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124.\" ========================================================================
126.IX Title "CMS 1"
64511c1e 127.TH CMS 1 "2011-02-08" "1.0.0d" "OpenSSL"
128.\" For nroff, turn off justification. Always turn off hyphenation; it makes
129.\" way too many mistakes in technical documents.
130.if n .ad l
132.SH "NAME"
133cms \- CMS utility
135.IX Header "SYNOPSIS"
136\&\fBopenssl\fR \fBcms\fR
151[\fB\-verify_receipt receipt\fR]
152[\fB\-in filename\fR]
153[\fB\-inform SMIME|PEM|DER\fR]
154[\fB\-rctform SMIME|PEM|DER\fR]
155[\fB\-out filename\fR]
156[\fB\-outform SMIME|PEM|DER\fR]
157[\fB\-stream \-indef \-noindef\fR]
159[\fB\-content filename\fR]
163[\fB\-CAfile file\fR]
164[\fB\-CApath dir\fR]
165[\fB\-md digest\fR]
174[\fB\-certfile file\fR]
175[\fB\-certsout file\fR]
176[\fB\-signer file\fR]
177[\fB\-recip file\fR]
179[\fB\-receipt_request_all \-receipt_request_first\fR]
180[\fB\-receipt_request_from emailaddress\fR]
181[\fB\-receipt_request_to emailaddress\fR]
183[\fB\-secretkey key\fR]
184[\fB\-secretkeyid id\fR]
185[\fB\-econtent_type type\fR]
186[\fB\-inkey file\fR]
187[\fB\-passin arg\fR]
188[\fB\-rand file(s)\fR]
190[\fB\-to addr\fR]
191[\fB\-from addr\fR]
192[\fB\-subject subj\fR]
196The \fBcms\fR command handles S/MIME v3.1 mail. It can encrypt, decrypt, sign and
197verify, compress and uncompress S/MIME messages.
200There are fourteen operation options that set the type of operation to be
201performed. The meaning of the other options varies according to the operation
203.IP "\fB\-encrypt\fR" 4
204.IX Item "-encrypt"
205encrypt mail for the given recipient certificates. Input file is the message
206to be encrypted. The output file is the encrypted mail in \s-1MIME\s0 format. The
207actual \s-1CMS\s0 type is <B>EnvelopedData<B>.
208.IP "\fB\-decrypt\fR" 4
209.IX Item "-decrypt"
210decrypt mail using the supplied certificate and private key. Expects an
211encrypted mail message in \s-1MIME\s0 format for the input file. The decrypted mail
212is written to the output file.
213.IP "\fB\-sign\fR" 4
214.IX Item "-sign"
215sign mail using the supplied certificate and private key. Input file is
216the message to be signed. The signed message in \s-1MIME\s0 format is written
217to the output file.
218.IP "\fB\-verify\fR" 4
219.IX Item "-verify"
220verify signed mail. Expects a signed mail message on input and outputs
221the signed data. Both clear text and opaque signing is supported.
222.IP "\fB\-cmsout\fR" 4
223.IX Item "-cmsout"
224takes an input message and writes out a \s-1PEM\s0 encoded \s-1CMS\s0 structure.
225.IP "\fB\-resign\fR" 4
226.IX Item "-resign"
227resign a message: take an existing message and one or more new signers.
228.IP "\fB\-data_create\fR" 4
229.IX Item "-data_create"
230Create a \s-1CMS\s0 \fBData\fR type.
231.IP "\fB\-data_out\fR" 4
232.IX Item "-data_out"
233\&\fBData\fR type and output the content.
234.IP "\fB\-digest_create\fR" 4
235.IX Item "-digest_create"
236Create a \s-1CMS\s0 \fBDigestedData\fR type.
237.IP "\fB\-digest_verify\fR" 4
238.IX Item "-digest_verify"
239Verify a \s-1CMS\s0 \fBDigestedData\fR type and output the content.
240.IP "\fB\-compress\fR" 4
241.IX Item "-compress"
242Create a \s-1CMS\s0 \fBCompressedData\fR type. OpenSSL must be compiled with \fBzlib\fR
243support for this option to work, otherwise it will output an error.
