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676f236e 1# DPorts and pkgng
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676f236e 3Dports is DragonFly's own third-party software build system. It is based on FreeBSD's Ports Collection. Differences between ports and DPorts are intentionally kept to a minimum, both to maintain familiarity for mutual users of both operating systems and also to leverage the tremendous amount of work the FreeBSD contributors put into ports. DPorts can and does feature ports unique to DragonFly, so it's truly a native system.
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669d4d5a 5The __pkgng__ tool called "pkg" is a modern and fast binary package manager. It was developed for FreeBSD, but PC-BSD used it in production first, followed soon after by DragonFly. In the future, it will be the only binary package manager on FreeBSD just as it is for DPorts.
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676f236e 7__pkgng__ is not a replacement for port management tools like `ports-mgmt/portmaster` or `ports-mgmt/portupgrade`. While `ports-mgmt/portmaster` and `ports-mgmt/portupgrade` can install third-party software from both binary packages and DPorts, __pkgng__ installs only binary packages.
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676f236e 9## Getting started with pkgng
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676f236e 11DragonFly daily snapshots and Releases (starting with 3.4) come with __pkgng__ already installed. However upgrades from earlier releases won't have it. If the "pkg" program is missing on the system for any reason, it can be quickly bootstrapped without having to build it from source.
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f73c2e99 13To bootstrap __pkgng__ on the system, run:
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676f236e 15 # cd /usr
743c7cfa 16 # make dports-create
17 # rm -rf pkg ( as in /usr/pkg )
18 # pkg install some-package
19the above worked for me? below didn't.
676f236e 20 # make pkg-bootstrap
21 # rehash
22 # pkg-static install -y pkg
23 # rehash
5232b755 24
676f236e 25If the DPorts source tree is already present on the system, pkg can quickly be built from source:
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676f236e 27 # cd /usr/dports/ports-mgmt/pkg
28 # make install
29
30## Configuring the pkgng Environment
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676f236e 32The __pkgng__ package management system uses a package repository for most operations. The default package repository location is defined in `/usr/local/etc/pkg.conf` or the `PACKAGESITE` environment variable, which overrides the configuration file. Additional __pkgng__ configuration options are described in pkg.conf(5).
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676f236e 34The pkg.conf file comes preinstalled with the latest release repository pre-selected.
35
36 PACKAGESITE: http://avalon.dragonflybsd.org/dports/${ABI}/RELEASE
37
38The RELEASE repository is static, but the LATEST repository is periodically updated. If bleeding edge is wanted, change pkg.conf to reflect that:
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40 PACKAGESITE: http://avalon.dragonflybsd.org/dports/${ABI}/LATEST
41
676f236e 42DragonFly users on the development branch can also use pre-built binary packages from the last release, but they will need to override the ABI in pkg.conf, e.g.:
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44 ABI: dragonfly:3.4:x86:32 # for i386 platform
45 ABI: dragonfly:3.4:x86:64 # for x86-64 platform
46
47There are already a few mirrors available which can be set in pkg.conf
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49* North America: http://avalon.dragonflybsd.org/dports/${ABI}/LATEST
50* Europe: http://pkg.wolfpond.org/${ABI}/LATEST
51* Europe: http://mirrors.ircam.fr/pub/DragonFlyBSD-dports/${ABI}/LATEST
7666fbf2 52* Europe: http://dfly.schlundtech.de/dports/${ABI}/LATEST
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669d4d5a 54All the above european mirrors are IPV6-enabled.
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676f236e 56## Basic pkgng Operations
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676f236e 58Usage information for __pkgng__ is available in the pkg(8) manual page, or by running `pkg` without additional arguments.
