(no commit message)
[ikiwiki.git] / docs / howtos / HowToDPorts / index.mdwn
CommitLineData
676f236e 1# DPorts and pkgng
80be6ca4 2
676f236e 3Dports is DragonFly's own third-party software build system. It is based on FreeBSD's Ports Collection. Differences between ports and DPorts are intentionally kept to a minimum, both to maintain familiarity for mutual users of both operating systems and also to leverage the tremendous amount of work the FreeBSD contributors put into ports. DPorts can and does feature ports unique to DragonFly, so it's truly a native system.
80be6ca4 4
669d4d5a 5The __pkgng__ tool called "pkg" is a modern and fast binary package manager. It was developed for FreeBSD, but PC-BSD used it in production first, followed soon after by DragonFly. In the future, it will be the only binary package manager on FreeBSD just as it is for DPorts.
80be6ca4 6
676f236e 7__pkgng__ is not a replacement for port management tools like `ports-mgmt/portmaster` or `ports-mgmt/portupgrade`. While `ports-mgmt/portmaster` and `ports-mgmt/portupgrade` can install third-party software from both binary packages and DPorts, __pkgng__ installs only binary packages.
80be6ca4 8
676f236e 9## Getting started with pkgng
80be6ca4 10
676f236e 11DragonFly daily snapshots and Releases (starting with 3.4) come with __pkgng__ already installed. However upgrades from earlier releases won't have it. If the "pkg" program is missing on the system for any reason, it can be quickly bootstrapped without having to build it from source.
80be6ca4 12
f73c2e99 13To bootstrap __pkgng__ on the system, run:
5232b755 14
676f236e 15 # cd /usr
743c7cfa 16 # make dports-create
17 # rm -rf pkg ( as in /usr/pkg )
18 # pkg install some-package
3bcc74c7 19
743c7cfa 20the above worked for me? below didn't.
3bcc74c7 21
676f236e 22 # make pkg-bootstrap
23 # rehash
24 # pkg-static install -y pkg
25 # rehash
5232b755 26
676f236e 27If the DPorts source tree is already present on the system, pkg can quickly be built from source:
5232b755 28
676f236e 29 # cd /usr/dports/ports-mgmt/pkg
30 # make install
31
32## Configuring the pkgng Environment
5232b755 33
676f236e 34The __pkgng__ package management system uses a package repository for most operations. The default package repository location is defined in `/usr/local/etc/pkg.conf` or the `PACKAGESITE` environment variable, which overrides the configuration file. Additional __pkgng__ configuration options are described in pkg.conf(5).
f60756b0 35
676f236e 36The pkg.conf file comes preinstalled with the latest release repository pre-selected.
37
38 PACKAGESITE: http://avalon.dragonflybsd.org/dports/${ABI}/RELEASE
39
40The RELEASE repository is static, but the LATEST repository is periodically updated. If bleeding edge is wanted, change pkg.conf to reflect that:
f60756b0 41
42 PACKAGESITE: http://avalon.dragonflybsd.org/dports/${ABI}/LATEST
43
676f236e 44DragonFly users on the development branch can also use pre-built binary packages from the last release, but they will need to override the ABI in pkg.conf, e.g.:
f60756b0 45
46 ABI: dragonfly:3.4:x86:32 # for i386 platform
47 ABI: dragonfly:3.4:x86:64 # for x86-64 platform
48
49There are already a few mirrors available which can be set in pkg.conf
5232b755 50
51* North America: http://avalon.dragonflybsd.org/dports/${ABI}/LATEST
52* Europe: http://pkg.wolfpond.org/${ABI}/LATEST
53* Europe: http://mirrors.ircam.fr/pub/DragonFlyBSD-dports/${ABI}/LATEST
7666fbf2 54* Europe: http://dfly.schlundtech.de/dports/${ABI}/LATEST
5232b755 55
669d4d5a 56All the above european mirrors are IPV6-enabled.
ff963ca1 57
676f236e 58## Basic pkgng Operations
f60756b0 59
676f236e 60Usage information for __pkgng__ is available in the pkg(8) manual page, or by running `pkg` without additional arguments.
