Merge from vendor branch OPENSSL:
[dragonfly.git] / secure / usr.bin / openssl / man / x509v3_config.5
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124.\" ========================================================================
125.\"
126.IX Title "X509V3_CONFIG 5"
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127.TH X509V3_CONFIG 5 "2007-10-24" "0.9.8g" "OpenSSL"
128.\" For nroff, turn off justification. Always turn off hyphenation; it makes
129.\" way too many mistakes in technical documents.
130.if n .ad l
131.nh
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132.SH "NAME"
133x509v3_config \- X509 V3 certificate extension configuration format
134.SH "DESCRIPTION"
135.IX Header "DESCRIPTION"
136Several of the OpenSSL utilities can add extensions to a certificate or
137certificate request based on the contents of a configuration file.
138.PP
139Typically the application will contain an option to point to an extension
140section. Each line of the extension section takes the form:
141.PP
142.Vb 1
143\& extension_name=[critical,] extension_options
144.Ve
145.PP
146If \fBcritical\fR is present then the extension will be critical.
147.PP
148The format of \fBextension_options\fR depends on the value of \fBextension_name\fR.
149.PP
150There are four main types of extension: \fIstring\fR extensions, \fImulti-valued\fR
151extensions, \fIraw\fR and \fIarbitrary\fR extensions.
152.PP
153String extensions simply have a string which contains either the value itself
154or how it is obtained.
155.PP
156For example:
157.PP
158.Vb 1
159\& nsComment="This is a Comment"
160.Ve
161.PP
162Multi-valued extensions have a short form and a long form. The short form
163is a list of names and values:
164.PP
165.Vb 1
166\& basicConstraints=critical,CA:true,pathlen:1
167.Ve
168.PP
169The long form allows the values to be placed in a separate section:
170.PP
171.Vb 1
172\& basicConstraints=critical,@bs_section
2eaa1526 173\&
a561f9ff 174\& [bs_section]
2eaa1526 175\&
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176\& CA=true
177\& pathlen=1
178.Ve
179.PP
180Both forms are equivalent.
181.PP
182The syntax of raw extensions is governed by the extension code: it can
183for example contain data in multiple sections. The correct syntax to
184use is defined by the extension code itself: check out the certificate
185policies extension for an example.
186.PP
187If an extension type is unsupported then the \fIarbitrary\fR extension syntax
188must be used, see the \s-1ARBITRART\s0 \s-1EXTENSIONS\s0 section for more details.
189.SH "STANDARD EXTENSIONS"
190.IX Header "STANDARD EXTENSIONS"
191The following sections describe each supported extension in detail.
192.Sh "Basic Constraints."
193.IX Subsection "Basic Constraints."
194This is a multi valued extension which indicates whether a certificate is
195a \s-1CA\s0 certificate. The first (mandatory) name is \fB\s-1CA\s0\fR followed by \fB\s-1TRUE\s0\fR or
196\&\fB\s-1FALSE\s0\fR. If \fB\s-1CA\s0\fR is \fB\s-1TRUE\s0\fR then an optional \fBpathlen\fR name followed by an
197non-negative value can be included.
198.PP
199For example:
200.PP
201.Vb 1
202\& basicConstraints=CA:TRUE
2eaa1526 203\&
a561f9ff 204\& basicConstraints=CA:FALSE
2eaa1526 205\&
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206\& basicConstraints=critical,CA:TRUE, pathlen:0
207.Ve
208.PP
209A \s-1CA\s0 certificate \fBmust\fR include the basicConstraints value with the \s-1CA\s0 field
210set to \s-1TRUE\s0. An end user certificate must either set \s-1CA\s0 to \s-1FALSE\s0 or exclude the
211extension entirely. Some software may require the inclusion of basicConstraints
212with \s-1CA\s0 set to \s-1FALSE\s0 for end entity certificates.
213.PP
214The pathlen parameter indicates the maximum number of CAs that can appear
215below this one in a chain. So if you have a \s-1CA\s0 with a pathlen of zero it can
216only be used to sign end user certificates and not further CAs.
217.Sh "Key Usage."
218.IX Subsection "Key Usage."
