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1Initial specification of the new DragonFly filesystem.\r
2Currently there is no name for this, DFS would have been nice, but is already overloaded.\r
3\r
4## Feature Summary \r
5\r
6
7* On-demand filesystem check and recovery. No need to scan the entire\r
8 filesystem before going live after a reboot.\r
9\r
10
11* Infinite snapshots (e.g. on the 30 second filesystem sync), ability\r
12 to collapse snapshots for any time interval as a means of\r
13 recovering space.\r
14\r
15
16* Multi-master operation, including the ability to self-heal a\r
17 corrupted filesystem by accessing replicated data. Multi-master \r
18 means that each replicated store can act as a master. New\r
19 filesystem ops can run independantly on any of the replicated stores\r
20 and will flow to the others. This is done by giving the controller\r
21 of each store a certain amount of guarenteed free space that can be\r
22 filled without having to notify other controllers.\r
23\r
24
25* Infinite logless Replication. No requirement to keep a log of changes\r
26 for the purposes of replication, meaning that replication targets can\r
27 be offline for 'days' without effecting performance or operation.\r
28 ('mobile' computing, but also replication over slow links for backup\r
29 purposes and other things). Certain information is still logged,\r
30 but only to streamline performance.\r
31\r
32
33* 64 bit file space, 64 bit filesystem space. No space restrictions\r
34 whatsoever.\r
35\r
36
37* Reliably handles data storage for huge multi-hundred-terrabyte\r
38 filesystems without fear of unrecoverable corruption.\r
39\r
40
41* Cluster operation - ability to commit data to locally replicated\r
42 store independantly of other replication nodes, with access governed\r
43 by cache coherency protocols.\r
44\r
45
46* Independant index. Data is laid out in a highly recoverable fashion,\r
47 independant of index generation. Indexes can be regenerated from\r
48 scratch and thus indexes can be updated asynchronously.\r
49\r
50## Segmentation \r
51\r
52The physical storage backing a filesystem is broken up into large\r
531MB-4GB segments (64MB is a typical value). Each segment is\r
54self-identifying and contains its own header, data table, and record\r
55table. The operating system glues together filesystems and determines\r
56availability based on the segments it finds.\r
57\r
58All segments on a block device are the same size (power-of-2 restricted)\r
59and the OS can probe the disk without any other information simply by\r
60locating a segment header, starting with the largest possible segment\r
61size. Segment size is typically chosen such that a scan of all segment\r
62headers takes no longer then a few seconds.\r
63\r
64
65* The segment header contains all the information required to associate\r
66 the segment with a filesystem. Certain information in the segment\r
67 header is updated with an ordered write to 'commit' other work already\r
68 flushed out into the segment. The segment header also contains a \r
69 bit indicating whether the segment is 'open' or not, to aid in \r
70 on-demand recovery.\r
71\r
72 The segment ID is stored in the segment header, allowing segments\r
73 to be easily relocated. That is, the segment's location in the\r
74 physical backing store is irrelevant.\r
75\r
76
77* The data table consists of pure data, laid out linearly in the forward\r
78 direction within the segment. Data blocks are variable-sized entities\r
79 containing pure data, with no other identifying information, suitable\r
80 for direct DMA. The segment header has a simple append index for\r
81 the data table.\r
82\r
83
84* The record table consists of fixed-sized records and a reference to\r
85 data in the data table. The record table is built backwards from\r
86 the end of the segment. The segment header has a simple pre-append\r
87 index for the record table. Each record consists of:\r
88\r
89
90* an object identifier (e.g. inode number)\r
91
92* creation transid\r
93
94* deletion transid (updated in-place)\r
95
96* indexing key (offset or filename key)\r
97
98* data table reference (offset, bytes) (up to a 1GB contiguous ref)\r
99
100* integrity check\r
101\r
102All data elements are completely identified by the record table. All\r
103modifications are historical in nature... that is, no actual data is\r
104destroyed and one can access a 'snapshot' of the segment as of any\r
105transaction id (i.e. timestamp) simply by ignoring those records\r
106marked as deleted prior to the specified time or created after\r
107the specified time. \r
108\r
109Certain updates to the object table occur in-place. In particular,\r
110the deletion transaction id is updated in-place. However, such\r
111updates are not considered 'committed' until the segment header itself\r
112is updated with the latest committed transaction id and a recovery\r
113operation will undo any deletion transaction id greater then the\r
114committed transaction id in the segment header, as well as free\r
115any uncommitted objects and their related data.\r
116\r
117The entire filesystem can be recovered from just the record and data\r
118tables. Indexing and cross-segment spanning is described in later\r
119sections.\r