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676f236e 60Each __pkgng__ command argument is documented in a command-specific manual page. To read the manual page for `pkg install`, for example, run either:
61
62 # pkg help install
63 # man pkg-install
64
65## Obtaining Information About Installed Packages with pkgng
66
67Information about the packages installed on a system can be viewed by running `pkg info`. Similar to pkg_info(1), the package version and description for all packages will be listed. Information about a specific package is available by running:
68
69 # pkg info packagename
70
71For example, to see which version of __pkgng__ is installed on the system, run:
72
73 # pkg info pkg
74 pkg-1.0.12 New generation package manager
75
76## Installing and Removing Packages with pkgng
77
78In general, most DragonFly users will install binary packages by typing:
79
80 # pkg install <packagename>
81
82For example, to install curl:
83
84 # pkg install curl
85
86 Updating repository catalogue
87 Repository catalogue is up-to-date, no need to fetch fresh copy
88 The following packages will be installed:
89
90 Installing ca_root_nss: 3.13.5
91 Installing curl: 7.24.0
92
93 The installation will require 4 MB more space
94
95 1 MB to be downloaded
96
97 Proceed with installing packages [y/N]: y
98 ca_root_nss-3.13.5.txz 100% 255KB 255.1KB/s 255.1KB/s 00:00
8a3d16f3 99 curl-7.24.0.txz 100% 1108KB 1.1MB/s 1.1MB/s 00:00
676f236e 100 Checking integrity... done
101 Installing ca_root_nss-3.13.5... done
102 Installing curl-7.24.0... done
103
104The new package and any additional packages that were installed as dependencies can be seen in the installed packages list:
105
106 # pkg info
107 ca_root_nss-3.13.5 The root certificate bundle from the Mozilla Project
108 curl-7.24.0 Non-interactive tool to get files from FTP, GOPHER, HTTP(S) servers
109 pkg-1.0.12 New generation package manager
110
111Packages that are no longer needed can be removed with `pkg delete`. For example, if it turns out that curl is not needed after all:
112
113 # pkg delete curl
114 The following packages will be deleted:
115
116 curl-7.24.0_1
117
118 The deletion will free 3 MB
119
120 Proceed with deleting packages [y/N]: y
121 Deleting curl-7.24.0_1... done
122
123## Upgrading Installed Packages with pkgng
124
125Packages that are outdated can be found with `pkg version`. If a local ports tree does not exist, pkg-version(8) will use the remote repository catalogue, otherwise the local ports tree will be used to identify package versions.
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676f236e 127Packages can be upgraded to newer versions with __pkgng__. Suppose a new version of curl has been released. The local package can be upgraded to the new version:
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676f236e 129 # pkg upgrade
130 Updating repository catalogue
131 repo.txz 100% 297KB 296.5KB/s 296.5KB/s 00:00
132 The following packages will be upgraded:
133
134 Upgrading curl: 7.24.0 -> 7.24.0_1
135
136 1 MB to be downloaded
137
138 Proceed with upgrading packages [y/N]: y
139 curl-7.24.0_1.txz 100% 1108KB 1.1MB/s 1.1MB/s 00:00
140 Checking integrity... done
141 Upgrading curl from 7.24.0 to 7.24.0_1... done
80be6ca4 142
676f236e 143## Auditing Installed Packages with pkgng
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676f236e 145Occasionally, software vulnerabilities may be discovered in software within DPorts. __pkgng__ includes built-in auditing. To audit the software installed on the system, type:
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676f236e 147 # pkg audit -F
80be6ca4 148
676f236e 149# Advanced pkgng Operations
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676f236e 151## Automatically Removing Leaf Dependencies with pkgng
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676f236e 153Removing a package may leave behind unnecessary dependencies, like `security/ca_root_nss` in the example above. Such packages are still installed, but nothing depends on them any more. Unneeded packages that were installed as dependencies can be automatically detected and removed:
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676f236e 155 # pkg autoremove
156 Packages to be autoremoved:
157 ca_root_nss-3.13.5
158
159 The autoremoval will free 723 kB
160
161 Proceed with autoremoval of packages [y/N]: y
162 Deinstalling ca_root_nss-3.13.5... done
80be6ca4 163
676f236e 164## Backing Up the pkgng Package Database
165
166__pkgng__ includes its own package database backup mechanism. To manually back up the package database contents, type:
167
168 # pkg backup -d <pkgng.db>
169
2cae69b5 170Additionally, __pkgng__ includes a periodic(8) script to automatically back up the package database daily if `daily_backup_pkgng_enable` is set to `YES` in periodic.conf(5). To prevent the `pkg_install` periodic script from also backing up the package database, set `daily_backup_pkgdb_enable` to `NO` in periodic.conf(5).
