Only mention X.org
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a86df2f3 1# The X Window System
a86df2f3 2***Updated for X.Org's X11 server by Ken Tom and Marc Fonvieille. Updated for DragonFly by Victor Balada Diaz.***
3
ca543863 4[[!toc levels=3]]
5
a86df2f3 6
7## Synopsis
8
c39f860a 9DragonFly uses X11 to provide users with a powerful graphical user interface. X11 is an open-source implementation of the X Window System that includes both **X.org** and **XFree86™** . DragonFly default official flavor is **X.org**. This chapter will cover the installation and configuration of X11. For more information on the video hardware that X11 supports, check either [X.org](http://www.x.org/) web site.
a86df2f3 10
11
12
13After reading this chapter, you will know:
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15
16
17
18* The various components of the X Window System, and how they interoperate.
19* How to install and configure X11.
20* How to install and use different window managers.
21* How to use True***Type® fonts in X11.
22* How to set up your system for graphical logins ( **XDM** ).
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24
25
26Before reading this chapter, you should:
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28* Know how to install additional third-party software. Compare the pkgsrc chapter of the handbook.
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a86df2f3 30
31
32
33
34## Understanding X
35
36### The Window Manager
37
38
39
40The X design philosophy is much like the UNIX design philosophy, ***tools, not policy***. This means that X does not try to dictate how a task is to be accomplished. Instead, tools are provided to the user, and it is the user's responsibility to decide how to use those tools. This philosophy extends to X not dictating what windows should look like on screen, how to move them around with the mouse, what keystrokes should be used to move between windows (i.e., **Alt** + **Tab** , in the case of Microsoft Windows), what the title bars on each window should look like, whether or not they have close buttons on them, and so on.
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c39f860a 44Instead, X delegates this responsibility to an application called a ***Window Manager***. There are dozens of window managers available for X: ***'After***Step***', **Blackbox** , **ctwm** , **Enlightenment** , **fvwm** , **Sawfish** , **twm** , **Window Maker** , and more. Each of these window managers provides a different look and feel; some of them support ***virtual desktops***; some of them allow customized keystrokes to manage the desktop; some have a ***Start*** button or similar device; some are ***themeable***, allowing a complete change of look-and-feel by applying a new theme. These window managers, and many more, are available in the `wm` category of the pkgsrc collection.
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46
47
48In addition, the **KDE** and **GNOME** desktop environments both have their own window managers which integrate with the desktop. Each window manager also has a different configuration mechanism; some expect configuration file written by hand, others feature GUI tools for most of the configuration tasks; at least one ( **Sawfish** ) has a configuration file written in a dialect of the Lisp language.
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51
52
53
54## Installing X
55
5fa36c0a 56**X.org** is currently available in the DragonFly pkgsrc framework.
a86df2f3 57
a86df2f3 58
5fa36c0a 59To install:
a86df2f3 60
5fa36c0a 61 # cd /usr/pkgsrc/x11/modular-xorg
a86df2f3 62 # bmake install clean
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65
5fa36c0a 66
67Alternatively, X11 can be installed directly from pre built packages with [pkg_radd(1)](http://leaf.dragonflybsd.org/cgi/web-man?command=pkg_radd&section=1). So to fetch and install the package of **X.org**, type:
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69
5fa36c0a 70 # pkg_radd modular-xorg
a86df2f3 71
72
5fa36c0a 73**Note:** The examples above will install the complete X11 distribution including the server, drivers, programs, libraries and fonts. Separate packages for everything are available.
a86df2f3 74
75
76
77
78----
79
80
81
82## Configuring X
83
84
85
86 ***Contributed by Christopher Shumway. ***
87
88
89
90### Before Starting
91
92
93
94Before configuration of X11 the following information about the target system is needed:
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96
97
98
99* Monitor specifications
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101
102* Video Adapter chipset
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104
105* Video Adapter memory
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107
108
109The specifications for the monitor are used by X11 to determine the resolution and refresh rate to run at. These specifications can usually be obtained from the documentation that came with the monitor or from the manufacturer's website. There are two ranges of numbers that are needed, the horizontal scan rate and the vertical synchronization rate.
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111
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113The video adapter's chipset defines what driver module X11 uses to talk to the graphics hardware. With most chipsets, this can be automatically determined, but it is still useful to know in case the automatic detection does not work correctly.
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117Video memory on the graphic adapter determines the resolution and color depth which the system can run at. This is important to know so the user knows the limitations of the system.