244.IP "\fB\-uncompress\fR" 4
245.IX Item "-uncompress"
246Uncompress a \s-1CMS\s0 \fBCompressedData\fR type and output the content. OpenSSL must be
247compiled with \fBzlib\fR support for this option to work, otherwise it will
248output an error.
249.IP "\fB\-EncryptedData_encrypt\fR" 4
250.IX Item "-EncryptedData_encrypt"
251Encrypt suppled content using supplied symmetric key and algorithm using a \s-1CMS\s0
252\&\fBEncrytedData\fR type and output the content.
253.IP "\fB\-sign_receipt\fR" 4
254.IX Item "-sign_receipt"
255Generate and output a signed receipt for the supplied message. The input
256message \fBmust\fR contain a signed receipt request. Functionality is otherwise
257similar to the \fB\-sign\fR operation.
258.IP "\fB\-verify_receipt receipt\fR" 4
259.IX Item "-verify_receipt receipt"
260Verify a signed receipt in filename \fBreceipt\fR. The input message \fBmust\fR
261contain the original receipt request. Functionality is otherwise similar
262to the \fB\-verify\fR operation.
263.IP "\fB\-in filename\fR" 4
264.IX Item "-in filename"
265the input message to be encrypted or signed or the message to be decrypted
266or verified.
267.IP "\fB\-inform SMIME|PEM|DER\fR" 4
268.IX Item "-inform SMIME|PEM|DER"
269this specifies the input format for the \s-1CMS\s0 structure. The default
270is \fB\s-1SMIME\s0\fR which reads an S/MIME format message. \fB\s-1PEM\s0\fR and \fB\s-1DER\s0\fR
271format change this to expect \s-1PEM\s0 and \s-1DER\s0 format \s-1CMS\s0 structures
272instead. This currently only affects the input format of the \s-1CMS\s0
273structure, if no \s-1CMS\s0 structure is being input (for example with
274\&\fB\-encrypt\fR or \fB\-sign\fR) this option has no effect.
275.IP "\fB\-rctform SMIME|PEM|DER\fR" 4
276.IX Item "-rctform SMIME|PEM|DER"
277specify the format for a signed receipt for use with the \fB\-receipt_verify\fR
279.IP "\fB\-out filename\fR" 4
280.IX Item "-out filename"
281the message text that has been decrypted or verified or the output \s-1MIME\s0
282format message that has been signed or verified.
283.IP "\fB\-outform SMIME|PEM|DER\fR" 4
284.IX Item "-outform SMIME|PEM|DER"
285this specifies the output format for the \s-1CMS\s0 structure. The default
286is \fB\s-1SMIME\s0\fR which writes an S/MIME format message. \fB\s-1PEM\s0\fR and \fB\s-1DER\s0\fR
287format change this to write \s-1PEM\s0 and \s-1DER\s0 format \s-1CMS\s0 structures
288instead. This currently only affects the output format of the \s-1CMS\s0
289structure, if no \s-1CMS\s0 structure is being output (for example with
290\&\fB\-verify\fR or \fB\-decrypt\fR) this option has no effect.
291.IP "\fB\-stream \-indef \-noindef\fR" 4
292.IX Item "-stream -indef -noindef"
293the \fB\-stream\fR and \fB\-indef\fR options are equivalent and enable streaming I/O
294for encoding operations. This permits single pass processing of data without
295the need to hold the entire contents in memory, potentially supporting very
296large files. Streaming is automatically set for S/MIME signing with detached
297data if the output format is \fB\s-1SMIME\s0\fR it is currently off by default for all
298other operations.
299.IP "\fB\-noindef\fR" 4
300.IX Item "-noindef"
301disable streaming I/O where it would produce and indefinite length constructed
302encoding. This option currently has no effect. In future streaming will be
303enabled by default on all relevant operations and this option will disable it.
304.IP "\fB\-content filename\fR" 4
305.IX Item "-content filename"
306This specifies a file containing the detached content, this is only
307useful with the \fB\-verify\fR command. This is only usable if the \s-1CMS\s0
308structure is using the detached signature form where the content is
309not included. This option will override any content if the input format
310is S/MIME and it uses the multipart/signed \s-1MIME\s0 content type.
