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[dragonfly.git] / contrib / binutils / binutils / objcopy.1
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1.\" Copyright (c) 1991, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 2000 Free Software Foundation
2.\" See section COPYING for conditions for redistribution
3.\" $FreeBSD: src/contrib/binutils/binutils/objcopy.1,v 1.2.6.3 2001/08/01 23:02:44 obrien Exp $
1de703da 4.\" $DragonFly: src/contrib/binutils/binutils/Attic/objcopy.1,v 1.2 2003/06/17 04:23:58 dillon Exp $
984263bc
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5.TH objcopy 1 "05 April 2000" "Free Software Foundation" "GNU Development Tools"
6.de BP
7.sp
8.ti \-.2i
9\(**
10..
11
12.SH NAME
13objcopy \- copy and translate object files
14
15.SH SYNOPSIS
16.hy 0
17.na
18.TP
19.B objcopy
20.RB "[\|" \-F\ \fIbfdname\fR\ |\ \fB\-\-target=\fIbfdname\fR "\|]"
21.RB "[\|" \-I\ \fIbfdname\fR\ |\ \fB\-\-input\-target=\fIbfdname\fR "\|]"
22.RB "[\|" \-O\ \fIbfdname\fR\ |\ \fB\-\-output\-target=\fIbfdname\fR "\|]"
23.RB "[\|" \-j\ \fIsectionname\fR\ |\ \fB\-\-only\-section=\fIsectionname\fR "\|]"
24.RB "[\|" \-R\ \fIsectionname\fR\ |\ \fB\-\-remove\-section=\fIsectionname\fR "\|]"
25.RB "[\|" \-S\fR\ |\ \fB\-\-strip\-all\fR "\|]"
26.RB "[\|" \-g\fR\ |\ \fB\-\-strip\-debug\fR "\|]"
27.RB "[\|" \-\-strip\-unneeded\fR "\|]"
28.RB "[\|" \-K\ \fIsymbolname\fR\ |\ \fB\-\-keep\-symbol=\fIsymbolname\fR "\|]"
29.RB "[\|" \-N\ \fIsymbolname\fR\ |\ \fB\-\-strip\-symbol=\fIsymbolname\fR "\|]"
30.RB "[\|" \-L\ \fIsymbolname\fR\ |\ \fB\-\-localize\-symbol=\fIsymbolname\fR "\|]"
31.RB "[\|" \-W\ \fIsymbolname\fR\ |\ \fB\-\-weaken\-symbol=\fIsymbolname\fR "\|]"
32.RB "[\|" \-x\fR\ |\ \fB\-\-discard\-all\fR "\|]"
33.RB "[\|" \-X\fR\ |\ \fB\-\-discard\-locals\fR "\|]"
34.RB "[\|" \-b\ \fIbyte\fR\ |\ \fB\-\-byte=\fIbyte\fR "\|]"
35.RB "[\|" \-i\ \fIinterleave\fR\ |\ \fB\-\-interleave=\fIinterleave\fR "\|]"
36.RB "[\|" \-p\fR\ |\ \fB\-\-preserve\-dates\fR "\|]"
37.RB "[\|" \-\-debugging "\|]"
38.RB "[\|" \-\-gap\-fill=\fIval\fR "\|]"
39.RB "[\|" \-\-pad\-to=\fIaddress\fR "\|]"
40.RB "[\|" \-\-set\-start=\fIval\fR "\|]"
41.RB "[\|" \-\-change\-start=\fIincr\fR "\|]"
42.RB "[\|" \-\-change\-addresses=\fIincr\fR "\|]"
43.RB "[\|" \-\-change\-section\-address\ \fIsection{=,+,-}val\fR "\|]"
44.RB "[\|" \-\-change\-section\-lma\ \fIsection{=,+,-}val\fR "\|]"
45.RB "[\|" \-\-change\-section\-vma\ \fIsection{=,+,-}val\fR "\|]"
46.RB "[\|" \-\-change\-warnings\fR "\|]"
47.RB "[\|" \-\-no\-change\-warnings\fR "\|]"
48.RB "[\|" \-\-set\-section\-flags\ \fIsection=flags\fR "\|]"
49.RB "[\|" \-\-add\-section\ \fIsectionname=filename\fR "\|]"
50.RB "[\|" \-\-change\-leading\-char\fR "\|]"
51.RB "[\|" \-\-remove\-leading\-char\fR "\|]"
52.RB "[\|" \-\-srec\-len=\fIval\fR "\|]"
53.RB "[\|" \-\-srec\-forceS3\fR "\|]"
54.RB "[\|" \-\-redefine\-sym\ \fIold=new\fR "\|]"
55.RB "[\|" \-\-weaken\fR "\|]"
56.RB "[\|" \-v\ |\ \-\-verbose\fR "\|]"
57.RB "[\|" \-V\ |\ \-\-version\fR "\|]"
58.RB "[\|" \-\-help\fR "\|]"
59.B infile
60.RB "[\|" outfile\fR "\|]"
61.SH DESCRIPTION
62The GNU
63.B objcopy
64utility copies the contents of an object file to another.