120\r
121## Physical space recovery \r
122\r
123Physical space recovery requires actually destroying records marked\r
124as deleted. Snapshots can be collapsed by destroying records whos\r
125creation AND deletion id's fall within the collapsed space. The oldest\r
126data is freed up by destroying records whos deletion id is less then\r
127the terminal timestamp. \r
128\r
129Record destruction creates holes in both the data table and the record\r
130table. Any holes adjacent to the data table append point or the record\r
131table prepend point are immediately recovered by adjusting the \r
132appropriate indices in the segment header. The operating system may\r
133cache a record of non-adjacent holes (in memory) and reuse the space,\r
134and can also generate an in-memory index of available holes on the\r
135fly when space is very tight (which requires scanning the record table),\r
136but otherwise the recovery of any space not adjacent to the data table\r
137append point requires a performance reorganization of the segment.\r
138\r
139## Locating Data objects, and the Master Record \r
140\r
141Data objects are basically the amalgamation of all records with\r
142the same 64 bit object identifier. The top N bits of this identifier\r
143indicate the segment the master record for the data object resides in.\r
144All 64 bits are made available to userland.\r
145\r
146The filesystem needs to be free to relocate the master record for\r
147a data object on the fly. Relocation is a dynamic process whereby \r
148the master record in a segment becomes a forwarding record to another\r
149segment. Any references to a forwarding record is adjusted on the fly\r
150in order to collapse the chain, and any intermediate forwarding records\r
151can be physically destroyed once all references to them have been\r
152adjusted. However, the ORIGINAL forwarding record must be retained\r
153for all time in order to maintain the uniqueness of the originally\r
154assigned user-visible inode number and to give us a way to locate\r
155the master record given the inode number. We cannot change the inode\r
156number. Overhead is minimal.\r
157\r
158A forwarding record is created in two situations:\r
1591. To move the master record to improve performance\r
1602. If the current segment does not have sufficient space to increase the\r
161size the master record if it becomes necessary to do so.\r
162\r
163A forwarding record is a degenerate case of a master record and the\r
164forwarding information is embedded in the record itself, with no\r
165data table reference at all. The space used is only the space required\r
166to store a record table entry.\r
167\r
168The master record for a data object is a special record in the record\r
169table. It is special because it is NOT part of the historical data\r
170store. The creation and deletion transaction ids represent the creation\r
171or deletion of the entire data object, and the data block contains\r
172information on where to find the other bits and pieces of the data\r
173object (in particular, if the data object spans more then one segment).\r
174***'A corrupted Master Record can be completely reconstructed by scanninG\r
175the filesystem***'.\r
176\r
177The master record can be thought of as a persistent cache. It gives\r
178the filesystem a way to quickly locate all the segments that might\r
179contain records for the data object and reserves a limited amount of\r
180space for the filesystem to store direct references to data residing\r
181in the same segment as the master record.\r
182\r
183Master record updates are fairly rare. For the most part a master\r
184record must only be updated if a file or directory grows into a\r
185new segment.\r
186\r
187## Performance reorganization \r
188\r
189Segments can be repacked in order to clean up fragmentation and \r
190reorganize data and records for more optimal access. Repacking is\r
191accomplished by copying the segment's data into a wholely new\r
192segment on the physical disk, then destroying the old segment.\r
193\r
194Since a segment is identified by its header the actual location of\r
195the segment on the physical media is irrelevant.\r
196\r
197For example, master records can wind up strewn about the record\r
198table for a segment. Repacking would pack all of those master\r
199records next to each other.\r
200\r
201Similarly, a file or directory might have bits and pieces of data\r
202strewn about a segment. Repacking would de-fragment those entities,\r
203as well as pack together the data related to small files and \r
204separate out the larger chunks related to larger files.\r
205\r
206## Segment Allocation \r
207\r
208Remember that since the actual physical location of a segment is\r
209independant of the segment identifier (typically an 8 or 16 bit\r
210number), the allocation of segment numbers does not have to be\r
211linear. The filesystem will typically be generous in its allocation\r
212of segment numbers in order to allow for spill over growth of files\r
213into logically adjacent segments, thus simplifying the segment\r
214range stored in the master record that describes which segments\r
215might contain data records for a data object. For example,\r
216the first segment allocated by the filesystem when using a 16 bit\r