311.IP "\fB\-text\fR" 4
312.IX Item "-text"
313this option adds plain text (text/plain) \s-1MIME\s0 headers to the supplied
314message if encrypting or signing. If decrypting or verifying it strips
315off text headers: if the decrypted or verified message is not of \s-1MIME\s0
316type text/plain then an error occurs.
317.IP "\fB\-noout\fR" 4
318.IX Item "-noout"
319for the \fB\-cmsout\fR operation do not output the parsed \s-1CMS\s0 structure. This
320is useful when combined with the \fB\-print\fR option or if the syntax of the \s-1CMS\s0
321structure is being checked.
322.IP "\fB\-print\fR" 4
323.IX Item "-print"
324for the \fB\-cmsout\fR operation print out all fields of the \s-1CMS\s0 structure. This
325is mainly useful for testing purposes.
326.IP "\fB\-CAfile file\fR" 4
327.IX Item "-CAfile file"
328a file containing trusted \s-1CA\s0 certificates, only used with \fB\-verify\fR.
329.IP "\fB\-CApath dir\fR" 4
330.IX Item "-CApath dir"
331a directory containing trusted \s-1CA\s0 certificates, only used with
332\&\fB\-verify\fR. This directory must be a standard certificate directory: that
333is a hash of each subject name (using \fBx509 \-hash\fR) should be linked
334to each certificate.
335.IP "\fB\-md digest\fR" 4
336.IX Item "-md digest"
337digest algorithm to use when signing or resigning. If not present then the
338default digest algorithm for the signing key will be used (usually \s-1SHA1\s0).
339.IP "\fB\-[cipher]\fR" 4
340.IX Item "-[cipher]"
341the encryption algorithm to use. For example triple \s-1DES\s0 (168 bits) \- \fB\-des3\fR
342or 256 bit \s-1AES\s0 \- \fB\-aes256\fR. Any standard algorithm name (as used by the
343\&\fIEVP_get_cipherbyname()\fR function) can also be used preceded by a dash, for
344example \fB\-aes_128_cbc\fR. See \fBenc\fR for a list of ciphers
345supported by your version of OpenSSL.
347If not specified triple \s-1DES\s0 is used. Only used with \fB\-encrypt\fR and
348\&\fB\-EncryptedData_create\fR commands.
349.IP "\fB\-nointern\fR" 4
350.IX Item "-nointern"
351when verifying a message normally certificates (if any) included in
352the message are searched for the signing certificate. With this option
353only the certificates specified in the \fB\-certfile\fR option are used.
354The supplied certificates can still be used as untrusted CAs however.
355.IP "\fB\-no_signer_cert_verify\fR" 4
356.IX Item "-no_signer_cert_verify"
357do not verify the signers certificate of a signed message.
358.IP "\fB\-nocerts\fR" 4
359.IX Item "-nocerts"
360when signing a message the signer's certificate is normally included
361with this option it is excluded. This will reduce the size of the
362signed message but the verifier must have a copy of the signers certificate
363available locally (passed using the \fB\-certfile\fR option for example).
364.IP "\fB\-noattr\fR" 4
365.IX Item "-noattr"
366normally when a message is signed a set of attributes are included which
367include the signing time and supported symmetric algorithms. With this
368option they are not included.
369.IP "\fB\-nosmimecap\fR" 4
370.IX Item "-nosmimecap"
371exclude the list of supported algorithms from signed attributes, other options
372such as signing time and content type are still included.
373.IP "\fB\-binary\fR" 4
374.IX Item "-binary"
375normally the input message is converted to \*(L"canonical\*(R" format which is
376effectively using \s-1CR\s0 and \s-1LF\s0 as end of line: as required by the S/MIME
377specification. When this option is present no translation occurs. This
378is useful when handling binary data which may not be in \s-1MIME\s0 format.
379.IP "\fB\-nodetach\fR" 4
380.IX Item "-nodetach"
381when signing a message use opaque signing: this form is more resistant
382to translation by mail relays but it cannot be read by mail agents that
383do not support S/MIME. Without this option cleartext signing with
384the \s-1MIME\s0 type multipart/signed is used.
385.IP "\fB\-certfile file\fR" 4
386.IX Item "-certfile file"
387allows additional certificates to be specified. When signing these will
388be included with the message. When verifying these will be searched for
389the signers certificates. The certificates should be in \s-1PEM\s0 format.
