recent excerpt from an Australian newspaper...
860# Western Australia...do[es] not have daylight saving.
861
862# From John D. Newman via Bradley White (1991-11-02):
863# Western Australia is still on "winter time". Some DH in Sydney
864# rang me at home a few days ago at 6.00am. (He had just arrived at
865# work at 9.00am.)
866# W.A. is switching to Summer Time on Nov 17th just to confuse
867# everybody again.
868
869# From Arthur David Olson (1992-03-08):
870# The 1992 ending date used in the rules is a best guess;
871# it matches what was used in the past.
872
873# <a href="http://www.bom.gov.au/faq/faqgen.htm">
874# The Australian Bureau of Meteorology FAQ
875# </a> (1999-09-27) writes that Giles Meteorological Station uses
876# South Australian time even though it's located in Western Australia.
877
878# Queensland
879# From George Shepherd via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06):
880# # The state of QUEENSLAND.. [ Courtesy Qld. Dept Premier Econ&Trade Devel ]
881# # [ Dec 1990 ]
882# ...
883# Zone Australia/Queensland 10:00 AQ %sST
884# ...
885# Rule AQ 1971 only - Oct lastSun 2:00 1:00 D
886# Rule AQ 1972 only - Feb lastSun 3:00 0 E
887# Rule AQ 1989 max - Oct lastSun 2:00 1:00 D
888# Rule AQ 1990 max - Mar Sun>=1 3:00 0 E
889
890# From Bradley White (1989-12-24):
891# "Australia/Queensland" now observes daylight time (i.e. from
892# October 1989).
893
894# From Bradley White (1991-03-04):
895# A recent excerpt from an Australian newspaper...
896# ...Queensland...[has] agreed to end daylight saving
897# at 3am tomorrow (March 3)...
898
899# From John Mackin (1991-03-06):
900# I can certainly confirm for my part that Daylight Saving in NSW did in fact
901# end on Sunday, 3 March. I don't know at what hour, though. (It surprised
902# me.)
903
904# From Bradley White (1992-03-08):
905# ...there was recently a referendum in Queensland which resulted
906# in the experimental daylight saving system being abandoned. So, ...
907# ...
908# Rule QLD 1989 1991 - Oct lastSun 2:00 1:00 D
909# Rule QLD 1990 1992 - Mar Sun>=1 3:00 0 S
910# ...
911
912# From Arthur David Olson (1992-03-08):
913# The chosen rules the union of the 1971/1972 change and the 1989-1992 changes.
914
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915# From Christopher Hunt (2006-11-21), after an advance warning
916# from Jesper Norgaard Welen (2006-11-01):
8393cd87 917# WA are trialing DST for three years.
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918# <http://www.parliament.wa.gov.au/parliament/bills.nsf/9A1B183144403DA54825721200088DF1/$File/Bill175-1B.pdf>
919
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920# From Rives McDow (2002-04-09):
921# The most interesting region I have found consists of three towns on the
880368e2 922# southern coast.... South Australia observes daylight saving time; Western
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923# Australia does not. The two states are one and a half hours apart. The
924# residents decided to forget about this nonsense of changing the clock so
925# much and set the local time 20 hours and 45 minutes from the
926# international date line, or right in the middle of the time of South
880368e2 927# Australia and Western Australia....
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928#
929# From Paul Eggert (2002-04-09):
930# This is confirmed by the section entitled
931# "What's the deal with time zones???" in
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932# <http://www.earthsci.unimelb.edu.au/~awatkins/null.html>.
933#
934# From Alex Livingston (2006-12-07):
935# ... it was just on four years ago that I drove along the Eyre Highway,
936# which passes through eastern Western Australia close to the southern
937# coast of the continent.
938#
939# I paid particular attention to the time kept there. There can be no
940# dispute that UTC+08:45 was considered "the time" from the border
941# village just inside the border with South Australia to as far west
942# as just east of Caiguna. There can also be no dispute that Eucla is
943# the largest population centre in this zone....
944#
945# Now that Western Australia is observing daylight saving, the
946# question arose whether this part of the state would follow suit. I
947# just called the border village and confirmed that indeed they have,
948# meaning that they are now observing UTC+09:45.