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119
120
121### Configuring X11
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125As of version 7.3, Xorg can often work without any configuration file by simply typing at prompt:
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127
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129 % startx
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134If this does not work, or if the default configuration is not acceptable, then X11 must be configured manually. Configuration of X11 is a multi-step process. The first step is to build an initial configuration file. As the super user, simply run:
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136
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138 # Xorg -configure
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141This will generate an X11 configuration skeleton file in the `/root` directory called `xorg.conf.new` (whether you [su(1)](http://leaf.dragonflybsd.org/cgi/web-man?command=su&section=1) or do a direct login affects the inherited supervisor `$HOME` directory variable). The X11 program will attempt to probe the graphics hardware on the system and write a configuration file to load the proper drivers for the detected hardware on the target system.
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143
144
145The next step is to test the existing configuration to verify that **X.org** can work with the graphics hardware on the target system. To perform this task, type:
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147
148
149 # Xorg -config xorg.conf.new
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152If a black and grey grid and an X mouse cursor appear, the configuration was successful. To exit the test, just press **Ctrl** + **Alt** + **Backspace** simultaneously.
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154
155
156**Note:** If the mouse does not work, you will need to first configure it before proceeding. This can usually be achieved by just using `/dev/sysmouse` as the input device in the config file and enabling `moused`:
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158 # rcenable moused
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acaf9c4a 160**Note** http://technoninja.blogspot.com/2010/07/dragonflybsd-mouse-wtf-problem-fix.html
a86df2f3 161
162Next, tune the `xorg.conf.new` configuration file to taste. Open the file in a text editor such as [vi(1)](http://leaf.dragonflybsd.org/cgi/web-man?command=vi&section=1) or [ee(1)](http://leaf.dragonflybsd.org/cgi/web-man?command=ee&section=1). First, add the frequencies for the target system's monitor. These are usually expressed as a horizontal and vertical synchronization rate. These values are added to the `xorg.conf.new` file under the `"Monitor"` section:
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166 Section "Monitor"
167 Identifier "Monitor0"
168 VendorName "Monitor Vendor"
169 ModelName "Monitor Model"
170 HorizSync 30-107
171 VertRefresh 48-120
172 EndSection
173
174
175
176The `HorizSync` and `VertRefresh` keywords may be missing in the configuration file. If they are, they need to be added, with the correct horizontal synchronization rate placed after the `HorizSync` keyword and the vertical synchronization rate after the `VertRefresh` keyword. In the example above the target monitor's rates were entered.
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180X allows DPMS (Energy Star) features to be used with capable monitors. The [xset(1)](http://leaf.dragonflybsd.org/cgi/web-man?command=xset&section=1) program controls the time-outs and can force standby, suspend, or off modes. If you wish to enable DPMS features for your monitor, you must add the following line to the monitor section:
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182 Option "DPMS"
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186While the `xorg.conf.new` configuration file is still open in an editor, select the default resolution and color depth desired. This is defined in the `"Screen"` section:
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191
192 Section "Screen"
193 Identifier "Screen0"
194 Device "Card0"
195 Monitor "Monitor0"
196 DefaultDepth 24
197 SubSection "Display"
198 Viewport 0 0
199 Depth 24
200 Modes "1024x768"
201 EndSubSection
202 EndSection
203
204
205The `DefaultDepth` keyword describes the color depth to run at by default. This can be overridden with the `-depth` command line switch to [Xorg(1)](http://leaf.dragonflybsd.org/cgi/web-man?command=xorg&section=1). The `Modes` keyword describes the resolution to run at for the given color depth. Note that only VESA standard modes are supported as defined by the target system's graphics hardware. In the example above, the default color depth is twenty-four bits per pixel. At this color depth, the accepted resolution is 1024 by 768 pixels.
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207
208Finally, write the configuration file and test it using the test mode given above.
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210
211**Note:** One of the tools available to assist you during troubleshooting process are the X11 log files, which contain information on each device that the X11 server attaches to. **X.org** log file names are in the format of `/var/log/Xorg.0.log`. The exact name of the log can vary from `Xorg.0.log` to `Xorg.8.log` and so forth.
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215If all is well, the configuration file needs to be installed in a common location where [Xorg(1)](http://leaf.dragonflybsd.org/cgi/web-man?command=xorg&section=1) can find it. This is typically `/etc/X11/xorg.conf` or `/usr/pkg/xorg/lib/X11/xorg.conf`.