390.IP "\fB\-certsout file\fR" 4
391.IX Item "-certsout file"
392any certificates contained in the message are written to \fBfile\fR.
393.IP "\fB\-signer file\fR" 4
394.IX Item "-signer file"
395a signing certificate when signing or resigning a message, this option can be
396used multiple times if more than one signer is required. If a message is being
397verified then the signers certificates will be written to this file if the
398verification was successful.
399.IP "\fB\-recip file\fR" 4
400.IX Item "-recip file"
401the recipients certificate when decrypting a message. This certificate
402must match one of the recipients of the message or an error occurs.
403.IP "\fB\-keyid\fR" 4
404.IX Item "-keyid"
405use subject key identifier to identify certificates instead of issuer name and
406serial number. The supplied certificate \fBmust\fR include a subject key
407identifier extension. Supported by \fB\-sign\fR and \fB\-encrypt\fR options.
408.IP "\fB\-receipt_request_all \-receipt_request_first\fR" 4
409.IX Item "-receipt_request_all -receipt_request_first"
410for \fB\-sign\fR option include a signed receipt request. Indicate requests should
411be provided by all receipient or first tier recipients (those mailed directly
412and not from a mailing list). Ignored it \fB\-receipt_request_from\fR is included.
413.IP "\fB\-receipt_request_from emailaddress\fR" 4
414.IX Item "-receipt_request_from emailaddress"
415for \fB\-sign\fR option include a signed receipt request. Add an explicit email
416address where receipts should be supplied.
417.IP "\fB\-receipt_request_to emailaddress\fR" 4
418.IX Item "-receipt_request_to emailaddress"
419Add an explicit email address where signed receipts should be sent to. This
420option \fBmust\fR but supplied if a signed receipt it requested.
421.IP "\fB\-receipt_request_print\fR" 4
422.IX Item "-receipt_request_print"
423For the \fB\-verify\fR operation print out the contents of any signed receipt
425.IP "\fB\-secretkey key\fR" 4
426.IX Item "-secretkey key"
427specify symmetric key to use. The key must be supplied in hex format and be
428consistent with the algorithm used. Supported by the \fB\-EncryptedData_encrypt\fR
429\&\fB\-EncrryptedData_decrypt\fR, \fB\-encrypt\fR and \fB\-decrypt\fR options. When used
430with \fB\-encrypt\fR or \fB\-decrypt\fR the supplied key is used to wrap or unwrap the
431content encryption key using an \s-1AES\s0 key in the \fBKEKRecipientInfo\fR type.
432.IP "\fB\-secretkeyid id\fR" 4
433.IX Item "-secretkeyid id"
434the key identifier for the supplied symmetric key for \fBKEKRecipientInfo\fR type.
435This option \fBmust\fR be present if the \fB\-secretkey\fR option is used with
436\&\fB\-encrypt\fR. With \fB\-decrypt\fR operations the \fBid\fR is used to locate the
437relevant key if it is not supplied then an attempt is used to decrypt any
438\&\fBKEKRecipientInfo\fR structures.
439.IP "\fB\-econtent_type type\fR" 4
440.IX Item "-econtent_type type"
441set the encapsulated content type to \fBtype\fR if not supplied the \fBData\fR type
442is used. The \fBtype\fR argument can be any valid \s-1OID\s0 name in either text or
443numerical format.
444.IP "\fB\-inkey file\fR" 4
445.IX Item "-inkey file"
446the private key to use when signing or decrypting. This must match the
447corresponding certificate. If this option is not specified then the
448private key must be included in the certificate file specified with
449the \fB\-recip\fR or \fB\-signer\fR file. When signing this option can be used
450multiple times to specify successive keys.
451.IP "\fB\-passin arg\fR" 4
452.IX Item "-passin arg"
453the private key password source. For more information about the format of \fBarg\fR
454see the \fB\s-1PASS\s0 \s-1PHRASE\s0 \s-1ARGUMENTS\s0\fR section in \fIopenssl\fR\|(1).
455.IP "\fB\-rand file(s)\fR" 4
456.IX Item "-rand file(s)"
457a file or files containing random data used to seed the random number
458generator, or an \s-1EGD\s0 socket (see \fIRAND_egd\fR\|(3)).
