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138.\" ======================================================================
139.\"
140.IX Title "RSAUTL 1"
141.TH RSAUTL 1 "0.9.7a" "2003-02-19" "OpenSSL"
142.UC
143.SH "NAME"
144rsautl \- \s-1RSA\s0 utility
145.SH "SYNOPSIS"
146.IX Header "SYNOPSIS"
147\&\fBopenssl\fR \fBrsautl\fR
148[\fB\-in file\fR]
149[\fB\-out file\fR]
150[\fB\-inkey file\fR]
151[\fB\-pubin\fR]
152[\fB\-certin\fR]
153[\fB\-sign\fR]
154[\fB\-verify\fR]
155[\fB\-encrypt\fR]
156[\fB\-decrypt\fR]
157[\fB\-pkcs\fR]
158[\fB\-ssl\fR]
159[\fB\-raw\fR]
160[\fB\-hexdump\fR]
161[\fB\-asn1parse\fR]
162.SH "DESCRIPTION"
163.IX Header "DESCRIPTION"
164The \fBrsautl\fR command can be used to sign, verify, encrypt and decrypt
165data using the \s-1RSA\s0 algorithm.
166.SH "COMMAND OPTIONS"
167.IX Header "COMMAND OPTIONS"
168.Ip "\fB\-in filename\fR" 4
169.IX Item "-in filename"
170This specifies the input filename to read data from or standard input
171if this option is not specified.
172.Ip "\fB\-out filename\fR" 4
173.IX Item "-out filename"
174specifies the output filename to write to or standard output by
175default.
176.Ip "\fB\-inkey file\fR" 4
177.IX Item "-inkey file"
178the input key file, by default it should be an \s-1RSA\s0 private key.
179.Ip "\fB\-pubin\fR" 4
180.IX Item "-pubin"
181the input file is an \s-1RSA\s0 public key.
182.Ip "\fB\-certin\fR" 4
183.IX Item "-certin"
184the input is a certificate containing an \s-1RSA\s0 public key.
185.Ip "\fB\-sign\fR" 4
186.IX Item "-sign"
187sign the input data and output the signed result. This requires
188and \s-1RSA\s0 private key.
189.Ip "\fB\-verify\fR" 4
190.IX Item "-verify"
191verify the input data and output the recovered data.
192.Ip "\fB\-encrypt\fR" 4
193.IX Item "-encrypt"
194encrypt the input data using an \s-1RSA\s0 public key.
195.Ip "\fB\-decrypt\fR" 4
196.IX Item "-decrypt"
197decrypt the input data using an \s-1RSA\s0 private key.
198.Ip "\fB\-pkcs, \-oaep, \-ssl, \-raw\fR" 4
199.IX Item "-pkcs, -oaep, -ssl, -raw"
200the padding to use: PKCS#1 v1.5 (the default), PKCS#1 \s-1OAEP\s0,
201special padding used in \s-1SSL\s0 v2 backwards compatible handshakes,
202or no padding, respectively.
203For signatures, only \fB\-pkcs\fR and \fB\-raw\fR can be used.
204.Ip "\fB\-hexdump\fR" 4
205.IX Item "-hexdump"
206hex dump the output data.
207.Ip "\fB\-asn1parse\fR" 4
208.IX Item "-asn1parse"
209asn1parse the output data, this is useful when combined with the
210\&\fB\-verify\fR option.
211.SH "NOTES"
212.IX Header "NOTES"
213\&\fBrsautl\fR because it uses the \s-1RSA\s0 algorithm directly can only be
214used to sign or verify small pieces of data.
215.SH "EXAMPLES"
216.IX Header "EXAMPLES"
217Sign some data using a private key:
218.PP
219.Vb 1
220\& openssl rsautl -sign -in file -inkey key.pem -out sig
221.Ve
222Recover the signed data
223.PP
224.Vb 1
225\& openssl rsautl -verify -in sig -inkey key.pem
226.Ve
227Examine the raw signed data:
228.PP
229.Vb 1
230\& openssl rsautl -verify -in file -inkey key.pem -raw -hexdump
231.Ve
232.Vb 8
233\& 0000 - 00 01 ff ff ff ff ff ff-ff ff ff ff ff ff ff ff ................
234\& 0010 - ff ff ff ff ff ff ff ff-ff ff ff ff ff ff ff ff ................
235\& 0020 - ff ff ff ff ff ff ff ff-ff ff ff ff ff ff ff ff ................
