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a86df2f3 1# The X Window System
a86df2f3 2***Updated for X.Org's X11 server by Ken Tom and Marc Fonvieille. Updated for DragonFly by Victor Balada Diaz.***
3
ca543863 4[[!toc levels=3]]
5
a86df2f3 6
7## Synopsis
8
8ff68d2e 9This chapter will cover the installation and some configuration of X11. For more information on the video hardware that X11 supports, check the [X.org](http://www.x.org/) web site. If you have problems configuring, just search the web. There are lots of tutorials and guides on how to set up your X properly.
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11
12
13After reading this chapter, you will know:
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8ff68d2e 17Before reading this chapter, you should know how to install additional third-party software. Read the pkgsrc section of the documentation.
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a86df2f3 19
20
21
22
23## Understanding X
24
25### The Window Manager
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8ff68d2e 29X.org itself does not give you a window manager. You will have to choose one and install it yourself. There are dozens of window managers available for X. Each of these provides a different look and feel. Window managers are available in the `wm` category of the pkgsrc collection.
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31
8ff68d2e 32In addition, the **KDE** and **GNOME** desktop environments both have their own window managers which integrate with the desktop.
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8ff68d2e 35Every window manager also has a different configuration mechanism. Read your manager's documentation to learn more.
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37
38
39
40
41## Installing X
42
5fa36c0a 43**X.org** is currently available in the DragonFly pkgsrc framework.
a86df2f3 44
a86df2f3 45
5fa36c0a 46To install:
a86df2f3 47
5fa36c0a 48 # cd /usr/pkgsrc/x11/modular-xorg
a86df2f3 49 # bmake install clean
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52
5fa36c0a 53
54Alternatively, X11 can be installed directly from pre built packages with [pkg_radd(1)](http://leaf.dragonflybsd.org/cgi/web-man?command=pkg_radd&section=1). So to fetch and install the package of **X.org**, type:
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56
5fa36c0a 57 # pkg_radd modular-xorg
a86df2f3 58
59
5fa36c0a 60**Note:** The examples above will install the complete X11 distribution including the server, drivers, programs, libraries and fonts. Separate packages for everything are available.
a86df2f3 61
62
63
64
65----
66
67
68
69## Configuring X
70
71
72
73 ***Contributed by Christopher Shumway. ***
74
75
76
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78
32c109d2 79As of version 7.3, Xorg can often work without any configuration file by simply typing at prompt:
a86df2f3 80
32c109d2 81
a86df2f3 82
32c109d2 83 % startx
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86
a86df2f3 87
32c109d2 88If this does not work, or if the default configuration is not acceptable, then X11 must be configured manually. Configuration of X11 is a multi-step process. The first step is to build an initial configuration file. As the super user, simply run:
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32c109d2 90
a86df2f3 91
32c109d2 92 # Xorg -configure
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32c109d2 95This will generate an X11 configuration skeleton file in the `/root` directory called `xorg.conf.new` (whether you [su(1)](http://leaf.dragonflybsd.org/cgi/web-man?command=su&section=1) or do a direct login affects the inherited supervisor `$HOME` directory variable). The X11 program will attempt to probe the graphics hardware on the system and write a configuration file to load the proper drivers for the detected hardware on the target system.
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32c109d2 99The next step is to test the existing configuration to verify that **X.org** can work with the graphics hardware on the target system. To perform this task, type:
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32c109d2 101
a86df2f3 102
32c109d2 103 # Xorg -config xorg.conf.new
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105
32c109d2 106If a black and grey grid and an X mouse cursor appear, the configuration was successful. To exit the test, just press **Ctrl** + **Alt** + **Backspace** simultaneously.
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a86df2f3 108
a86df2f3 109
32c109d2 110**Note:** If the mouse does not work, you will need to first configure it before proceeding. This can usually be achieved by just using `/dev/sysmouse` as the input device in the config file and enabling `moused`:
a86df2f3 111
32c109d2 112 # rcenable moused
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a86df2f3 114
115
8ff68d2e 116Tune the `xorg.conf.new` configuration file to taste and move it to where [Xorg(1)](http://leaf.dragonflybsd.org/cgi/web-man?command=xorg&section=1) can find it. This is typically `/etc/X11/xorg.conf` or `/usr/pkg/xorg/lib/X11/xorg.conf`.
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119
a86df2f3 120The X11 configuration process is now complete. You can start **X.org** with [startx(1)](http://leaf.dragonflybsd.org/cgi/web-man?command=startx&section=1). The X11 server may also be started with the use of [xdm(1)](http://leaf.dragonflybsd.org/cgi/web-man?command=xdm&section=1).