459Multiple files can be specified separated by a OS-dependent character.
460The separator is \fB;\fR for MS-Windows, \fB,\fR for OpenVMS, and \fB:\fR for
461all others.
462.IP "\fBcert.pem...\fR" 4
463.IX Item "cert.pem..."
464one or more certificates of message recipients: used when encrypting
465a message.
466.IP "\fB\-to, \-from, \-subject\fR" 4
467.IX Item "-to, -from, -subject"
468the relevant mail headers. These are included outside the signed
469portion of a message so they may be included manually. If signing
470then many S/MIME mail clients check the signers certificate's email
471address matches that specified in the From: address.
472.IP "\fB\-purpose, \-ignore_critical, \-issuer_checks, \-crl_check, \-crl_check_all, \-policy_check, \-extended_crl, \-x509_strict, \-policy \-check_ss_sig\fR" 4
473.IX Item "-purpose, -ignore_critical, -issuer_checks, -crl_check, -crl_check_all, -policy_check, -extended_crl, -x509_strict, -policy -check_ss_sig"
474Set various certificate chain valiadition option. See the
475\&\fBverify\fR manual page for details.
476.SH "NOTES"
477.IX Header "NOTES"
478The \s-1MIME\s0 message must be sent without any blank lines between the
479headers and the output. Some mail programs will automatically add
480a blank line. Piping the mail directly to sendmail is one way to
481achieve the correct format.
483The supplied message to be signed or encrypted must include the
484necessary \s-1MIME\s0 headers or many S/MIME clients wont display it
485properly (if at all). You can use the \fB\-text\fR option to automatically
486add plain text headers.
488A \*(L"signed and encrypted\*(R" message is one where a signed message is
489then encrypted. This can be produced by encrypting an already signed
490message: see the examples section.
492This version of the program only allows one signer per message but it
493will verify multiple signers on received messages. Some S/MIME clients
494choke if a message contains multiple signers. It is possible to sign
495messages \*(L"in parallel\*(R" by signing an already signed message.
497The options \fB\-encrypt\fR and \fB\-decrypt\fR reflect common usage in S/MIME
498clients. Strictly speaking these process \s-1CMS\s0 enveloped data: \s-1CMS\s0
499encrypted data is used for other purposes.
501The \fB\-resign\fR option uses an existing message digest when adding a new
502signer. This means that attributes must be present in at least one existing
503signer using the same message digest or this operation will fail.
505The \fB\-stream\fR and \fB\-indef\fR options enable experimental streaming I/O support.
506As a result the encoding is \s-1BER\s0 using indefinite length constructed encoding
507and no longer \s-1DER\s0. Streaming is supported for the \fB\-encrypt\fR operation and the
508\&\fB\-sign\fR operation if the content is not detached.
510Streaming is always used for the \fB\-sign\fR operation with detached data but
511since the content is no longer part of the \s-1CMS\s0 structure the encoding
512remains \s-1DER\s0.
514.IX Header "EXIT CODES"
515.IP "0" 4
516the operation was completely successfully.
517.IP "1" 4
518.IX Item "1"
519an error occurred parsing the command options.
520.IP "2" 4
521.IX Item "2"
522one of the input files could not be read.
523.IP "3" 4
524.IX Item "3"
525an error occurred creating the \s-1CMS\s0 file or when reading the \s-1MIME\s0
527.IP "4" 4
528.IX Item "4"
529an error occurred decrypting or verifying the message.
530.IP "5" 4
531.IX Item "5"
532the message was verified correctly but an error occurred writing out
533the signers certificates.
535.IX Header "COMPATIBILITY WITH PKCS#7 format."
536The \fBsmime\fR utility can only process the older \fBPKCS#7\fR format. The \fBcms\fR
537utility supports Cryptographic Message Syntax format. Use of some features
538will result in messages which cannot be processed by applications which only
539support the older format. These are detailed below.
541The use of the \fB\-keyid\fR option with \fB\-sign\fR or \fB\-encrypt\fR.
543The \fB\-outform \s-1PEM\s0\fR option uses different headers.
545The \fB\-compress\fR option.
547The \fB\-secretkey\fR option when used with \fB\-encrypt\fR.