8393cd87 949#
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950# (2006-12-09):
951# I personally doubt that either experimentation with daylight saving
952# in WA or its introduction in SA had anything to do with the genesis
953# of this time zone. My hunch is that it's been around since well
954# before 1975. I remember seeing it noted on road maps decades ago.
955
956# From Paul Eggert (2006-12-15):
957# For lack of better info, assume the tradition dates back to the
958# introduction of standard time in 1895.
959
984263bc 960
0e49ec84 961# southeast Australia
984263bc 962#
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963# From Paul Eggert (2007-07-23):
964# Starting autumn 2008 Victoria, NSW, South Australia, Tasmania and the ACT
965# end DST the first Sunday in April and start DST the first Sunday in October.
966# http://www.theage.com.au/news/national/daylight-savings-to-span-six-months/2007/06/27/1182623966703.html
967
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968
969# South Australia
970
971# From Bradley White (1991-03-04):
972# A recent excerpt from an Australian newspaper...
973# ...South Australia...[has] agreed to end daylight saving
974# at 3am tomorrow (March 3)...
975
976# From George Shepherd via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06):
977# # The state of SOUTH AUSTRALIA....[ Courtesy of S.A. Dept of Labour ]
978# # [ Nov 1990 ]
979# ...
980# Zone Australia/South 9:30 AS %sST
981# ...
982# Rule AS 1971 max - Oct lastSun 2:00 1:00 D
983# Rule AS 1972 1985 - Mar Sun>=1 3:00 0 C
bd7414aa 984# Rule AS 1986 1990 - Mar Sun>=15 3:00 0 C
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985# Rule AS 1991 max - Mar Sun>=1 3:00 0 C
986
987# From Bradley White (1992-03-11):
988# Recent correspondence with a friend in Adelaide
989# contained the following exchange: "Due to the Adelaide Festival,
990# South Australia delays setting back our clocks for a few weeks."
991
992# From Robert Elz (1992-03-13):
993# I heard that apparently (or at least, it appears that)
994# South Aus will have an extra 3 weeks daylight saving every even
995# numbered year (from 1990). That's when the Adelaide Festival
996# is on...
997
998# From Robert Elz (1992-03-16, 00:57:07 +1000):
999# DST didn't end in Adelaide today (yesterday)....
1000# But whether it's "4th Sunday" or "2nd last Sunday" I have no idea whatever...
1001# (it's just as likely to be "the Sunday we pick for this year"...).
1002
1003# From Bradley White (1994-04-11):
1004# If Sun, 15 March, 1992 was at +1030 as kre asserts, but yet Sun, 20 March,
1005# 1994 was at +0930 as John Connolly's customer seems to assert, then I can
1006# only conclude that the actual rule is more complicated....
1007
9ffe4b14 1008# From John Warburton (1994-10-07):
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1009# The new Daylight Savings dates for South Australia ...
1010# was gazetted in the Government Hansard on Sep 26 1994....
1011# start on last Sunday in October and end in last sunday in March.
1012
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1013# From Paul Eggert (2007-07-23):
1014# See "southeast Australia" above for 2008 and later.
1015
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1016# Tasmania
1017
1018# The rules for 1967 through 1991 were reported by George Shepherd
1019# via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06):
1020# # The state of TASMANIA.. [Courtesy Tasmanian Dept of Premier + Cabinet ]
1021# # [ Nov 1990 ]
1022
1023# From Bill Hart via Guy Harris (1991-10-10):
1024# Oh yes, the new daylight savings rules are uniquely tasmanian, we have
1025# 6 weeks a year now when we are out of sync with the rest of Australia
1026# (but nothing new about that).
1027
1028# From Alex Livingston (1999-10-04):
1029# I heard on the ABC (Australian Broadcasting Corporation) radio news on the
1030# (long) weekend that Tasmania, which usually goes its own way in this regard,
1031# has decided to join with most of NSW, the ACT, and most of Victoria
1032# (Australia) and start daylight saving on the last Sunday in August in 2000
1033# instead of the first Sunday in October.
1034
1035# Sim Alam (2000-07-03) reported a legal citation for the 2000/2001 rules:
1036# http://www.thelaw.tas.gov.au/fragview/42++1968+GS3A@EN+2000070300
1037
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1038# From Paul Eggert (2007-07-23):
1039# See "southeast Australia" above for 2008 and later.