217segment id would not be 0x0000 or 0xffff, but probably 0x8000. The\r
218next segment allocated (when not doing a spill-over) might be 0x4000\r
219or 0xc000, and so forth. The entire segment space is used even\r
220if there are fewer actual (physical) segments.\r
221\r
222## Large cross-segment objects \r
223\r
224A Data object can wind up being far larger then a segment. For that\r
225matter, even a small data object with a lot of history can wind up being\r
226far larger then a segment.\r
227\r
228The filesystem does its best to organize the data for such objects\r
229to reduce the size of the master records required to describe them\r
230and to separate historical data from current data, to maintain the\r
231performance of the live filesystem.\r
232\r
233## Indexing \r
234\r
235An object's master record generally describes the segments containing\r
236the data for the object, and may contain direct references to data\r
237in the same segment as the master record (an optimization or performance \r
238reorganization that is desireable for files smaller then a single\r
239segment).\r
240\r
241However, data objects can grow to be many records due to fragmentation,\r
242simply being large files, or due to the retention of a great deal of\r
243history. The records pertaining to these objects may have to be indexed\r
244beyond the space the filesystem is willing to reserve in the master\r
245record in order to improve access.\r
246\r
247To make it clear, indexing is an optimization. The index is not\r
248required to recover a segment or to recover a filesystem. The intent\r
249is for the master record to always contain sufficient information\r
250to reduce the number I/O's required to resolve a file access request\r
251to a reasonable number, even if no index is available.\r
252\r
253Indexing can occur in three places:\r
254\r
255
256* First, it can occur in the segment itself to organize the records\r
257 in that segment. Such indexes are usually persistently cached in the\r
258 dead space between the data table and the record table, and the \r
259 filesystem heuristically determines how much space is needed for\r
260 that. If the data table or the record table grows into the index\r
261 the filesystem can choose to relocate, regenerate, or shift the index\r
262 data, or to disallow the growth (extend the data object into a new\r
263 segment). These heuristics are fairly simple.\r
264\r
265
266* Second, it can occur in the master record to roughly organize the\r
267 data space... for example so the filesystem does not have to check\r
268 all segments if a particular file offset (or offset range) and all\r
269 of its history is known to reside in just one. The filesystem\r
270 typically is only willing to allow so much space in the master record\r
271 for a data object to store such an index. If this level of index\r
272 becomes too large it is basically simplified in-place and starts\r
273 requiring the use of the per-segment index to further resolve the\r
274 location of data records for the object.\r
275\r
276
277* Third, it can be generated and cached in memory. When dealing with\r
278 very large multi-segment files it may be beneficial to scan\r
279 the relatively few records in the record table for the related segments\r
280 and simply index them in memory, rather then store an index on-disk.\r
281\r
282 For example if you are using 64MB segments and have a 20GB file,\r
283 literally only 320 disk accesses (with a few data records read in\r
284 each access) are required to construct an index of the entire 20GB\r
285 file and the index itself would require very little memory.\r
286\r
287Indexes are asynchronous entities. The 'official' filesystem store is\r
288the data table and the record table. The host can cache updates in\r
289memory, and asynchronously update the performance-improving index. \r
290\r
291Indexes residing in segments are regenerated if the segment is marked\r
292open on initial access (due to an unclean shutdown). This allows\r
293persistent per-segment indexes to be updated without requiring any\r
294particular transactional disk synchronization or block ordering.\r
295\r
296Indexes are generally implemented using a B+Tree structure.\r
297\r
298## Replication \r
299\r
300Data and record elements are only directly referenced by their offset\r
301within a segment when referenced from within that same segment. This\r
302means that replication is possible on a segment-by-segment basis.\r
303\r
304Segment headers contain asynchronously updated record update log areas\r
305for deletion events (because these modify the deletion timestamp in\r
306an existing record rather then append a new record). These log areas\r
307are of limited size and can overflow under normal operation. They are\r
308ONLY used to streamline replication. If a replication target is not\r
309fast enough, it will have to resynchronize by scanning the records\r
310on the source (which itself doesn't usually take very long to do so it\r
311isn't considered a big deal). But otherwise it can check the log area\r
312and simply pick up where it left off. The intention is to completely\r
313support both very slow replication slaves and mostly off-line slaves.\r
314\r