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218
219 # cp xorg.conf.new /etc/X11/xorg.conf
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221
222
223The X11 configuration process is now complete. You can start **X.org** with [startx(1)](http://leaf.dragonflybsd.org/cgi/web-man?command=startx&section=1). The X11 server may also be started with the use of [xdm(1)](http://leaf.dragonflybsd.org/cgi/web-man?command=xdm&section=1).
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225
226**Note:** There is also a graphical configuration tool, [xorgcfg(1)](http://leaf.dragonflybsd.org/cgi/web-man?command=xorgcfg&section=1), that comes with the X11 distribution. It allows you to interactively define your configuration by choosing the appropriate drivers and settings. This program can be invoked from the console, by typing the command `xorgcfg -textmode`. For more details, refer to the [xorgcfg(1)](http://leaf.dragonflybsd.org/cgi/web-man?command=xorgcfg&section=1) manual page.
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229Alternatively, there is also a tool called [xorgconfig(1)](http://leaf.dragonflybsd.org/cgi/web-man?command=xorgconfig&section=1), this program is a console utility that is less user friendly, but it may work in situations where the other tools do not.
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231
232
233### Advanced Configuration Topics
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235
236
237#### Configuration with Intel® i810 Graphics Chipsets
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241Configuration with Intel® i810 integrated chipsets requires the `agpgart` AGP programming interface for X11 to drive the card. See the [agp(4)](http://leaf.dragonflybsd.org/cgi/web-man?command=agp&section=4) driver manual page for more information.
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244This will allow configuration of the hardware as any other graphics board. Note on systems without the [agp(4)](http://leaf.dragonflybsd.org/cgi/web-man?command#agp&section4) driver compiled in the kernel, trying to load the module with [kldload(8)](http://leaf.dragonflybsd.org/cgi/web-man?command=kldload&section=8) will not work. This driver has to be in the kernel at boot time through being compiled in or using `/boot/loader.conf`.
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246
247**Note:** If you are using **XFree86 4.1.0** (or later) and messages about unresolved symbols like `fbPictureInit` appear, try adding the following line after `Driver "i810"` in the X11 configuration file:
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249 Option "NoDDC"
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251
252
253
254
255----
256
257
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259
260
261
262## Using Fonts in X11
263<!-- XXX: do we really need this? -->
264
265
266 ***Contributed by Murray Stokely. ***
267
268
269
270### Type1 Fonts
271
272
273
274 The default fonts that ship with X11 are less than ideal for typical desktop publishing applications. Large presentation fonts show up jagged and unprofessional looking, and small fonts in **Netscape®** are almost completely unintelligible. However, there are several free, high quality Type1 (Post***Script®) fonts available which can be readily used with X11. For instance, the Freefonts collection (['fonts/freefonts'](http://pkgsrc.se/fonts/freefonts)) includes a lot of fonts, but most of them are intended for use in graphics software such as the **Gimp** , and are not complete enough to serve as screen fonts. In addition, X11 can be configured to use True***Type® fonts with a minimum of effort. For more details on this, see the [X(7)](http://leaf.dragonflybsd.org/cgi/web-man?command=X&section=7) manual page or the [ section on TrueType fonts](x-fonts.html#TRUETYPE).
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278 To install the Freefonts font collection from the pkgsrc framework, run the following commands:
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284 # cd /usr/pkgsrc/fonts/freefonts
285
286 # bmake install clean
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291
292 And likewise with the other collections. To have the X server detect these fonts, add an appropriate line to the X server configuration file in `/etc/X11/xorg.conf`, which reads:
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298 FontPath "/usr/pkg/lib/X11/fonts/freefont/"
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304 Alternatively, at the command line in the X session run:
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310 % xset fp+ /usr/pkg/lib/X11/fonts/freefont/
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312 % xset fp rehash
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318 This will work but will be lost when the X session is closed, unless it is added to the startup file (`~/.xinitrc` for a normal `startx` session, or `~/.xsession` when logging in through a graphical login manager like **XDM** ). A third way is to use the new `/usr/pkg/xorg/etc/fonts/local.conf` file: see the section on [ anti-aliasing](x-fonts.html#ANTIALIAS).
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321
322### TrueType® Fonts
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326 **X.org** has built in support for rendering True***Type fonts. There are two different modules that can enable this functionality. The freetype module is used in this example because it is more consistent with the other font rendering back-ends. To enable the freetype module just add the following line to the `"Module"` section of the `/etc/X11/xorg.conf` file.