5232b755 61
676f236e 62Each __pkgng__ command argument is documented in a command-specific manual page. To read the manual page for `pkg install`, for example, run either:
63
64 # pkg help install
65 # man pkg-install
66
67## Obtaining Information About Installed Packages with pkgng
68
69Information about the packages installed on a system can be viewed by running `pkg info`. Similar to pkg_info(1), the package version and description for all packages will be listed. Information about a specific package is available by running:
70
71 # pkg info packagename
72
73For example, to see which version of __pkgng__ is installed on the system, run:
74
75 # pkg info pkg
76 pkg-1.0.12 New generation package manager
77
78## Installing and Removing Packages with pkgng
79
80In general, most DragonFly users will install binary packages by typing:
81
82 # pkg install <packagename>
83
84For example, to install curl:
85
86 # pkg install curl
87
88 Updating repository catalogue
89 Repository catalogue is up-to-date, no need to fetch fresh copy
90 The following packages will be installed:
91
92 Installing ca_root_nss: 3.13.5
93 Installing curl: 7.24.0
94
95 The installation will require 4 MB more space
96
97 1 MB to be downloaded
98
99 Proceed with installing packages [y/N]: y
100 ca_root_nss-3.13.5.txz 100% 255KB 255.1KB/s 255.1KB/s 00:00
8a3d16f3 101 curl-7.24.0.txz 100% 1108KB 1.1MB/s 1.1MB/s 00:00
676f236e 102 Checking integrity... done
103 Installing ca_root_nss-3.13.5... done
104 Installing curl-7.24.0... done
105
106The new package and any additional packages that were installed as dependencies can be seen in the installed packages list:
107
108 # pkg info
109 ca_root_nss-3.13.5 The root certificate bundle from the Mozilla Project
110 curl-7.24.0 Non-interactive tool to get files from FTP, GOPHER, HTTP(S) servers
111 pkg-1.0.12 New generation package manager
112
113Packages that are no longer needed can be removed with `pkg delete`. For example, if it turns out that curl is not needed after all:
114
115 # pkg delete curl
116 The following packages will be deleted:
117
118 curl-7.24.0_1
119
120 The deletion will free 3 MB
121
122 Proceed with deleting packages [y/N]: y
123 Deleting curl-7.24.0_1... done
124
125## Upgrading Installed Packages with pkgng
126
127Packages that are outdated can be found with `pkg version`. If a local ports tree does not exist, pkg-version(8) will use the remote repository catalogue, otherwise the local ports tree will be used to identify package versions.
80be6ca4 128
676f236e 129Packages can be upgraded to newer versions with __pkgng__. Suppose a new version of curl has been released. The local package can be upgraded to the new version:
80be6ca4 130
676f236e 131 # pkg upgrade
132 Updating repository catalogue
133 repo.txz 100% 297KB 296.5KB/s 296.5KB/s 00:00
134 The following packages will be upgraded:
135
136 Upgrading curl: 7.24.0 -> 7.24.0_1
137
138 1 MB to be downloaded
139
140 Proceed with upgrading packages [y/N]: y
141 curl-7.24.0_1.txz 100% 1108KB 1.1MB/s 1.1MB/s 00:00
142 Checking integrity... done
143 Upgrading curl from 7.24.0 to 7.24.0_1... done
80be6ca4 144
676f236e 145## Auditing Installed Packages with pkgng
80be6ca4 146
676f236e 147Occasionally, software vulnerabilities may be discovered in software within DPorts. __pkgng__ includes built-in auditing. To audit the software installed on the system, type:
80be6ca4 148
676f236e 149 # pkg audit -F
80be6ca4 150
676f236e 151# Advanced pkgng Operations
80be6ca4 152
676f236e 153## Automatically Removing Leaf Dependencies with pkgng
80be6ca4 154
676f236e 155Removing a package may leave behind unnecessary dependencies, like `security/ca_root_nss` in the example above. Such packages are still installed, but nothing depends on them any more. Unneeded packages that were installed as dependencies can be automatically detected and removed:
80be6ca4 156
676f236e 157 # pkg autoremove
158 Packages to be autoremoved:
159 ca_root_nss-3.13.5
160
161 The autoremoval will free 723 kB
162
163 Proceed with autoremoval of packages [y/N]: y
164 Deinstalling ca_root_nss-3.13.5... done
80be6ca4 165
676f236e 166## Backing Up the pkgng Package Database
167
168__pkgng__ includes its own package database backup mechanism. To manually back up the package database contents, type:
169
170 # pkg backup -d <pkgng.db>
171
2cae69b5 172Additionally, __pkgng__ includes a periodic(8) script to automatically back up the package database daily if `daily_backup_pkgng_enable` is set to `YES` in periodic.conf(5). To prevent the `pkg_install` periodic script from also backing up the package database, set `daily_backup_pkgdb_enable` to `NO` in periodic.conf(5).