676f236e 171
172To restore the contents of a previous package database backup, run:
173
174 # pkg backup -r </path/to/pkgng.db>
175
176## Removing Stale pkgng Packages
177
178By default, __pkgng__ stores binary packages in a cache directory as defined by `PKG_CACHEDIR` in pkg.conf(5). When upgrading packages with pkg upgrade, old versions of the upgraded packages are not automatically removed.
179
180To remove the outdated binary packages, type:
181
182 # pkg clean
183
184##Modifying pkgng Package Metadata
185
186__pkgng__ has a built-in command to update package origins. For example, if `lang/php5` was originally at version 5.3, but has been renamed to lang/php53 for the inclusion of version 5.4, the package database can be updated to deal with this. For __pkgng__, the syntax is:
187
188 # pkg set -o <category/oldport>:<category/newport>
189
190For example, to change the package origin for the above example, type:
191
192 # pkg set -o lang/php5:lang/php53
193
194As another example, to update lang/ruby18 to lang/ruby19, type:
195
196 # pkg set -o lang/ruby18:lang/ruby19
197
198As a final example, to change the origin of the libglut shared libraries from graphics/libglut to graphics/freeglut, type:
199
200 # pkg set -o graphics/libglut:graphics/freeglut
201
202_Note_: When changing package origins, in most cases it is important to reinstall packages that are dependent on the package that has had the origin changed. To force a reinstallation of dependent packages, type:
203
204 # pkg install -Rf graphics/freeglut
205
206# Building DPorts from source
207
208The average user will probably not build packages from source. However, it's easy to do and it can be done even when packages have already been pre-installed on the system. Common reasons to build from source are:
209
210* The port is new and there's no pre-binary available yet
211* The pre-built binaries use the default options and the user needs a package built with a different set of options
212* Testing FreeBSD port in order to patch them and submit to DPorts
213* The user just prefers building from source
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676f236e 215## Installing DPorts tree
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676f236e 217DragonFly 3.4 or later is the minimum version that can build DPorts from source.
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676f236e 219It's probably that pkgsrc binaries are already installed because it comes bootstrapped with new systems. It is necessary to rename `/usr/pkg` directory so that the existing pkgsrc binary tools and libraries don’t get accidentally used while building DPorts, causing breakage. For the installation of the DPorts tree, type:
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676f236e 221 # cd /usr
222 # make dports-create-shallow
0fcf3e89 223
676f236e 224If the `/usr/pkg directory` has already been renamed, `git` won’t be in the search path any more. One option is to download a tarball of DPorts and unpack it. To do this, type:
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676f236e 226 # cd /usr
227 # make dports-download
80be6ca4 228
676f236e 229For future updates, pull delta changes via `git` is fastest, so it is suggested to convert the static tree to a git repository by typing:
80be6ca4 230
676f236e 231 # cd /usr/dports/devel/git
232 # make install
233 # cd /usr
234 # rm -rf /usr/dports
235 # make dports-create-shallow
80be6ca4 236
676f236e 237The git repository is hosted on the [github account of John Marino](https://github.com/jrmarino/DPorts/#readme).
80be6ca4 238
676f236e 239## Final thoughts
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676f236e 241Building from source works similar to ports and pkgsrc: cd into the appropriate program's directory, and type 'make'. 'make install' to install the software, 'make clean' to clean up work files, and so on. Use 'make config-recursive' if you want to set all the port's options, and the options of its dependencies, immediately instead of during the build.
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676f236e 243To take all the default build options and avoid getting the pop-up dialog box, set `NO_DIALOG=yes` on either the command line or the make.conf file.
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676f236e 245If you just want to set the options for one package, and accept the default for all of its dependencies, do 'make config' in the package in you want non-default options, and then 'make NO_DIALOG=yes'. Note that this is only necessary if you want to build from source with a non-default set of options, or if no pre-built binary package is available yet.