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332 Load "freetype"
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338 Now make a directory for the True***Type fonts (for example, `/usr/pkg/xorg/lib/X11/fonts/TrueType`) and copy all of the True***Type fonts into this directory. Keep in mind that True***Type fonts cannot be directly taken from a Macintosh®; they must be in UNIX®/MS-DOS®/Windows® format for use by X11. Once the files have been copied into this directory, use **ttmkfdir** to create a `fonts.dir` file, so that the X font renderer knows that these new files have been installed. 'ttmkfdir' is available from the pkgsrc framework as [`fonts/ttmkfdir2`](http://pkgsrc.se/fonts/ttmkfdir2).
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342
343
344 # cd /usr/pkg/xorg/lib/X11/fonts/TrueType
345
346 # ttmkfdir -o fonts.dir
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352 Now add the True***Type directory to the font path. This is just the same as described above for [ Type1](x-fonts.html#TYPE1) fonts, that is, use
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357
358 % xset fp+ /usr/pkg/xorg/lib/X11/fonts/TrueType
359
360 % xset fp rehash
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366 or add a `FontPath` line to the `xorg.conf` file.
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370 That's it. Now **Netscape** , **Gimp** , ***'Star***Office™***', and all of the other X applications should now recognize the installed True***Type fonts. Extremely small fonts (as with text in a high resolution display on a web page) and extremely large fonts (within **Star`Office** ) will look much better now.
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373
374### Anti-Aliased Fonts
375
376
377
378 ***Updated by Joe Marcus Clarke. ***
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382 Anti-aliasing has been available in X11 since **XFree86** 4.0.2. However, font configuration was cumbersome before the introduction of **XFree86** 4.3.0. Beginning with **XFree86** 4.3.0, all fonts in X11 that are found in `/usr/pkg/xorg/lib/X11/fonts/` and `~/.fonts/` are automatically made available for anti-aliasing to Xft-aware applications. Not all applications are Xft-aware, but many have received Xft support. Examples of Xft-aware applications include Qt 2.3 and higher (the toolkit for the **KDE** desktop), GTK+ 2.0 and higher (the toolkit for the **GNOME** desktop), and **Mozilla** 1.2 and higher.
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386 In order to control which fonts are anti-aliased, or to configure anti-aliasing properties, create (or edit, if it already exists) the file `/usr/pkg/xorg/lib/etc/fonts/local.conf`. Several advanced features of the Xft font system can be tuned using this file; this section describes only some simple possibilities. For more details, please see [fonts-conf(5)](http://leaf.dragonflybsd.org/cgi/web-man?command=fonts-conf&section=5).
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390 This file must be in XML format. Pay careful attention to case, and make sure all tags are properly closed. The file begins with the usual XML header followed by a DOCTYPE definition, and then the `<fontconfig>` tag:
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396 <?xml version="1.0"?>;
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398 <!DOCTYPE fontconfig SYSTEM "fonts.dtd">
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400 <fontconfig>
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406 As previously stated, all fonts in `/usr/pkg/xorg/lib/X11/fonts/` as well as `~/.fonts/` are already made available to Xft-aware applications. If you wish to add another directory outside of these two directory trees, add a line similar to the following to `/usr/pkg/lib/etc/fonts/local.conf`:
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412 <dir>/path/to/my/fonts</dir>;
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418 After adding new fonts, and especially new font directories, you should run the following command to rebuild the font caches:
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424 # fc-cache -f
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430 Anti-aliasing makes borders slightly fuzzy, which makes very small text more readable and removes "staircases" from large text, but can cause eyestrain if applied to normal text. To exclude font sizes smaller than 14 point from anti-aliasing, include these lines:
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434
435
436 <match target="font">
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438 <test name#"size" compare"less">
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440 <double>14</double>
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442 </test>
443
444 <edit name#"antialias" mode"assign">
445
446 <bool>false</bool>
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448 </edit>
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450 </match>
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452 <match target="font">
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454 <test name#"pixelsize" compare"less" qual="any">
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456 <double>14</double>
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458 </test>
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460 <edit mode#"assign" name"antialias">
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462 <bool>false</bool>
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464 </edit>
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466 </match>
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472 Spacing for some monospaced fonts may also be inappropriate with anti-aliasing. This seems to be an issue with **KDE** , in particular. One possible fix for this is to force the spacing for such fonts to be 100. Add the following lines:
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477
478 <match target#"pattern" name"family">
479
480 <test qual#"any" name"family">
481
482 <string>fixed</string>
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484 </test>
485
486 <edit name#"family" mode"assign">
487
488 <string>mono</string>
489
490 </edit>
491
492 </match>
493
494 <match target#"pattern" name"family">
495
496 <test qual#"any" name"family">
497
498 <string>console</string>
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500 </test>
501
502 <edit name#"family" mode"assign">
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504 <string>mono</string>
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506 </edit>
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508 </match>
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514 (this aliases the other common names for fixed fonts as `"mono"`), and then add:
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520 <match target#"pattern" name"family">
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522 <test qual#"any" name"family">
523
524 <string>mono</string>
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526 </test>
527
528 <edit name#"spacing" mode"assign">
529
530 <int>100</int>
531
532 </edit>
533
534 </match>
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540 Certain fonts, such as Helvetica, may have a problem when anti-aliased. Usually this manifests itself as a font that seems cut in half vertically. At worst, it may cause applications such as **Mozilla** to crash. To avoid this, consider adding the following to `local.conf`:
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546 <match target#"pattern" name"family">
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548 <test qual#"any" name"family">
549
550 <string>Helvetica</string>
551
552 </test>
553
554 <edit name#"family" mode"assign">
555
556 <string>sans-serif</string>
557
558 </edit>
559
560 </match>
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566 Once you have finished editing `local.conf` make sure you end the file with the `</fontconfig>` tag. Not doing this will cause your changes to be ignored.