65.B objcopy
66uses the GNU BFD Library to read and write the object files. It can
67write the destination object file in a format different from that of
68the source object file. The exact behavior of
69.B objcopy
70is controlled by command-line options.
71.PP
72.B objcopy
73creates temporary files to do its translations and deletes them
74afterward.
75.B objcopy
76uses BFD to do all its translation work; it knows about all the
77formats BFD knows about, and thus is able to recognize most formats
78without being told explicitly.
79.PP
80.B objcopy
81can be used to generate S-records by using an output target of
82.B srec
83(e.g., use
84.B -O srec).
85.PP
86.B objcopy
87can be used to generate a raw binary file by using an output target of
88.B binary
89(e.g., use
90.B -O binary).
91When
92.B objcopy
93generates a raw binary file, it will essentially produce a memory dump
94of the contents of the input object file. All symbols and relocation
95information will be discarded. The memory dump will start at the
96virtual address of the lowest section copied into the output file.
97.PP
98When generating an S-record or a raw binary file, it may be helpful to
99use
100.B -S
101to remove sections containing debugging information. In some cases
102.B -R
103will be useful to remove sections which contain information which is
104not needed by the binary file.
105.PP
106.I infile
107and
108.I outfile
109are the source and output files respectively. If you do not specify
110.IR outfile ,
111.B objcopy
112creates a temporary file and destructively renames the result with the
113name of the input file.
114
115.SH OPTIONS
116.TP
117.B \-I \fIbfdname\fR, \fB\-\-input\-target=\fIbfdname
118Consider the source file's object format to be
119.IR bfdname ,
120rather than attempting to deduce it.
121.TP
122.B \-O \fIbfdname\fR, \fB\-\-output\-target=\fIbfdname
123Write the output file using the object format
124.IR bfdname .
125.TP
126.B \-F \fIbfdname\fR, \fB\-\-target=\fIbfdname
127Use
128.I bfdname
129as the object format for both the input and the output file; i.e.
130simply transfer data from source to destination with no translation.
131.TP
132.B \-j \fIsectionname\fR, \fB\-\-only\-section=\fIsectionname
133Copy only the named section from the input file to the output file,
134discarding all other sections. This option may be given more than
135once. Note that using this option inappropriately may make the output
136file unusable.
137.TP
138.B \-R \fIsectionname\fR, \fB\-\-remove-section=\fIsectionname
139Remove the named section from the file. This option may be given more
140than once. Note that using this option inappropriately may make the
141output file unusable.
142.TP
143.B \-S\fR, \fB\-\-strip\-all
144Do not copy relocation and symbol information from the source file.
145.TP
146.B \-g\fR, \fB\-\-strip\-debug
147Do not copy debugging symbols from the source file.
148.TP
149.B \-\-strip\-unneeded
150Strip all symbols that are not needed for relocation processing.
151.TP
152.B \-K \fIsymbolname\fR, \fB\-\-keep\-symbol=\fIsymbolname
153Copy only symbol \fIsymbolname\fP from the source file. This option
154may be given more than once.
155.TP
156.B \-N \fIsymbolname\fR, \fB\-\-strip\-symbol=\fIsymbolname
157Do not copy symbol \fIsymbolname\fP from the source file. This option
158may be given more than once.
159.TP
160.B \-L \fIsymbolname\fR, \fB\-\-localize\-symbol=\fIsymbolname
161Make symbol \fIsymbolname\fP local to the file, so that it is not
162visible externally. This option may be given more than once.