1040
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1041# Victoria
1042
1043# The rules for 1971 through 1991 were reported by George Shepherd
1044# via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06):
1045# # The state of VICTORIA.. [ Courtesy of Vic. Dept of Premier + Cabinet ]
1046# # [ Nov 1990 ]
1047
1048# From Scott Harrington (2001-08-29):
1049# On KQED's "City Arts and Lectures" program last night I heard an
1050# interesting story about daylight savings time. Dr. John Heilbron was
1051# discussing his book "The Sun in the Church: Cathedrals as Solar
1052# Observatories"[1], and in particular the Shrine of Remembrance[2] located
1053# in Melbourne, Australia.
1054#
1055# Apparently the shrine's main purpose is a beam of sunlight which
1056# illuminates a special spot on the floor at the 11th hour of the 11th day
1057# of the 11th month (Remembrance Day) every year in memory of Australia's
1058# fallen WWI soldiers. And if you go there on Nov. 11, at 11am local time,
1059# you will indeed see the sunbeam illuminate the special spot at the
1060# expected time.
1061#
1062# However, that is only because of some special mirror contraption that had
1063# to be employed, since due to daylight savings time, the true solar time of
1064# the remembrance moment occurs one hour later (or earlier?). Perhaps
1065# someone with more information on this jury-rig can tell us more.
1066#
1067# [1] http://www.hup.harvard.edu/catalog/HEISUN.html
1068# [2] http://www.shrine.org.au
1069
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1070# From Paul Eggert (2007-07-23):
1071# See "southeast Australia" above for 2008 and later.
1072
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1073# New South Wales
1074
1075# From Arthur David Olson:
1076# New South Wales and subjurisdictions have their own ideas of a fun time.
9ffe4b14 1077# Based on law library research by John Mackin,
984263bc
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1078# who notes:
1079# In Australia, time is not legislated federally, but rather by the
1080# individual states. Thus, while such terms as ``Eastern Standard Time''
1081# [I mean, of course, Australian EST, not any other kind] are in common
1082# use, _they have NO REAL MEANING_, as they are not defined in the
1083# legislation. This is very important to understand.
1084# I have researched New South Wales time only...
1085
9ffe4b14 1086# From Eric Ulevik (1999-05-26):
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1087# DST will start in NSW on the last Sunday of August, rather than the usual
1088# October in 2000. [See: Matthew Moore,
1089# <a href="http://www.smh.com.au/news/9905/26/pageone/pageone4.html">
1090# Two months more daylight saving
1091# </a>
1092# Sydney Morning Herald (1999-05-26).]
1093
1094# From Paul Eggert (1999-09-27):
1095# See the following official NSW source:
1096# <a href="http://dir.gis.nsw.gov.au/cgi-bin/genobject/document/other/daylightsaving/tigGmZ">
1097# Daylight Saving in New South Wales.
1098# </a>
1099#
1100# Narrabri Shire (NSW) council has announced it will ignore the extension of
1101# daylight saving next year. See:
1102# <a href="http://abc.net.au/news/regionals/neweng/monthly/regeng-22jul1999-1.htm">
1103# Narrabri Council to ignore daylight saving
1104# </a> (1999-07-22). For now, we'll wait to see if this really happens.
1105#
1106# Victoria will following NSW. See:
1107# <a href="http://abc.net.au/local/news/olympics/1999/07/item19990728112314_1.htm">
1108# Vic to extend daylight saving
1109# </a> (1999-07-28).
1110#
1111# However, South Australia rejected the DST request. See:
1112# <a href="http://abc.net.au/news/olympics/1999/07/item19990719151754_1.htm">
1113# South Australia rejects Olympics daylight savings request
1114# </a> (1999-07-19).
1115#
1116# Queensland also will not observe DST for the Olympics. See:
1117# <a href="http://abc.net.au/news/olympics/1999/06/item19990601114608_1.htm">
1118# Qld says no to daylight savings for Olympics
1119# </a> (1999-06-01), which quotes Queensland Premier Peter Beattie as saying
1120# ``Look you've got to remember in my family when this came up last time
1121# I voted for it, my wife voted against it and she said to me it's all very
1122# well for you, you don't have to worry about getting the children out of
1123# bed, getting them to school, getting them to sleep at night.