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122
a86df2f3 123
124
125## The X Display Manager
126
127 ***Contributed by Seth Kingsley.***
128
129
130
131### Overview
132
133
134
135 The X Display Manager ( **XDM** ) is an optional part of the X Window System that is used for login session management. This is useful for several types of situations, including minimal "X Terminals", desktops, and large network display servers. Since the X Window System is network and protocol independent, there are a wide variety of possible configurations for running X clients and servers on different machines connected by a network. **XDM** provides a graphical interface for choosing which display server to connect to, and entering authorization information such as a login and password combination.
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139 Think of **XDM** as providing the same functionality to the user as the [getty(8)](http://leaf.dragonflybsd.org/cgi/web-man?command=getty&section=8) utility (see [ Section 17.3.2](term.html#TERM-CONFIG) for details). That is, it performs system logins to the display being connected to and then runs a session manager on behalf of the user (usually an X window manager). **XDM** then waits for this program to exit, signaling that the user is done and should be logged out of the display. At this point, **XDM** can display the login and display chooser screens for the next user to login.
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141
142
143### Using XDM
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147 The **XDM** daemon program is located in `/usr/pkg/xorg/bin/xdm`. This program can be run at any time as `root` and it will start managing the X display on the local machine. If **XDM** is to be run every time the machine boots up, a convenient way to do this is by adding an entry to `/etc/ttys`. For more information about the format and usage of this file, see [ Section 17.3.2.1](term.html#TERM-ETCTTYS). There is a line in the default `/etc/ttys` file for running the **XDM** daemon on a virtual terminal:
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153 ttyv8 "/usr/pkg/xorg/bin/xdm -nodaemon" xterm off secure
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159 By default this entry is disabled; in order to enable it change field 5 from `off` to `on` and restart [init(8)](http://leaf.dragonflybsd.org/cgi/web-man?command=init&section=8) using the directions in [ Section 17.3.2.2](term.html#TERM-HUP). The first field, the name of the terminal this program will manage, is `ttyv8`. This means that **XDM** will start running on the 9th virtual terminal.
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162
163### Configuring XDM
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167 The **XDM** configuration directory is located in `/var/lib/xdm`. The sample configuration files are in `/usr/pkg/share/examples/xorg/xdm/`, in this directory there are several files used to change the behavior and appearance of **XDM** . Typically these files will be found:
168
169
170[[!table data="""
171<tablestyle="width:100%"> **File** | **Description**
172<tablestyle="width:100%"> `Xaccess` | Client authorization ruleset.
173`Xresources` | Default X resource values.
174`Xservers` | List of remote and local displays to manage.
175`Xsession` | Default session script for logins.
176`Xsetup_`* | Script to launch applications before the login interface.
177`xdm-config` | Global configuration for all displays running on this machine.
178`xdm-errors` | Errors generated by the server program.
179`xdm-pid` | The process ID of the currently running XDM. |
180
181"""]]
182
183
184 Also in this directory are a few scripts and programs used to set up the desktop when **XDM** is running. The purpose of each of these files will be briefly described. The exact syntax and usage of all of these files is described in [xdm(1)](http://leaf.dragonflybsd.org/cgi/web-man?command=xdm&section=1).
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188 The default configuration is a simple rectangular login window with the hostname of the machine displayed at the top in a large font and "Login:" and "Password:" prompts below. This is a good starting point for changing the look and feel of **XDM** screens.
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190
191
192#### Xaccess
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196 The protocol for connecting to **XDM** controlled displays is called the X Display Manager Connection Protocol (XDMCP). This file is a ruleset for controlling XDMCP connections from remote machines. It is ignored unless the `xdm-config` is changed to listen for remote connections. By default, it does not allow any clients to connect.
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199
200#### Xresources
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202
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204 This is an application-defaults file for the display chooser and the login screens. This is where the appearance of the login program can be modified. The format is identical to the app-defaults file described in the X11 documentation.
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206
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208#### Xservers
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212 This is a list of the remote displays the chooser should provide as choices.
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214
215
216#### Xsession
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220 This is the default session script for **XDM** to run after a user has logged in. Normally each user will have a customized session script in `~/.xsession` that overrides this script.
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222
223
224#### Xsetup_*
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228 These will be run automatically before displaying the chooser or login interfaces. There is a script for each display being used, named `Xsetup_` followed by the local display number (for instance `Xsetup_0`). Typically these scripts will run one or two programs in the background such as `xconsole`.
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231
232#### xdm-config
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236 This contains settings in the form of app-defaults that are applicable to every display that this installation manages.
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240#### xdm-errors
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244 This contains the output of the X servers that **XDM** is trying to run. If a display that **XDM** is trying to start hangs for some reason, this is a good place to look for error messages. These messages are also written to the user's `~/.xsession-errors` file on a per-session basis.