315The only thing that is actually replicated are the record table\r
316entries and (with the exception of a master record) the data table\r
317entries. The data table entry for a master record is never replicated,\r
318but (re)generated by the replication target. The replication target\r
319is responsible for maintaining its own indexes and managing its own\r
320physical segment space. This gives any replication target a great\r
321deal of robustness and flexibility.\r
322\r
323Also note that the physical location of the logical segments on the\r
324replication target is entirely up to the replication target. Replication\r
325is done logically, not physically.\r
326\r
327## Segment Expansion - Virtual segments \r
328\r
329A replication target may wish to retain historical data that the \r
330replication source has not, or destroy historical data that the\r
331replication source intends to retain. This can result in the replication\r
332target running out of room in a logical segment, and can also complicate\r
333recovery operations if the replication source needs to self-heal a\r
334corrupted segment. This presents a problem because all filesystem\r
335accesses and all replication and recovery activities are segment-centric.\r
336\r
337To deal with this situation a logical segment can be turned into a \r
338virtual segment. A virtual segment is made up of multiple logical\r
339segments, all with the same identifier plus additional information\r
340in the segment distinguishing the pieces from each other. Each logical\r
341segment is maintained independantly but API accesses check both\r
342(or all N such segments) when doing lookups, and write to whichever\r
343one has free space. \r
344\r
345Virtual segments are pretty standard fare on replication slaves which\r
346are intended to archive a great deal more history then replication\r
347masters, but are intended to be very rare features of replication\r
348masters. If a virtual segment must be created on a replication master\r
349the filesystem does all it can to shift data off the virtual segment\r
350in order to be able to collapse it back into a logical segment.\r
351\r
352Virtual segmentation is not space efficient.\r
353\r
354## Files and Directories \r
355\r
356As has been described, a data object (which can be a file or directory\r
357or other filesystem entity) is identified by a data object id, which\r
358is effectively its inode, and a 64 bit key field. The key field is\r
359typically a base offset for a file or a sortable key for a directory\r
360entry. Negative numbers are used for meta-data. For example, -1 will\r
361be used for the inode data & stat information. Other negative numbers\r
362will be used to support other meta-data such as ACLs.\r
363\r
364Since records support variable-length data, the data storage for a file\r
365is effectively extent-based. Minimum granularity will be something like\r
36632 bytes.\r
367\r
368Files are thus fairly straight forward.\r
369\r
370From the point of view of the filesystem each directory entry will\r
371be a data record. The data record will basically just contain the\r
372inode number, type, and filename. It will be variable-length insofar\r
373as the filename is variable length.\r
374\r
375Most files will be representable in a single extent (or at least\r
376can be optimized into a single extent), and so will not depend very\r
377heavily on indexing.\r
378\r
379Directory lookups WILL depend on the indexing of the directory records\r
380for efficiency, otherwise every record would have to be scanned to\r
381lookup a filename. In this regard a B+Tree is probably the best \r
382solution.\r
383\r
384## Inode Number Uniqueness \r
385\r
386Inode numbers are 64 bits where the top N bits represent the segment\r
387in which the inode was originally allocated, identifying the master\r
388record for the data object. Inode numbers do not change even if\r
389the master record is relocated and the original master record replaced\r
390with a forwarding record. The forwarding record must be retained\r
391in order to guarentee the uniqueness of the inode number.\r
392\r
393This also allows inode numbers to be allocated on a per-segment basis,\r
394with 48 bits of uniqueness (one trillion file creates & deletes) within\r
395each segment.\r
396\r
397The filesystem will always allocate new inode numbers using a sequence\r
398number maintained in the segment header. When all 48 bits are used up,\r
399however, the filesystem must check new inode numbers against existing\r
400numbers (including any deleted historical objects). \r
401\r
402Inode number uniqueness over all time can no longer be guarenteed, but\r
403inode number uniqueness over a period of time **can** still be guarenteed\r
404by retaining the master record for deleted files for a period of time\r
405 **even after they have been destroyed** . The system operator can specify\r
406the retention time with the caveat that certain benchmarks might cause\r
407the disk to fill up or become somewhat less efficient even when \r
408historical data is purged.\r
409\r
410It is recommended that any exported or clustered filesystems set the\r
411inode number retention time to at least a week. Inode number uniqueness\r
412is crucial to cluster operation.\r