1124# I've been through all this argument domestically...my wife rules.''
1125#
1126# Broken Hill will stick with South Australian time in 2000. See:
1127# <a href="http://abc.net.au/news/regionals/brokenh/monthly/regbrok-21jul1999-6.htm">
1128# Broken Hill to be behind the times
1129# </a> (1999-07-21).
1130
1131# IATA SSIM (1998-09) says that the spring 2000 change for Australian
1132# Capital Territory, New South Wales except Lord Howe Island and Broken
1133# Hill, and Victoria will be August 27, presumably due to the Sydney Olympics.
1134
1135# From Eric Ulevik, referring to Sydney's Sun Herald (2000-08-13), page 29:
1136# The Queensland Premier Peter Beattie is encouraging northern NSW
1137# towns to use Queensland time.
1138
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1139# From Paul Eggert (2007-07-23):
1140# See "southeast Australia" above for 2008 and later.
1141
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1142# Yancowinna
1143
1144# From John Mackin (1989-01-04):
1145# `Broken Hill' means the County of Yancowinna.
1146
1147# From George Shepherd via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06):
1148# # YANCOWINNA.. [ Confirmation courtesy of Broken Hill Postmaster ]
1149# # [ Dec 1990 ]
1150# ...
1151# # Yancowinna uses Central Standard Time, despite [its] location on the
1152# # New South Wales side of the S.A. border. Most business and social dealings
1153# # are with CST zones, therefore CST is legislated by local government
1154# # although the switch to Summer Time occurs in line with N.S.W. There have
1155# # been years when this did not apply, but the historical data is not
1156# # presently available.
1157# Zone Australia/Yancowinna 9:30 AY %sST
1158# ...
1159# Rule AY 1971 1985 - Oct lastSun 2:00 1:00 D
1160# Rule AY 1972 only - Feb lastSun 3:00 0 C
1161# [followed by other Rules]
1162
1163# Lord Howe Island
1164
1165# From George Shepherd via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06):
34850bd5 1166# LHI... [ Courtesy of Pauline Van Winsen ]
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1167# [ Dec 1990 ]
1168# Lord Howe Island is located off the New South Wales coast, and is half an
1169# hour ahead of NSW time.
1170
1171# From James Lonergan, Secretary, Lord Howe Island Board (2000-01-27):
1172# Lord Howe Island summer time in 2000/2001 will commence on the same
1173# date as the rest of NSW (i.e. 2000-08-27). For your information the
1174# Lord Howe Island Board (controlling authority for the Island) is
1175# seeking the community's views on various options for summer time
1176# arrangements on the Island, e.g. advance clocks by 1 full hour
1177# instead of only 30 minutes. Dependant on the wishes of residents
1178# the Board may approach the NSW government to change the existing
1179# arrangements. The starting date for summer time on the Island will
1180# however always coincide with the rest of NSW.
1181
1182# From James Lonergan, Secretary, Lord Howe Island Board (2000-10-25):
1183# Lord Howe Island advances clocks by 30 minutes during DST in NSW and retards
1184# clocks by 30 minutes when DST finishes. Since DST was most recently
1185# introduced in NSW, the "changeover" time on the Island has been 02:00 as
1186# shown on clocks on LHI. I guess this means that for 30 minutes at the start
1187# of DST, LHI is actually 1 hour ahead of the rest of NSW.
1188
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1189# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
1190# For Lord Howe dates we use Shanks & Pottenger through 1989, and
1191# Lonergan thereafter. For times we use Lonergan.
984263bc 1192
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1193# From Paul Eggert (2007-07-23):
1194# See "southeast Australia" above for 2008 and later.
1195
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1196# From Steffen Thorsen (2009-04-28):
1197# According to the official press release, South Australia's extended daylight
1198# saving period will continue with the same rules as used during the 2008-2009
1199# summer (southern hemisphere).
1200#
1201# From
1202# <a href="http://www.safework.sa.gov.au/uploaded_files/DaylightDatesSet.pdf">
1203# http://www.safework.sa.gov.au/uploaded_files/DaylightDatesSet.pdf
1204# </a>
1205# The extended daylight saving period that South Australia has been trialling
1206# for over the last year is now set to be ongoing.