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570 The default font set that comes with X11 is not very desirable when it comes to anti-aliasing. A much better set of default fonts can be found in the ['fonts/vera-ttf'](http://pkgsrc.se/fonts/vera-ttf) port. This port will install a `/usr/pkg/lib/etc/fonts/local.conf` file if one does not exist already. If the file does exist, the port will create a `/usr/pkg/lib/etc/fonts/local.conf-vera ` file. Merge the contents of this file into `/usr/pkg/lib/etc/fonts/local.conf`, and the Bitstream fonts will automatically replace the default X11 Serif, Sans Serif, and Monospaced fonts.
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574 Finally, users can add their own settings via their personal `.fonts.conf` files. To do this, each user should simply create a `~/.fonts.conf`. This file must also be in XML format.
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577
578 One last point: with an LCD screen, sub-pixel sampling may be desired. This basically treats the (horizontally separated) red, green and blue components separately to improve the horizontal resolution; the results can be dramatic. To enable this, add the line somewhere in the `local.conf` file:
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582
583
584 <match target="font">
585
586 <test qual#"all" name"rgba">
587
588 <const>unknown</const>
589
590 </test>
591
592 <edit name#"rgba" mode"assign">
593
594 <const>rgb</const>
595
596 </edit>
597
598 </match>
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604 **Note:** Depending on the sort of display, `rgb` may need to be changed to `bgr`, `vrgb` or `vbgr`: experiment and see which works best.
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610 Anti-aliasing should be enabled the next time the X server is started. However, programs must know how to take advantage of it. At present, the Qt toolkit does, so the entire **KDE** environment can use anti-aliased fonts. GTK+ and **GNOME** can also be made to use anti-aliasing via the "Font" capplet (see [x11-wm.html#X11-WM-GNOME-ANTIALIAS Section 5.7.1.3] for details). By default, **Mozilla** 1.2 and greater will automatically use anti-aliasing. To disable this, rebuild **Mozilla** with the `-DWITHOUT_XFT` flag.
611
612
613----
614
615
616
617## The X Display Manager
618
619 ***Contributed by Seth Kingsley.***
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621
622
623### Overview
624
625
626
627 The X Display Manager ( **XDM** ) is an optional part of the X Window System that is used for login session management. This is useful for several types of situations, including minimal "X Terminals", desktops, and large network display servers. Since the X Window System is network and protocol independent, there are a wide variety of possible configurations for running X clients and servers on different machines connected by a network. **XDM** provides a graphical interface for choosing which display server to connect to, and entering authorization information such as a login and password combination.
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631 Think of **XDM** as providing the same functionality to the user as the [getty(8)](http://leaf.dragonflybsd.org/cgi/web-man?command=getty&section=8) utility (see [ Section 17.3.2](term.html#TERM-CONFIG) for details). That is, it performs system logins to the display being connected to and then runs a session manager on behalf of the user (usually an X window manager). **XDM** then waits for this program to exit, signaling that the user is done and should be logged out of the display. At this point, **XDM** can display the login and display chooser screens for the next user to login.