549Additionally the \fB\-EncryptedData_create\fR and \fB\-data_create\fR type cannot
550be processed by the older \fBsmime\fR command.
552.IX Header "EXAMPLES"
553Create a cleartext signed message:
555.Vb 2
556\& openssl cms \-sign \-in message.txt \-text \-out mail.msg \e
557\& \-signer mycert.pem
560Create an opaque signed message
562.Vb 2
563\& openssl cms \-sign \-in message.txt \-text \-out mail.msg \-nodetach \e
564\& \-signer mycert.pem
567Create a signed message, include some additional certificates and
568read the private key from another file:
570.Vb 2
571\& openssl cms \-sign \-in in.txt \-text \-out mail.msg \e
572\& \-signer mycert.pem \-inkey mykey.pem \-certfile mycerts.pem
575Create a signed message with two signers, use key identifier:
577.Vb 2
578\& openssl cms \-sign \-in message.txt \-text \-out mail.msg \e
579\& \-signer mycert.pem \-signer othercert.pem \-keyid
582Send a signed message under Unix directly to sendmail, including headers:
584.Vb 3
585\& openssl cms \-sign \-in in.txt \-text \-signer mycert.pem \e
586\& \-from steve@openssl.org \-to someone@somewhere \e
587\& \-subject "Signed message" | sendmail someone@somewhere
590Verify a message and extract the signer's certificate if successful:
592.Vb 1
593\& openssl cms \-verify \-in mail.msg \-signer user.pem \-out signedtext.txt
596Send encrypted mail using triple \s-1DES:\s0
598.Vb 3
599\& openssl cms \-encrypt \-in in.txt \-from steve@openssl.org \e
600\& \-to someone@somewhere \-subject "Encrypted message" \e
601\& \-des3 user.pem \-out mail.msg
604Sign and encrypt mail:
606.Vb 4
607\& openssl cms \-sign \-in ml.txt \-signer my.pem \-text \e
608\& | openssl cms \-encrypt \-out mail.msg \e
609\& \-from steve@openssl.org \-to someone@somewhere \e
610\& \-subject "Signed and Encrypted message" \-des3 user.pem
613Note: the encryption command does not include the \fB\-text\fR option because the
614message being encrypted already has \s-1MIME\s0 headers.
616Decrypt mail:
618.Vb 1
619\& openssl cms \-decrypt \-in mail.msg \-recip mycert.pem \-inkey key.pem
622The output from Netscape form signing is a PKCS#7 structure with the
623detached signature format. You can use this program to verify the
624signature by line wrapping the base64 encoded structure and surrounding
625it with:
627.Vb 2
628\& \-\-\-\-\-BEGIN PKCS7\-\-\-\-\-
629\& \-\-\-\-\-END PKCS7\-\-\-\-\-
632and using the command,
634.Vb 1
635\& openssl cms \-verify \-inform PEM \-in signature.pem \-content content.txt
638alternatively you can base64 decode the signature and use
640.Vb 1
641\& openssl cms \-verify \-inform DER \-in signature.der \-content content.txt
644Create an encrypted message using 128 bit Camellia:
646.Vb 1
647\& openssl cms \-encrypt \-in plain.txt \-camellia128 \-out mail.msg cert.pem
650Add a signer to an existing message:
652.Vb 1
653\& openssl cms \-resign \-in mail.msg \-signer newsign.pem \-out mail2.msg
655.SH "BUGS"
656.IX Header "BUGS"
657The \s-1MIME\s0 parser isn't very clever: it seems to handle most messages that I've
658thrown at it but it may choke on others.
660The code currently will only write out the signer's certificate to a file: if
661the signer has a separate encryption certificate this must be manually
662extracted. There should be some heuristic that determines the correct
663encryption certificate.
665Ideally a database should be maintained of a certificates for each email
668The code doesn't currently take note of the permitted symmetric encryption
669algorithms as supplied in the SMIMECapabilities signed attribute. this means the
670user has to manually include the correct encryption algorithm. It should store
671the list of permitted ciphers in a database and only use those.
673No revocation checking is done on the signer's certificate.
675.IX Header "HISTORY"
676The use of multiple \fB\-signer\fR options and the \fB\-resign\fR command were first
677added in OpenSSL 1.0.0