1207# Daylight saving will continue to start on the first Sunday in October each
1208# year and finish on the first Sunday in April the following year.
1209# Industrial Relations Minister, Paul Caica, says this provides South Australia
1210# with a consistent half hour time difference with NSW, Victoria, Tasmania and
1211# the ACT for all 52 weeks of the year...
1212#
1213# We have a wrap-up here:
1214# <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/south-australia-extends-dst.html">
1215# http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/south-australia-extends-dst.html
1216# </a>
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1217###############################################################################
1218
1219# New Zealand
1220
1221# From Mark Davies (1990-10-03):
1222# the 1989/90 year was a trial of an extended "daylight saving" period.
1223# This trial was deemed successful and the extended period adopted for
1224# subsequent years (with the addition of a further week at the start).
1225# source -- phone call to Ministry of Internal Affairs Head Office.
1226
1227# From George Shepherd via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06):
1228# # The Country of New Zealand (Australia's east island -) Gee they hate that!
1229# # or is Australia the west island of N.Z.
34850bd5 1230# # [ courtesy of Geoff Tribble.. Auckland N.Z. ]
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1231# # [ Nov 1990 ]
1232# ...
1233# Rule NZ 1974 1988 - Oct lastSun 2:00 1:00 D
1234# Rule NZ 1989 max - Oct Sun>=1 2:00 1:00 D
1235# Rule NZ 1975 1989 - Mar Sun>=1 3:00 0 S
1236# Rule NZ 1990 max - Mar lastSun 3:00 0 S
1237# ...
1238# Zone NZ 12:00 NZ NZ%sT # New Zealand
1239# Zone NZ-CHAT 12:45 - NZ-CHAT # Chatham Island
1240
1241# From Arthur David Olson (1992-03-08):
1242# The chosen rules use the Davies October 8 values for the start of DST in 1989
1243# rather than the October 1 value.
1244
1245# From Paul Eggert (1995-12-19);
bd7414aa 1246# Shank & Pottenger report 2:00 for all autumn changes in Australia and NZ.
9ffe4b14 1247# Robert Uzgalis writes that the New Zealand Daylight
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1248# Savings Time Order in Council dated 1990-06-18 specifies 2:00 standard
1249# time on both the first Sunday in October and the third Sunday in March.
1250# As with Australia, we'll assume the tradition is 2:00s, not 2:00.
1251#
bd7414aa 1252# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
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JR
1253# The Department of Internal Affairs (DIA) maintains a brief history,
1254# as does Carol Squires; see tz-link.htm for the full references.
bd7414aa 1255# Use these sources in preference to Shanks & Pottenger.
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1256#
1257# For Chatham, IATA SSIM (1991/1999) gives the NZ rules but with
1258# transitions at 2:45 local standard time; this confirms that Chatham
1259# is always exactly 45 minutes ahead of Auckland.
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1261# From Colin Sharples (2007-04-30):
1262# DST will now start on the last Sunday in September, and end on the
1263# first Sunday in April. The changes take effect this year, meaning
1264# that DST will begin on 2007-09-30 2008-04-06.
1265# http://www.dia.govt.nz/diawebsite.nsf/wpg_URL/Services-Daylight-Saving-Daylight-saving-to-be-extended
1266
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1267###############################################################################
1268
1269
1270# Fiji
1271
1272# Howse writes (p 153) that in 1879 the British governor of Fiji
1273# enacted an ordinance standardizing the islands on Antipodean Time
1274# instead of the American system (which was one day behind).
1275
1276# From Rives McDow (1998-10-08):
1277# Fiji will introduce DST effective 0200 local time, 1998-11-01
1278# until 0300 local time 1999-02-28. Each year the DST period will
1279# be from the first Sunday in November until the last Sunday in February.
1280
1281# From Paul Eggert (2000-01-08):
1282# IATA SSIM (1999-09) says DST ends 0100 local time. Go with McDow.
1283
1284# From the BBC World Service (1998-10-31 11:32 UTC):
1285# The Fijiian government says the main reasons for the time change is to
1286# improve productivity and reduce road accidents. But correspondents say it
1287# also hopes the move will boost Fiji's ability to compete with other pacific
1288# islands in the effort to attract tourists to witness the dawning of the new
1289# millenium.