676f236e 173
174To restore the contents of a previous package database backup, run:
175
176 # pkg backup -r </path/to/pkgng.db>
177
178## Removing Stale pkgng Packages
179
180By default, __pkgng__ stores binary packages in a cache directory as defined by `PKG_CACHEDIR` in pkg.conf(5). When upgrading packages with pkg upgrade, old versions of the upgraded packages are not automatically removed.
181
182To remove the outdated binary packages, type:
183
184 # pkg clean
185
186##Modifying pkgng Package Metadata
187
188__pkgng__ has a built-in command to update package origins. For example, if `lang/php5` was originally at version 5.3, but has been renamed to lang/php53 for the inclusion of version 5.4, the package database can be updated to deal with this. For __pkgng__, the syntax is:
189
190 # pkg set -o <category/oldport>:<category/newport>
191
192For example, to change the package origin for the above example, type:
193
194 # pkg set -o lang/php5:lang/php53
195
196As another example, to update lang/ruby18 to lang/ruby19, type:
197
198 # pkg set -o lang/ruby18:lang/ruby19
199
200As a final example, to change the origin of the libglut shared libraries from graphics/libglut to graphics/freeglut, type:
201
202 # pkg set -o graphics/libglut:graphics/freeglut
203
204_Note_: When changing package origins, in most cases it is important to reinstall packages that are dependent on the package that has had the origin changed. To force a reinstallation of dependent packages, type:
205
206 # pkg install -Rf graphics/freeglut
207
208# Building DPorts from source
209
210The average user will probably not build packages from source. However, it's easy to do and it can be done even when packages have already been pre-installed on the system. Common reasons to build from source are:
211
212* The port is new and there's no pre-binary available yet
213* The pre-built binaries use the default options and the user needs a package built with a different set of options
214* Testing FreeBSD port in order to patch them and submit to DPorts
215* The user just prefers building from source
80be6ca4 216
676f236e 217## Installing DPorts tree
80be6ca4 218
676f236e 219DragonFly 3.4 or later is the minimum version that can build DPorts from source.
80be6ca4 220
676f236e 221It's probably that pkgsrc binaries are already installed because it comes bootstrapped with new systems. It is necessary to rename `/usr/pkg` directory so that the existing pkgsrc binary tools and libraries don’t get accidentally used while building DPorts, causing breakage. For the installation of the DPorts tree, type:
0fcf3e89 222
676f236e 223 # cd /usr
224 # make dports-create-shallow
0fcf3e89 225
676f236e 226If the `/usr/pkg directory` has already been renamed, `git` won’t be in the search path any more. One option is to download a tarball of DPorts and unpack it. To do this, type:
80be6ca4 227
676f236e 228 # cd /usr
229 # make dports-download
80be6ca4 230
676f236e 231For future updates, pull delta changes via `git` is fastest, so it is suggested to convert the static tree to a git repository by typing:
80be6ca4 232
676f236e 233 # cd /usr/dports/devel/git
234 # make install
235 # cd /usr
236 # rm -rf /usr/dports
237 # make dports-create-shallow
80be6ca4 238
676f236e 239The git repository is hosted on the [github account of John Marino](https://github.com/jrmarino/DPorts/#readme).
80be6ca4 240
676f236e 241## Final thoughts
80be6ca4 242
676f236e 243Building from source works similar to ports and pkgsrc: cd into the appropriate program's directory, and type 'make'. 'make install' to install the software, 'make clean' to clean up work files, and so on. Use 'make config-recursive' if you want to set all the port's options, and the options of its dependencies, immediately instead of during the build.
80be6ca4 244
676f236e 245To take all the default build options and avoid getting the pop-up dialog box, set `NO_DIALOG=yes` on either the command line or the make.conf file.
80be6ca4 246
676f236e 247If you just want to set the options for one package, and accept the default for all of its dependencies, do 'make config' in the package in you want non-default options, and then 'make NO_DIALOG=yes'. Note that this is only necessary if you want to build from source with a non-default set of options, or if no pre-built binary package is available yet.