236\& 0030 - ff ff ff ff ff ff ff ff-ff ff ff ff ff ff ff ff ................
237\& 0040 - ff ff ff ff ff ff ff ff-ff ff ff ff ff ff ff ff ................
238\& 0050 - ff ff ff ff ff ff ff ff-ff ff ff ff ff ff ff ff ................
239\& 0060 - ff ff ff ff ff ff ff ff-ff ff ff ff ff ff ff ff ................
240\& 0070 - ff ff ff ff 00 68 65 6c-6c 6f 20 77 6f 72 6c 64 .....hello world
241.Ve
242The PKCS#1 block formatting is evident from this. If this was done using
243encrypt and decrypt the block would have been of type 2 (the second byte)
244and random padding data visible instead of the 0xff bytes.
245.PP
246It is possible to analyse the signature of certificates using this
247utility in conjunction with \fBasn1parse\fR. Consider the self signed
248example in certs/pca-cert.pem . Running \fBasn1parse\fR as follows yields:
249.PP
250.Vb 1
251\& openssl asn1parse -in pca-cert.pem
252.Ve
253.Vb 18
254\& 0:d=0 hl=4 l= 742 cons: SEQUENCE
255\& 4:d=1 hl=4 l= 591 cons: SEQUENCE
256\& 8:d=2 hl=2 l= 3 cons: cont [ 0 ]
257\& 10:d=3 hl=2 l= 1 prim: INTEGER :02
258\& 13:d=2 hl=2 l= 1 prim: INTEGER :00
259\& 16:d=2 hl=2 l= 13 cons: SEQUENCE
260\& 18:d=3 hl=2 l= 9 prim: OBJECT :md5WithRSAEncryption
261\& 29:d=3 hl=2 l= 0 prim: NULL
262\& 31:d=2 hl=2 l= 92 cons: SEQUENCE
263\& 33:d=3 hl=2 l= 11 cons: SET
264\& 35:d=4 hl=2 l= 9 cons: SEQUENCE
265\& 37:d=5 hl=2 l= 3 prim: OBJECT :countryName
266\& 42:d=5 hl=2 l= 2 prim: PRINTABLESTRING :AU
267\& ....
268\& 599:d=1 hl=2 l= 13 cons: SEQUENCE
269\& 601:d=2 hl=2 l= 9 prim: OBJECT :md5WithRSAEncryption
270\& 612:d=2 hl=2 l= 0 prim: NULL
271\& 614:d=1 hl=3 l= 129 prim: BIT STRING
272.Ve
273The final \s-1BIT\s0 \s-1STRING\s0 contains the actual signature. It can be extracted with:
274.PP
275.Vb 1
276\& openssl asn1parse -in pca-cert.pem -out sig -noout -strparse 614
277.Ve
278The certificate public key can be extracted with:
279.PP
280.Vb 1
281\& openssl x509 -in test/testx509.pem -pubout -noout >pubkey.pem
282.Ve
283The signature can be analysed with:
284.PP
285.Vb 1
286\& openssl rsautl -in sig -verify -asn1parse -inkey pubkey.pem -pubin
287.Ve
288.Vb 6
289\& 0:d=0 hl=2 l= 32 cons: SEQUENCE
290\& 2:d=1 hl=2 l= 12 cons: SEQUENCE
291\& 4:d=2 hl=2 l= 8 prim: OBJECT :md5
292\& 14:d=2 hl=2 l= 0 prim: NULL
293\& 16:d=1 hl=2 l= 16 prim: OCTET STRING
294\& 0000 - f3 46 9e aa 1a 4a 73 c9-37 ea 93 00 48 25 08 b5 .F...Js.7...H%..
295.Ve
296This is the parsed version of an \s-1ASN1\s0 DigestInfo structure. It can be seen that
297the digest used was md5. The actual part of the certificate that was signed can
298be extracted with:
299.PP
300.Vb 1
301\& openssl asn1parse -in pca-cert.pem -out tbs -noout -strparse 4
302.Ve
303and its digest computed with:
304.PP
305.Vb 2
306\& openssl md5 -c tbs
307\& MD5(tbs)= f3:46:9e:aa:1a:4a:73:c9:37:ea:93:00:48:25:08:b5
308.Ve
309which it can be seen agrees with the recovered value above.
310.SH "SEE ALSO"
311.IX Header "SEE ALSO"
312dgst(1), rsa(1), genrsa(1)