1290
1291# http://www.fiji.gov.fj/press/2000_09/2000_09_13-05.shtml (2000-09-13)
1292# reports that Fiji has discontinued DST.
1293
1294# Johnston
1295
1296# Johnston data is from usno1995.
1297
1298
1299# Kiribati
1300
1301# From Paul Eggert (1996-01-22):
1302# Today's _Wall Street Journal_ (page 1) reports that Kiribati
1303# ``declared it the same day throught the country as of Jan. 1, 1995''
1304# as part of the competition to be first into the 21st century.
1305
1306
1307# Kwajalein
1308
1309# In comp.risks 14.87 (26 August 1993), Peter Neumann writes:
1310# I wonder what happened in Kwajalein, where there was NO Friday,
1311# 1993-08-20. Thursday night at midnight Kwajalein switched sides with
1312# respect to the International Date Line, to rejoin its fellow islands,
1313# going from 11:59 p.m. Thursday to 12:00 m. Saturday in a blink.
1314
1315
1316# N Mariana Is, Guam
1317
1318# Howse writes (p 153) ``The Spaniards, on the other hand, reached the
1319# Philippines and the Ladrones from America,'' and implies that the Ladrones
1320# (now called the Marianas) kept American date for quite some time.
1321# For now, we assume the Ladrones switched at the same time as the Philippines;
1322# see Asia/Manila.
1323
1324# US Public Law 106-564 (2000-12-23) made UTC+10 the official standard time,
1325# under the name "Chamorro Standard Time". There is no official abbreviation,
1326# but Congressman Robert A. Underwood, author of the bill that became law,
1327# wrote in a press release (2000-12-27) that he will seek the use of "ChST".
1328
1329
1330# Micronesia
1331
9ffe4b14 1332# Alan Eugene Davis writes (1996-03-16),
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1333# ``I am certain, having lived there for the past decade, that "Truk"
1334# (now properly known as Chuuk) ... is in the time zone GMT+10.''
1335#
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1336# Shanks & Pottenger write that Truk switched from UTC+10 to UTC+11
1337# on 1978-10-01; ignore this for now.
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1338
1339# From Paul Eggert (1999-10-29):
1340# The Federated States of Micronesia Visitors Board writes in
1341# <a href="http://www.fsmgov.org/info/clocks.html">
1342# The Federated States of Micronesia - Visitor Information
1343# </a> (1999-01-26)
1344# that Truk and Yap are UTC+10, and Ponape and Kosrae are UTC+11.
1345# We don't know when Kosrae switched from UTC+12; assume January 1 for now.
1346
1347
ba5ba9da
JR
1348# Midway
1349
1350# From Charles T O'Connor, KMTH DJ (1956),
1351# quoted in the KTMH section of the Radio Heritage Collection
1352# <http://radiodx.com/spdxr/KMTH.htm> (2002-12-31):
1353# For the past two months we've been on what is known as Daylight
1354# Saving Time. This time has put us on air at 5am in the morning,
1355# your time down there in New Zealand. Starting September 2, 1956
1356# we'll again go back to Standard Time. This'll mean that we'll go to
1357# air at 6am your time.
1358#
1359# From Paul Eggert (2003-03-23):
1360# We don't know the date of that quote, but we'll guess they
1361# started DST on June 3. Possibly DST was observed other years
1362# in Midway, but we have no record of it.
1363
1364
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1365# Pitcairn
1366
1367# From Rives McDow (1999-11-08):
1368# A Proclamation was signed by the Governor of Pitcairn on the 27th March 1998
1369# with regard to Pitcairn Standard Time. The Proclamation is as follows.
1370#
1371# The local time for general purposes in the Islands shall be
1372# Co-ordinated Universal time minus 8 hours and shall be known
1373# as Pitcairn Standard Time.
1374#
1375# ... I have also seen Pitcairn listed as UTC minus 9 hours in several
1376# references, and can only assume that this was an error in interpretation
1377# somehow in light of this proclamation.
1378
1379# From Rives McDow (1999-11-09):
1380# The Proclamation regarding Pitcairn time came into effect on 27 April 1998
1381# ... at midnight.