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247
248### Running a Network Display Server
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251
252 In order for other clients to connect to the display server, edit the access control rules, and enable the connection listener. By default these are set to conservative values. To make **XDM** listen for connections, first comment out a line in the `xdm-config` file:
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256
257
258 ! SECURITY: do not listen for XDMCP or Chooser requests
259
260 ! Comment out this line if you want to manage X terminals with xdm
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262 DisplayManager.requestPort: 0
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268 and then restart **XDM** . Remember that comments in app-defaults files begin with a "!" character, not the usual "#". More strict access controls may be desired. Look at the example entries in `Xaccess`, and refer to the [xdm(1)](http://leaf.dragonflybsd.org/cgi/web-man?command=xdm&section=1) manual page for further information.
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271
272### Replacements for XDM
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276 Several replacements for the default **XDM** program exist. One of them, **kdm** (bundled with **KDE** ) is described later in this chapter. The **kdm** display manager offers many visual improvements and cosmetic frills, as well as the functionality to allow users to choose their window manager of choice at login time.
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278
279----
280
281
282
283## Desktop Environments
284
285 ***Contributed by Valentino Vaschetto. ***
286
287 This section describes the different desktop environments available for X on FreeBSD. A ***desktop environment*** can mean anything ranging from a simple window manager to a complete suite of desktop applications, such as **KDE** or **GNOME** .
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289
290
291### GNOME
292
293
294
295#### About GNOME
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297
298
299 **GNOME** is a user-friendly desktop environment that enables users to easily use and configure their computers. **GNOME** includes a panel (for starting applications and displaying status), a desktop (where data and applications can be placed), a set of standard desktop tools and applications, and a set of conventions that make it easy for applications to cooperate and be consistent with each other. Users of other operating systems or environments should feel right at home using the powerful graphics-driven environment that **GNOME** provides.
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303#### Installing GNOME
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307 **GNOME** can be easily installed from a package or from the pkgsrc framework:
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311 To install the **GNOME** package from the network, simply type:
312
313 # pkg_radd gnome
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319 To build **GNOME** from source, use the ports tree:
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323 # cd /usr/pkgsrc/meta-pkgs/gnome
324
325 # bmake install clean
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329 Once **GNOME** is installed, the X server must be told to start **GNOME** instead of a default window manager.
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333 The easiest way to start **GNOME** is with **GDM** , the GNOME Display Manager. **GDM** , which is installed as a part of the **GNOME** desktop (but is disabled by default), can be enabled by adding `gdm_enable="YES"` to `/etc/rc.conf`. Once you have rebooted, **GNOME** will start automatically once you log in -- no further configuration is necessary.
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337**GNOME** may also be started from the command-line by properly configuring a file named `.xinitrc`. If a custom `.xinitrc` is already in place, simply replace the line that starts the current window manager with one that starts **/usr/pkg/bin/gnome-session** instead. If nothing special has been done to the configuration file, then it is enough simply to type:
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342
343 % echo "/usr/pkg/bin/gnome-session" > ~/.xinitrc
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349 Next, type `startx`, and the **GNOME** desktop environment will be started.
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352**Note:** If an older display manager, like **XDM** , is being used, this will not work. Instead, create an executable `.xsession` file with the same command in it. To do this, edit the file and replace the existing window manager command with **/usr/pkg/bin/gnome-session** :
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355
356
357
358 % echo "#!/bin/sh" > ~/.xsession
359
360 % echo "/usr/pkg/bin/gnome-session" >> ~/.xsession
361
362 % chmod +x ~/.xsession
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367
368 Yet another option is to configure the display manager to allow choosing the window manager at login time; the section on [ KDE details](x11-wm.html#X11-WM-KDE-DETAILS) explains how to do this for **kdm** , the display manager of **KDE** .
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371
372#### Anti-aliased Fonts with GNOME
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376 X11 supports anti-aliasing via its ***RENDER*** extension. GTK+ 2.0 and greater (the toolkit used by **GNOME** ) can make use of this functionality. Configuring anti-aliasing is described in [ Section 5.5.3](x-fonts.html#ANTIALIAS).
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378 So, with up-to-date software, anti-aliasing is possible within the **GNOME** desktop. Just go to **Applications->Desktop Preferences->Font** , and select either Best shapes, Best contrast, or Subpixel smoothing (LCDs). For a GTK+ application that is not part of the **GNOME** desktop, set the environment variable `GDK_USE_XFT` to `1` before launching the program.
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381
382### KDE
383
384
385
386#### About KDE
387
388
389
390 **KDE** is an easy to use contemporary desktop environment. Some of the things that **KDE** brings to the user are:
391
392* A beautiful contemporary desktop
393
394* A desktop exhibiting complete network transparency
395
396* An integrated help system allowing for convenient, consistent access to help on the use of the **KDE** desktop and its applications
397
398* Consistent look and feel of all **KDE** applications
399
400* Standardized menu and toolbars, keybindings, color-schemes, etc.