219Key usage is a multi valued extension consisting of a list of names of the
220permitted key usages.
221.PP
222The supporte names are: digitalSignature, nonRepudiation, keyEncipherment,
223dataEncipherment, keyAgreement, keyCertSign, cRLSign, encipherOnly
224and decipherOnly.
225.PP
226Examples:
227.PP
228.Vb 1
229\& keyUsage=digitalSignature, nonRepudiation
2eaa1526 230\&
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231\& keyUsage=critical, keyCertSign
232.Ve
233.Sh "Extended Key Usage."
234.IX Subsection "Extended Key Usage."
235This extensions consists of a list of usages indicating purposes for which
236the certificate public key can be used for,
237.PP
238These can either be object short names of the dotted numerical form of OIDs.
239While any \s-1OID\s0 can be used only certain values make sense. In particular the
240following \s-1PKIX\s0, \s-1NS\s0 and \s-1MS\s0 values are meaningful:
241.PP
2eaa1526 242.Vb 10
a561f9ff 243\& Value Meaning
2eaa1526 244\& \-\-\-\-\- \-\-\-\-\-\-\-
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245\& serverAuth SSL/TLS Web Server Authentication.
246\& clientAuth SSL/TLS Web Client Authentication.
247\& codeSigning Code signing.
2eaa1526 248\& emailProtection E\-mail Protection (S/MIME).
a561f9ff
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249\& timeStamping Trusted Timestamping
250\& msCodeInd Microsoft Individual Code Signing (authenticode)
251\& msCodeCom Microsoft Commercial Code Signing (authenticode)
252\& msCTLSign Microsoft Trust List Signing
253\& msSGC Microsoft Server Gated Crypto
254\& msEFS Microsoft Encrypted File System
255\& nsSGC Netscape Server Gated Crypto
256.Ve
257.PP
258Examples:
259.PP
260.Vb 2
261\& extendedKeyUsage=critical,codeSigning,1.2.3.4
262\& extendedKeyUsage=nsSGC,msSGC
263.Ve
264.Sh "Subject Key Identifier."
265.IX Subsection "Subject Key Identifier."
266This is really a string extension and can take two possible values. Either
267the word \fBhash\fR which will automatically follow the guidelines in \s-1RFC3280\s0
268or a hex string giving the extension value to include. The use of the hex
269string is strongly discouraged.
270.PP
271Example:
272.PP
273.Vb 1
274\& subjectKeyIdentifier=hash
275.Ve
276.Sh "Authority Key Identifier."
277.IX Subsection "Authority Key Identifier."
278The authority key identifier extension permits two options. keyid and issuer:
279both can take the optional value \*(L"always\*(R".
280.PP
281If the keyid option is present an attempt is made to copy the subject key
282identifier from the parent certificate. If the value \*(L"always\*(R" is present
283then an error is returned if the option fails.
284.PP
285The issuer option copies the issuer and serial number from the issuer
286certificate. This will only be done if the keyid option fails or
287is not included unless the \*(L"always\*(R" flag will always include the value.
288.PP
289Example:
290.PP
291.Vb 1
292\& authorityKeyIdentifier=keyid,issuer
293.Ve
294.Sh "Subject Alternative Name."
295.IX Subsection "Subject Alternative Name."
296The subject alternative name extension allows various literal values to be
297included in the configuration file. These include \fBemail\fR (an email address)
298\&\fB\s-1URI\s0\fR a uniform resource indicator, \fB\s-1DNS\s0\fR (a \s-1DNS\s0 domain name), \fB\s-1RID\s0\fR (a
299registered \s-1ID:\s0 \s-1OBJECT\s0 \s-1IDENTIFIER\s0), \fB\s-1IP\s0\fR (an \s-1IP\s0 address), \fBdirName\fR
300(a distinguished name) and otherName.
301.PP
302The email option include a special 'copy' value. This will automatically
303include and email addresses contained in the certificate subject name in
304the extension.
305.PP
306The \s-1IP\s0 address used in the \fB\s-1IP\s0\fR options can be in either IPv4 or IPv6 format.