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634
635### Using XDM
636
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639 The **XDM** daemon program is located in `/usr/pkg/xorg/bin/xdm`. This program can be run at any time as `root` and it will start managing the X display on the local machine. If **XDM** is to be run every time the machine boots up, a convenient way to do this is by adding an entry to `/etc/ttys`. For more information about the format and usage of this file, see [ Section 17.3.2.1](term.html#TERM-ETCTTYS). There is a line in the default `/etc/ttys` file for running the **XDM** daemon on a virtual terminal:
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644
645 ttyv8 "/usr/pkg/xorg/bin/xdm -nodaemon" xterm off secure
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651 By default this entry is disabled; in order to enable it change field 5 from `off` to `on` and restart [init(8)](http://leaf.dragonflybsd.org/cgi/web-man?command=init&section=8) using the directions in [ Section 17.3.2.2](term.html#TERM-HUP). The first field, the name of the terminal this program will manage, is `ttyv8`. This means that **XDM** will start running on the 9th virtual terminal.
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653
654
655### Configuring XDM
656
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659 The **XDM** configuration directory is located in `/var/lib/xdm`. The sample configuration files are in `/usr/pkg/share/examples/xorg/xdm/`, in this directory there are several files used to change the behavior and appearance of **XDM** . Typically these files will be found:
660
661
662[[!table data="""
663<tablestyle="width:100%"> **File** | **Description**
664<tablestyle="width:100%"> `Xaccess` | Client authorization ruleset.
665`Xresources` | Default X resource values.
666`Xservers` | List of remote and local displays to manage.
667`Xsession` | Default session script for logins.
668`Xsetup_`* | Script to launch applications before the login interface.
669`xdm-config` | Global configuration for all displays running on this machine.
670`xdm-errors` | Errors generated by the server program.
671`xdm-pid` | The process ID of the currently running XDM. |
672
673"""]]
674
675
676 Also in this directory are a few scripts and programs used to set up the desktop when **XDM** is running. The purpose of each of these files will be briefly described. The exact syntax and usage of all of these files is described in [xdm(1)](http://leaf.dragonflybsd.org/cgi/web-man?command=xdm&section=1).
677
678
679
680 The default configuration is a simple rectangular login window with the hostname of the machine displayed at the top in a large font and "Login:" and "Password:" prompts below. This is a good starting point for changing the look and feel of **XDM** screens.
681
682
683
684#### Xaccess
685
686
687
688 The protocol for connecting to **XDM** controlled displays is called the X Display Manager Connection Protocol (XDMCP). This file is a ruleset for controlling XDMCP connections from remote machines. It is ignored unless the `xdm-config` is changed to listen for remote connections. By default, it does not allow any clients to connect.
689
690
691
692#### Xresources
693
694
695
696 This is an application-defaults file for the display chooser and the login screens. This is where the appearance of the login program can be modified. The format is identical to the app-defaults file described in the X11 documentation.
697
698
699
700#### Xservers
701
702
703
704 This is a list of the remote displays the chooser should provide as choices.
705
706
707
708#### Xsession
709
710
711
712 This is the default session script for **XDM** to run after a user has logged in. Normally each user will have a customized session script in `~/.xsession` that overrides this script.
713
714
715
716#### Xsetup_*
717
718
719
720 These will be run automatically before displaying the chooser or login interfaces. There is a script for each display being used, named `Xsetup_` followed by the local display number (for instance `Xsetup_0`). Typically these scripts will run one or two programs in the background such as `xconsole`.
721
722
723
724#### xdm-config
725
726
727
728 This contains settings in the form of app-defaults that are applicable to every display that this installation manages.
729
730
731
732#### xdm-errors
733
734
735
736 This contains the output of the X servers that **XDM** is trying to run. If a display that **XDM** is trying to start hangs for some reason, this is a good place to look for error messages. These messages are also written to the user's `~/.xsession-errors` file on a per-session basis.
737
738
739
740### Running a Network Display Server
741
742
743
744 In order for other clients to connect to the display server, edit the access control rules, and enable the connection listener. By default these are set to conservative values. To make **XDM** listen for connections, first comment out a line in the `xdm-config` file:
745
746
747
748
749
750 ! SECURITY: do not listen for XDMCP or Chooser requests
751
752 ! Comment out this line if you want to manage X terminals with xdm
753
754 DisplayManager.requestPort: 0
755
756
757
758
759
760 and then restart **XDM** . Remember that comments in app-defaults files begin with a "!" character, not the usual "#". More strict access controls may be desired. Look at the example entries in `Xaccess`, and refer to the [xdm(1)](http://leaf.dragonflybsd.org/cgi/web-man?command=xdm&section=1) manual page for further information.