401
402* Internationalization: **KDE** is available in more than 40 languages
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404* Centralized consisted dialog driven desktop configuration
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406* A great number of useful **KDE** applications
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408 **KDE** comes with a web browser called **Konqueror** , which represents a solid competitor to other existing web browsers on UNIX® systems. More information on **KDE** can be found on the [KDE website](http://www.kde.org/).
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411
412#### Installing KDE
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415 Just as with **GNOME** or any other desktop environment, the easiest way to install **KDE** is through the pkgsrc framework or from a package:
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419 To install the **KDE** package from the network, simply type:
420
421 # pkg_radd kde3
422
423 or if you prefer the newer **KDE 4**, type:
424
425 # pkg_radd kde4
426
427 [pkg_radd(1)](http://leaf.dragonflybsd.org/cgi/web-man?command#pkg_radd&section1) will automatically fetch the latest version of the application.
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430 To build **KDE** from source, use the pkgsrc framework:
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432 # cd /usr/pkgsrc/meta-pkgs/kde3
433
434 # bmake install clean
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440 After **KDE** has been installed, the X server must be told to launch this application instead of the default window manager. This is accomplished by editing the `.xinitrc` file:
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443 % echo "exec startkde" > ~/.xinitrc
444
445
446 Now, whenever the X Window System is invoked with `startx`, **KDE** will be the desktop.
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448 If a display manager such as **XDM** is being used, the configuration is slightly different. Edit the `.xsession` file instead. Instructions for **kdm** are described later in this chapter.
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450
451
452#### More Details on KDE
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456 Now that **KDE** is installed on the system, most things can be discovered through the help pages, or just by pointing and clicking at various menus. Windows® or Mac® users will feel quite at home.
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458 The best reference for **KDE** is the on-line documentation. **KDE** comes with its own web browser, **Konqueror** , dozens of useful applications, and extensive documentation. The remainder of this section discusses the technical items that are difficult to learn by random exploration.
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461
462#### The KDE Display Manager
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466 An administrator of a multi-user system may wish to have a graphical login screen to welcome users. [ XDM](x-xdm.html) can be used, as described earlier. However, **KDE** includes an alternative, **kdm** , which is designed to look more attractive and include more login-time options. In particular, users can easily choose (via a menu) which desktop environment ( **KDE** , **GNOME** , or something else) to run after logging on.
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470 To enable **kdm** , the `ttyv8` entry in `/etc/ttys` has to be adapted. The line should look as follows:
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473 ttyv8 "/usr/pkg/bin/kdm -nodaemon" xterm on secure
474
475
476
477### XFce
478
479
480
481#### About XFce
482
483
484 **XFce** is a desktop environment based on the GTK+ toolkit used by **GNOME** , but is much more lightweight and meant for those who want a simple, efficient desktop which is nevertheless easy to use and configure. Visually, it looks very much like **CDE** , found on commercial UNIX systems. Some of **XFce** 's features are:
485
486* A simple, easy-to-handle desktop
487
488* Fully configurable via mouse, with drag and drop, etc
489
490* Main panel similar to **CDE** , with menus, applets and applications launchers
491
492* Integrated window manager, file manager, sound manager, **GNOME** compliance module, and other things
493
494* Themeable (since it uses GTK+)
495
496* Fast, light and efficient: ideal for older/slower machines or machines with memory limitations
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499More information on **XFce** can be found on the [XFce website](http://www.xfce.org/).
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501
502
503#### Installing XFce
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507 A binary package for **XFce** exists. To install, simply type:
508
509 # pkg_radd xfce4
510
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512 Alternatively, to build from source, use the pkgsrc framework:
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515
516 # cd /usr/pkgsrc/meta-pkgs/xfce4
517
518 # bmake install clean
519
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522
523 Now, tell the X server to launch **XFce** the next time X is started. Simply type this:
524
525 % echo "/usr/pkg/bin/startxfce4" > ~/.xinitrc
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529 The next time X is started, **XFce** will be the desktop. As before, if a display manager like **XDM** is being used, create an `.xsession`, as described in the section on [ GNOME](x11-wm.html#X11-WM-GNOME), but with the `/usr/pkg/bin/startxfce4` command; or, configure the display manager to allow choosing a desktop at login time, as explained in the section on [ kdm](x11-wm.html#X11-WM-KDE-KDM).
530
531
532
533<!-- XXX: FreeBSD's handbook has a nice user-oriented section about X applications here. maybe we should have one, too -->
534
535----