307.PP
308The value of \fBdirName\fR should point to a section containing the distinguished
309name to use as a set of name value pairs. Multi values AVAs can be formed by
310preceeding the name with a \fB+\fR character.
311.PP
312otherName can include arbitrary data associated with an \s-1OID:\s0 the value
313should be the \s-1OID\s0 followed by a semicolon and the content in standard
314\&\fIASN1_generate_nconf()\fR format.
315.PP
316Examples:
317.PP
318.Vb 5
319\& subjectAltName=email:copy,email:my@other.address,URI:http://my.url.here/
320\& subjectAltName=IP:192.168.7.1
321\& subjectAltName=IP:13::17
322\& subjectAltName=email:my@other.address,RID:1.2.3.4
323\& subjectAltName=otherName:1.2.3.4;UTF8:some other identifier
2eaa1526 324\&
a561f9ff 325\& subjectAltName=dirName:dir_sect
2eaa1526 326\&
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327\& [dir_sect]
328\& C=UK
329\& O=My Organization
330\& OU=My Unit
331\& CN=My Name
332.Ve
333.Sh "Issuer Alternative Name."
334.IX Subsection "Issuer Alternative Name."
335The issuer alternative name option supports all the literal options of
336subject alternative name. It does \fBnot\fR support the email:copy option because
337that would not make sense. It does support an additional issuer:copy option
338that will copy all the subject alternative name values from the issuer
339certificate (if possible).
340.PP
341Example:
342.PP
343.Vb 1
344\& issuserAltName = issuer:copy
345.Ve
346.Sh "Authority Info Access."
347.IX Subsection "Authority Info Access."
348The authority information access extension gives details about how to access
349certain information relating to the \s-1CA\s0. Its syntax is accessOID;location
350where \fIlocation\fR has the same syntax as subject alternative name (except
351that email:copy is not supported). accessOID can be any valid \s-1OID\s0 but only
352certain values are meaningful, for example \s-1OCSP\s0 and caIssuers.
353.PP
354Example:
355.PP
356.Vb 2
357\& authorityInfoAccess = OCSP;URI:http://ocsp.my.host/
358\& authorityInfoAccess = caIssuers;URI:http://my.ca/ca.html
359.Ve
360.Sh "\s-1CRL\s0 distribution points."
361.IX Subsection "CRL distribution points."
362This is a multi-valued extension that supports all the literal options of
363subject alternative name. Of the few software packages that currently interpret
364this extension most only interpret the \s-1URI\s0 option.
365.PP
366Currently each option will set a new DistributionPoint with the fullName
367field set to the given value.
368.PP
369Other fields like cRLissuer and reasons cannot currently be set or displayed:
370at this time no examples were available that used these fields.
371.PP
372Examples:
373.PP
374.Vb 2
375\& crlDistributionPoints=URI:http://myhost.com/myca.crl
376\& crlDistributionPoints=URI:http://my.com/my.crl,URI:http://oth.com/my.crl
377.Ve
378.Sh "Certificate Policies."
379.IX Subsection "Certificate Policies."
380This is a \fIraw\fR extension. All the fields of this extension can be set by
381using the appropriate syntax.
382.PP
383If you follow the \s-1PKIX\s0 recommendations and just using one \s-1OID\s0 then you just
384include the value of that \s-1OID\s0. Multiple OIDs can be set separated by commas,
385for example:
386.PP
387.Vb 1
388\& certificatePolicies= 1.2.4.5, 1.1.3.4
389.Ve
390.PP
391If you wish to include qualifiers then the policy \s-1OID\s0 and qualifiers need to
392be specified in a separate section: this is done by using the \f(CW@section\fR syntax
393instead of a literal \s-1OID\s0 value.
394.PP
395The section referred to must include the policy \s-1OID\s0 using the name
396policyIdentifier, cPSuri qualifiers can be included using the syntax:
397.PP
398.Vb 1
399\& CPS.nnn=value
400.Ve
401.PP
402userNotice qualifiers can be set using the syntax:
403.PP
404.Vb 1
405\& userNotice.nnn=@notice
406.Ve
407.PP
408The value of the userNotice qualifier is specified in the relevant section.