761
762
763
764### Replacements for XDM
765
766
767
768 Several replacements for the default **XDM** program exist. One of them, **kdm** (bundled with **KDE** ) is described later in this chapter. The **kdm** display manager offers many visual improvements and cosmetic frills, as well as the functionality to allow users to choose their window manager of choice at login time.
769
770
771----
772
773
774
775## Desktop Environments
776
777 ***Contributed by Valentino Vaschetto. ***
778
779 This section describes the different desktop environments available for X on FreeBSD. A ***desktop environment*** can mean anything ranging from a simple window manager to a complete suite of desktop applications, such as **KDE** or **GNOME** .
780
781
782
783### GNOME
784
785
786
787#### About GNOME
788
789
790
791 **GNOME** is a user-friendly desktop environment that enables users to easily use and configure their computers. **GNOME** includes a panel (for starting applications and displaying status), a desktop (where data and applications can be placed), a set of standard desktop tools and applications, and a set of conventions that make it easy for applications to cooperate and be consistent with each other. Users of other operating systems or environments should feel right at home using the powerful graphics-driven environment that **GNOME** provides.
792
793
794
795#### Installing GNOME
796
797
798
799 **GNOME** can be easily installed from a package or from the pkgsrc framework:
800
801
802
803 To install the **GNOME** package from the network, simply type:
804
805 # pkg_radd gnome
806
807
808
809
810
811 To build **GNOME** from source, use the ports tree:
812
813
814
815 # cd /usr/pkgsrc/meta-pkgs/gnome
816
817 # bmake install clean
818
819
820
821 Once **GNOME** is installed, the X server must be told to start **GNOME** instead of a default window manager.
822
823
824
825 The easiest way to start **GNOME** is with **GDM** , the GNOME Display Manager. **GDM** , which is installed as a part of the **GNOME** desktop (but is disabled by default), can be enabled by adding `gdm_enable="YES"` to `/etc/rc.conf`. Once you have rebooted, **GNOME** will start automatically once you log in -- no further configuration is necessary.
826
827
828
829**GNOME** may also be started from the command-line by properly configuring a file named `.xinitrc`. If a custom `.xinitrc` is already in place, simply replace the line that starts the current window manager with one that starts **/usr/pkg/bin/gnome-session** instead. If nothing special has been done to the configuration file, then it is enough simply to type:
830
831
832
833
834
835 % echo "/usr/pkg/bin/gnome-session" > ~/.xinitrc
836
837
838
839
840
841 Next, type `startx`, and the **GNOME** desktop environment will be started.
842
843
844**Note:** If an older display manager, like **XDM** , is being used, this will not work. Instead, create an executable `.xsession` file with the same command in it. To do this, edit the file and replace the existing window manager command with **/usr/pkg/bin/gnome-session** :
845
846
847
848
849
850 % echo "#!/bin/sh" > ~/.xsession
851
852 % echo "/usr/pkg/bin/gnome-session" >> ~/.xsession
853
854 % chmod +x ~/.xsession
855
856
857
858
859
860 Yet another option is to configure the display manager to allow choosing the window manager at login time; the section on [ KDE details](x11-wm.html#X11-WM-KDE-DETAILS) explains how to do this for **kdm** , the display manager of **KDE** .
861
862
863
864#### Anti-aliased Fonts with GNOME
865
866
867
868 X11 supports anti-aliasing via its ***RENDER*** extension. GTK+ 2.0 and greater (the toolkit used by **GNOME** ) can make use of this functionality. Configuring anti-aliasing is described in [ Section 5.5.3](x-fonts.html#ANTIALIAS).
869
870 So, with up-to-date software, anti-aliasing is possible within the **GNOME** desktop. Just go to **Applications->Desktop Preferences->Font** , and select either Best shapes, Best contrast, or Subpixel smoothing (LCDs). For a GTK+ application that is not part of the **GNOME** desktop, set the environment variable `GDK_USE_XFT` to `1` before launching the program.
871
872
873
874### KDE
875
876
877
878#### About KDE
879
880
881
882 **KDE** is an easy to use contemporary desktop environment. Some of the things that **KDE** brings to the user are:
883
884* A beautiful contemporary desktop
885
886* A desktop exhibiting complete network transparency
887
888* An integrated help system allowing for convenient, consistent access to help on the use of the **KDE** desktop and its applications
889
890* Consistent look and feel of all **KDE** applications
891
892* Standardized menu and toolbars, keybindings, color-schemes, etc.
893
894* Internationalization: **KDE** is available in more than 40 languages
895
896* Centralized consisted dialog driven desktop configuration
897
898* A great number of useful **KDE** applications
899
900 **KDE** comes with a web browser called **Konqueror** , which represents a solid competitor to other existing web browsers on UNIX® systems. More information on **KDE** can be found on the [KDE website](http://www.kde.org/).