1382
1383# From Howie Phelps (1999-11-10), who talked to a Pitcairner via shortwave:
1384# Betty Christian told me yesterday that their local time is the same as
1385# Pacific Standard Time. They used to be 1/2 hour different from us here in
1386# Sacramento but it was changed a couple of years ago.
1387
1388
1389# Samoa
1390
1391# Howse writes (p 153, citing p 10 of the 1883-11-18 New York Herald)
1392# that in 1879 the King of Samoa decided to change
1393# ``the date in his kingdom from the Antipodean to the American system,
1394# ordaining -- by a masterpiece of diplomatic flattery -- that
1395# the Fourth of July should be celebrated twice in that year.''
1396
1397
1398# Tonga
1399
1400# From Paul Eggert (1996-01-22):
1401# Today's _Wall Street Journal_ (p 1) reports that ``Tonga has been plotting
1402# to sneak ahead of [New Zealanders] by introducing daylight-saving time.''
1403# Since Kiribati has moved the Date Line it's not clear what Tonga will do.
1404
1405# Don Mundell writes in the 1997-02-20 Tonga Chronicle
1406# <a href="http://www.tongatapu.net.to/tonga/homeland/timebegins.htm">
1407# How Tonga became `The Land where Time Begins'
1408# </a>:
1409
1410# Until 1941 Tonga maintained a standard time 50 minutes ahead of NZST
1411# 12 hours and 20 minutes ahead of GMT. When New Zealand adjusted its
1412# standard time in 1940s, Tonga had the choice of subtracting from its
1413# local time to come on the same standard time as New Zealand or of
1414# advancing its time to maintain the differential of 13 degrees
1415# (approximately 50 minutes ahead of New Zealand time).
1416#
1417# Because His Majesty King Taufa'ahau Tupou IV, then Crown Prince
1418# Tungi, preferred to ensure Tonga's title as the land where time
1419# begins, the Legislative Assembly approved the latter change.
1420#
1421# But some of the older, more conservative members from the outer
1422# islands objected. "If at midnight on Dec. 31, we move ahead 40
1423# minutes, as your Royal Highness wishes, what becomes of the 40
1424# minutes we have lost?"
1425#
1426# The Crown Prince, presented an unanswerable argument: "Remember that
1427# on the World Day of Prayer, you would be the first people on Earth
1428# to say your prayers in the morning."
1429
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1430# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
1431# Shanks & Pottenger say the transition was on 1968-10-01; go with Mundell.
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1432
1433# From Eric Ulevik (1999-05-03):
1434# Tonga's director of tourism, who is also secretary of the National Millenium
1435# Committee, has a plan to get Tonga back in front.
1436# He has proposed a one-off move to tropical daylight saving for Tonga from
1437# October to March, which has won approval in principle from the Tongan
1438# Government.
1439
9ffe4b14 1440# From Steffen Thorsen (1999-09-09):
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1441# * Tonga will introduce DST in November
1442#
9ffe4b14 1443# I was given this link by John Letts:
a36b983e 1444# <a href="http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/world/asia-pacific/newsid_424000/424764.stm">
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1445# http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/world/asia-pacific/newsid_424000/424764.stm
1446# </a>
1447#
1448# I have not been able to find exact dates for the transition in November
1449# yet. By reading this article it seems like Fiji will be 14 hours ahead
1450# of UTC as well, but as far as I know Fiji will only be 13 hours ahead
1451# (12 + 1 hour DST).
1452
9ffe4b14 1453# From Arthur David Olson (1999-09-20):
a36b983e 1454# According to <a href="http://www.tongaonline.com/news/sept1799.html">
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1455# http://www.tongaonline.com/news/sept1799.html
1456# </a>:
1457# "Daylight Savings Time will take effect on Oct. 2 through April 15, 2000
1458# and annually thereafter from the first Saturday in October through the
1459# third Saturday of April. Under the system approved by Privy Council on
1460# Sept. 10, clocks must be turned ahead one hour on the opening day and
1461# set back an hour on the closing date."
1462# Alas, no indication of the time of day.
1463
1464# From Rives McDow (1999-10-06):
1465# Tonga started its Daylight Saving on Saturday morning October 2nd at 0200am.
1466# Daylight Saving ends on April 16 at 0300am which is Sunday morning.