409This section can include explicitText, organization and noticeNumbers
410options. explicitText and organization are text strings, noticeNumbers is a
411comma separated list of numbers. The organization and noticeNumbers options
412(if included) must \s-1BOTH\s0 be present. If you use the userNotice option with \s-1IE5\s0
413then you need the 'ia5org' option at the top level to modify the encoding:
414otherwise it will not be interpreted properly.
415.PP
416Example:
417.PP
418.Vb 1
419\& certificatePolicies=ia5org,1.2.3.4,1.5.6.7.8,@polsect
2eaa1526 420\&
a561f9ff 421\& [polsect]
2eaa1526 422\&
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423\& policyIdentifier = 1.3.5.8
424\& CPS.1="http://my.host.name/"
425\& CPS.2="http://my.your.name/"
426\& userNotice.1=@notice
2eaa1526 427\&
a561f9ff 428\& [notice]
2eaa1526 429\&
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430\& explicitText="Explicit Text Here"
431\& organization="Organisation Name"
432\& noticeNumbers=1,2,3,4
433.Ve
434.PP
435The \fBia5org\fR option changes the type of the \fIorganization\fR field. In \s-1RFC2459\s0
436it can only be of type DisplayText. In \s-1RFC3280\s0 IA5Strring is also permissible.
437Some software (for example some versions of \s-1MSIE\s0) may require ia5org.
438.Sh "Policy Constraints"
439.IX Subsection "Policy Constraints"
440This is a multi-valued extension which consisting of the names
441\&\fBrequireExplicitPolicy\fR or \fBinhibitPolicyMapping\fR and a non negative intger
442value. At least one component must be present.
443.PP
444Example:
445.PP
446.Vb 1
447\& policyConstraints = requireExplicitPolicy:3
448.Ve
449.Sh "Inhibit Any Policy"
450.IX Subsection "Inhibit Any Policy"
451This is a string extension whose value must be a non negative integer.
452.PP
453Example:
454.PP
455.Vb 1
456\& inhibitAnyPolicy = 2
457.Ve
458.Sh "Name Constraints"
459.IX Subsection "Name Constraints"
460The name constraints extension is a multi-valued extension. The name should
461begin with the word \fBpermitted\fR or \fBexcluded\fR followed by a \fB;\fR. The rest of
462the name and the value follows the syntax of subjectAltName except email:copy
463is not supported and the \fB\s-1IP\s0\fR form should consist of an \s-1IP\s0 addresses and
464subnet mask separated by a \fB/\fR.
465.PP
466Examples:
467.PP
468.Vb 1
469\& nameConstraints=permitted;IP:192.168.0.0/255.255.0.0
2eaa1526 470\&
a561f9ff 471\& nameConstraints=permitted;email:.somedomain.com
2eaa1526 472\&
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473\& nameConstraints=excluded;email:.com
474.Ve
475.SH "DEPRECATED EXTENSIONS"
476.IX Header "DEPRECATED EXTENSIONS"
477The following extensions are non standard, Netscape specific and largely
478obsolete. Their use in new applications is discouraged.
479.Sh "Netscape String extensions."
480.IX Subsection "Netscape String extensions."
481Netscape Comment (\fBnsComment\fR) is a string extension containing a comment
482which will be displayed when the certificate is viewed in some browsers.
483.PP
484Example:
485.PP
486.Vb 1
487\& nsComment = "Some Random Comment"
488.Ve
489.PP
490Other supported extensions in this category are: \fBnsBaseUrl\fR,
491\&\fBnsRevocationUrl\fR, \fBnsCaRevocationUrl\fR, \fBnsRenewalUrl\fR, \fBnsCaPolicyUrl\fR
492and \fBnsSslServerName\fR.
493.Sh "Netscape Certificate Type"
494.IX Subsection "Netscape Certificate Type"
495This is a multi-valued extensions which consists of a list of flags to be
496included. It was used to indicate the purposes for which a certificate could
497be used. The basicConstraints, keyUsage and extended key usage extensions are
498now used instead.