901
902
903
904#### Installing KDE
905
906
907 Just as with **GNOME** or any other desktop environment, the easiest way to install **KDE** is through the pkgsrc framework or from a package:
908
909
910
911 To install the **KDE** package from the network, simply type:
912
913 # pkg_radd kde3
914
915 or if you prefer the newer **KDE 4**, type:
916
917 # pkg_radd kde4
918
919 [pkg_radd(1)](http://leaf.dragonflybsd.org/cgi/web-man?command#pkg_radd&section1) will automatically fetch the latest version of the application.
920
921
922 To build **KDE** from source, use the pkgsrc framework:
923
924 # cd /usr/pkgsrc/meta-pkgs/kde3
925
926 # bmake install clean
927
928
929
930
931
932 After **KDE** has been installed, the X server must be told to launch this application instead of the default window manager. This is accomplished by editing the `.xinitrc` file:
933
934
935 % echo "exec startkde" > ~/.xinitrc
936
937
938 Now, whenever the X Window System is invoked with `startx`, **KDE** will be the desktop.
939
940 If a display manager such as **XDM** is being used, the configuration is slightly different. Edit the `.xsession` file instead. Instructions for **kdm** are described later in this chapter.
941
942
943
944#### More Details on KDE
945
946
947
948 Now that **KDE** is installed on the system, most things can be discovered through the help pages, or just by pointing and clicking at various menus. Windows® or Mac® users will feel quite at home.
949
950 The best reference for **KDE** is the on-line documentation. **KDE** comes with its own web browser, **Konqueror** , dozens of useful applications, and extensive documentation. The remainder of this section discusses the technical items that are difficult to learn by random exploration.
951
952
953
954#### The KDE Display Manager
955
956
957
958 An administrator of a multi-user system may wish to have a graphical login screen to welcome users. [ XDM](x-xdm.html) can be used, as described earlier. However, **KDE** includes an alternative, **kdm** , which is designed to look more attractive and include more login-time options. In particular, users can easily choose (via a menu) which desktop environment ( **KDE** , **GNOME** , or something else) to run after logging on.
959
960
961
962 To enable **kdm** , the `ttyv8` entry in `/etc/ttys` has to be adapted. The line should look as follows:
963
964
965 ttyv8 "/usr/pkg/bin/kdm -nodaemon" xterm on secure
966
967
968
969### XFce
970
971
972
973#### About XFce
974
975
976 **XFce** is a desktop environment based on the GTK+ toolkit used by **GNOME** , but is much more lightweight and meant for those who want a simple, efficient desktop which is nevertheless easy to use and configure. Visually, it looks very much like **CDE** , found on commercial UNIX systems. Some of **XFce** 's features are:
977
978* A simple, easy-to-handle desktop
979
980* Fully configurable via mouse, with drag and drop, etc
981
982* Main panel similar to **CDE** , with menus, applets and applications launchers
983
984* Integrated window manager, file manager, sound manager, **GNOME** compliance module, and other things
985
986* Themeable (since it uses GTK+)
987
988* Fast, light and efficient: ideal for older/slower machines or machines with memory limitations
989
990
991More information on **XFce** can be found on the [XFce website](http://www.xfce.org/).
992
993
994
995#### Installing XFce
996
997
998
999 A binary package for **XFce** exists. To install, simply type:
1000
1001 # pkg_radd xfce4
1002
1003
1004 Alternatively, to build from source, use the pkgsrc framework:
1005
1006
1007
1008 # cd /usr/pkgsrc/meta-pkgs/xfce4
1009
1010 # bmake install clean
1011
1012
1013
1014
1015 Now, tell the X server to launch **XFce** the next time X is started. Simply type this:
1016
1017 % echo "/usr/pkg/bin/startxfce4" > ~/.xinitrc
1018
1019
1020
1021 The next time X is started, **XFce** will be the desktop. As before, if a display manager like **XDM** is being used, create an `.xsession`, as described in the section on [ GNOME](x11-wm.html#X11-WM-GNOME), but with the `/usr/pkg/bin/startxfce4` command; or, configure the display manager to allow choosing a desktop at login time, as explained in the section on [ kdm](x11-wm.html#X11-WM-KDE-KDM).
1022
1023
1024
1025<!-- XXX: FreeBSD's handbook has a nice user-oriented section about X applications here. maybe we should have one, too -->
1026
1027----