1467
1468# From Steffen Thorsen (2000-10-31):
1469# Back in March I found a notice on the website http://www.tongaonline.com
1470# that Tonga changed back to standard time one month early, on March 19
1471# instead of the original reported date April 16. Unfortunately, the article
1472# is no longer available on the site, and I did not make a copy of the
1473# text, and I have forgotten to report it here.
1474# (Original URL was: http://www.tongaonline.com/news/march162000.htm )
1475
1476# From Rives McDow (2000-12-01):
1477# Tonga is observing DST as of 2000-11-04 and will stop on 2001-01-27.
1478
1479# From Sione Moala-Mafi (2001-09-20) via Rives McDow:
1480# At 2:00am on the first Sunday of November, the standard time in the Kingdom
1481# shall be moved forward by one hour to 3:00am. At 2:00am on the last Sunday
1482# of January the standard time in the Kingdom shall be moved backward by one
1483# hour to 1:00am.
1484
1485# From Pulu 'Anau (2002-11-05):
1486# The law was for 3 years, supposedly to get renewed. It wasn't.
1487
ba5ba9da
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1488
1489# Wake
1490
1491# From Vernice Anderson, Personal Secretary to Philip Jessup,
1492# US Ambassador At Large (oral history interview, 1971-02-02):
1493#
1494# Saturday, the 14th [of October, 1950] -- ... The time was all the
1495# more confusing at that point, because we had crossed the
1496# International Date Line, thus getting two Sundays. Furthermore, we
1497# discovered that Wake Island had two hours of daylight saving time
1498# making calculation of time in Washington difficult if not almost
1499# impossible.
1500#
1501# http://www.trumanlibrary.org/wake/meeting.htm
1502
1503# From Paul Eggert (2003-03-23):
1504# We have no other report of DST in Wake Island, so omit this info for now.
1505
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1506###############################################################################
1507
1508# The International Date Line
1509
1510# From Gwillim Law (2000-01-03):
1511#
1512# The International Date Line is not defined by any international standard,
1513# convention, or treaty. Mapmakers are free to draw it as they please.
1514# Reputable mapmakers will simply ensure that every point of land appears on
1515# the correct side of the IDL, according to the date legally observed there.
1516#
1517# When Kiribati adopted a uniform date in 1995, thereby moving the Phoenix and
1518# Line Islands to the west side of the IDL (or, if you prefer, moving the IDL
1519# to the east side of the Phoenix and Line Islands), I suppose that most
1520# mapmakers redrew the IDL following the boundary of Kiribati. Even that line
1521# has a rather arbitrary nature. The straight-line boundaries between Pacific
1522# island nations that are shown on many maps are based on an international
e1e23b59 1523# convention, but are not legally binding national borders.... The date is
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1524# governed by the IDL; therefore, even on the high seas, there may be some
1525# places as late as fourteen hours later than UTC. And, since the IDL is not
1526# an international standard, there are some places on the high seas where the
1527# correct date is ambiguous.
bc95ec93 1528
e1e23b59
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1529# From Wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Time_zone> (2005-08-31):
1530# Before 1920, all ships kept local apparent time on the high seas by setting
1531# their clocks at night or at the morning sight so that, given the ship's
1532# speed and direction, it would be 12 o'clock when the Sun crossed the ship's
1533# meridian (12 o'clock = local apparent noon). During 1917, at the
1534# Anglo-French Conference on Time-keeping at Sea, it was recommended that all
1535# ships, both military and civilian, should adopt hourly standard time zones
1536# on the high seas. Whenever a ship was within the territorial waters of any
1537# nation it would use that nation's standard time. The captain was permitted
1538# to change his ship's clocks at a time of his choice following his ship's
1539# entry into another zone time--he often chose midnight. These zones were
1540# adopted by all major fleets between 1920 and 1925 but not by many
1541# independent merchant ships until World War II.
1542
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1543# From Paul Eggert, using references suggested by Oscar van Vlijmen
1544# (2005-03-20):
1545#
1546# The American Practical Navigator (2002)
1547# <http://pollux.nss.nima.mil/pubs/pubs_j_apn_sections.html?rid=187>
1548# talks only about the 180-degree meridian with respect to ships in
1549# international waters; it ignores the international date line.