499.PP
500Acceptable values for nsCertType are: \fBclient\fR, \fBserver\fR, \fBemail\fR,
501\&\fBobjsign\fR, \fBreserved\fR, \fBsslCA\fR, \fBemailCA\fR, \fBobjCA\fR.
502.SH "ARBITRARY EXTENSIONS"
503.IX Header "ARBITRARY EXTENSIONS"
504If an extension is not supported by the OpenSSL code then it must be encoded
505using the arbitrary extension format. It is also possible to use the arbitrary
506format for supported extensions. Extreme care should be taken to ensure that
507the data is formatted correctly for the given extension type.
508.PP
509There are two ways to encode arbitrary extensions.
510.PP
511The first way is to use the word \s-1ASN1\s0 followed by the extension content
512using the same syntax as \fIASN1_generate_nconf()\fR. For example:
513.PP
514.Vb 1
515\& 1.2.3.4=critical,ASN1:UTF8String:Some random data
2eaa1526 516\&
a561f9ff 517\& 1.2.3.4=ASN1:SEQUENCE:seq_sect
2eaa1526 518\&
a561f9ff 519\& [seq_sect]
2eaa1526 520\&
a561f9ff
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521\& field1 = UTF8:field1
522\& field2 = UTF8:field2
523.Ve
524.PP
525It is also possible to use the word \s-1DER\s0 to include the raw encoded data in any
526extension.
527.PP
528.Vb 2
529\& 1.2.3.4=critical,DER:01:02:03:04
530\& 1.2.3.4=DER:01020304
531.Ve
532.PP
533The value following \s-1DER\s0 is a hex dump of the \s-1DER\s0 encoding of the extension
534Any extension can be placed in this form to override the default behaviour.
535For example:
536.PP
537.Vb 1
538\& basicConstraints=critical,DER:00:01:02:03
539.Ve
540.SH "WARNING"
541.IX Header "WARNING"
542There is no guarantee that a specific implementation will process a given
543extension. It may therefore be sometimes possible to use certificates for
544purposes prohibited by their extensions because a specific application does
545not recognize or honour the values of the relevant extensions.
546.PP
547The \s-1DER\s0 and \s-1ASN1\s0 options should be used with caution. It is possible to create
548totally invalid extensions if they are not used carefully.
549.SH "NOTES"
550.IX Header "NOTES"
551If an extension is multi-value and a field value must contain a comma the long
552form must be used otherwise the comma would be misinterpreted as a field
553separator. For example:
554.PP
555.Vb 1
556\& subjectAltName=URI:ldap://somehost.com/CN=foo,OU=bar
557.Ve
558.PP
559will produce an error but the equivalent form:
560.PP
561.Vb 1
562\& subjectAltName=@subject_alt_section
2eaa1526 563\&
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564\& [subject_alt_section]
565\& subjectAltName=URI:ldap://somehost.com/CN=foo,OU=bar
566.Ve
567.PP
2eaa1526 568is valid.
a561f9ff
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569.PP
570Due to the behaviour of the OpenSSL \fBconf\fR library the same field name
571can only occur once in a section. This means that:
572.PP
573.Vb 1
574\& subjectAltName=@alt_section
2eaa1526 575\&
a561f9ff 576\& [alt_section]
2eaa1526 577\&
a561f9ff
SS
578\& email=steve@here
579\& email=steve@there
580.Ve
581.PP
582will only recognize the last value. This can be worked around by using the form:
583.PP
584.Vb 1
585\& [alt_section]
2eaa1526 586\&
a561f9ff
SS
587\& email.1=steve@here
588\& email.2=steve@there
589.Ve
590.SH "HISTORY"
591.IX Header "HISTORY"
592The X509v3 extension code was first added to OpenSSL 0.9.2.
593.PP
594Policy mappings, inhibit any policy and name constraints support was added in
595OpenSSL 0.9.8
596.PP
597The \fBdirectoryName\fR and \fBotherName\fR option as well as the \fB\s-1ASN1\s0\fR option
598for arbitrary extensions was added in OpenSSL 0.9.8
599.SH "SEE ALSO"
600.IX Header "SEE ALSO"
601\&\fIreq\fR\|(1), \fIca\fR\|(1), \fIx509\fR\|(1)