163.TP
164.B \-W \fIsymbolname\fR, \fB\-\-weaken\-symbol=\fIsymbolname
165Make symbol \fIsymbolname\fP weak. This option may be given more than once.
166.TP
167.B \-x\fR, \fB\-\-discard\-all
168Do not copy non-global symbols from the source file.
169.TP
170.B \-X\fR, \fB\-\-discard\-locals
171Do not copy compiler-generated local symbols. (These usually start
172with "L" or ".").
173.TP
174.B \-b \fIbyte\fR, \fB\-\-byte=\fIbyte
175Keep only every \fIbyte\fPth byte of the input file (header data is
176not affected). \fIbyte\fP can be in the range from 0 to the
177interleave-1. This option is useful for creating files to program
178ROMs. It is typically used with an srec output target.
179.TP
180.B \-i \fIinterleave\fR, \fB\-\-interleave=\fIinterleave
181Only copy one out of every \fIinterleave\fP bytes. Which one to copy is
182selected by the \fB\-b\fP or \fB\-\-byte\fP option. The default is 4.
183The interleave is ignored if neither \fB\-b\fP nor \fB\-\-byte\fP is given.
184.TP
185.B \-p\fR, \fB\-\-preserve\-dates
186Set the access and modification dates of the output file to be the same
187as those of the input file.
188.TP
189.B \-\-debugging
190Convert debugging information, if possible. This is not the default
191because only certain debugging formats are supported, and the
192conversion process can be time consuming.
193.TP
194.B \-\-gap\-fill=\fIval
195Fill gaps between sections with \fIval\fP. This operation applies to
196the \fIload address\fP (LMA) of the sections. It is done by increasing
197the size of the section with the lower address, and filling in the extra
198space created with \fIval\fP.
199.TP
200.B \-\-pad\-to=\fIaddress
201Pad the output file up to the load address \fIaddress\fP. This is
202done by increasing the size of the last section. The extra space is
203filled in with the value specified by \fB\-\-gap\-fill\fP (default
204zero).
205.TP
206.B \fB\-\-set\-start=\fIval
207Set the start address of the new file to \fIval\fP. Not all object
208file formats support setting the start address.
209.TP
210.B \fB\-\-change\-start=\fIincr\fR, \fB\-\-adjust\-start=\fIincr
211Changes the start address by adding \fIincr\fP. Not all object file
212formats support setting the start address.
213.TP
214.B \fB\-\-change\-addresses=\fIincr\fR, \fB\-\-adjust\-vma=\fIincr
215Changes the address of all sections, as well as the start address, by
216adding \fIincr\fP. Some object file formats do not permit section
217addresses to be changed arbitrarily. Note that this does not relocate
218the sections; if the program expects sections to be loaded at a
219certain address, and this option is used to change the sections such
220that they are loaded at a different address, the program may fail.
221.TP
222.B \fB\-\-change\-section\-address\ \fIsection{=,+,-}val\fR, \fB\-\-adjust\-section\-vma\ \fIsection{=,+,-}val
223Set or changes the VMA and LMA addresses of the named \fIsection\fP.
224If \fI=\fP is used, the section address is set to \fIval\fP.
225Otherwise, \fIval\fP is added to or subtracted from the section
226address. See the comments under \fB\-\-change\-addresses\fP, above. If
227\fIsection\fP does not exist in the input file, a warning will be
228issued, unless \fB\-\-no\-change\-warnings\fP is used.
229.TP
230.B \fB\-\-change\-section\-lma\ \fIsection{=,+,-}val
231Set or change the LMA address of the named \fIsection\fP. If \fI=\fP is
232used, the section address is set to \fIval\fP. Otherwise, \fIval\fP
233is added to or subtracted from the section address. See the comments
234under \fB\-\-change\-addresses\fP, above. If \fIsection\fP does not exist
235in the input file, a warning will be issued, unless
236\fB\-\-no\-change\-warnings\fP is used.
237.TP
238.B \fB\-\-change\-section\-vma\ \fIsection{=,+,-}val
239Set or change the VMA address of the named \fIsection\fP. If \fI=\fP is
240used, the section address is set to \fIval\fP. Otherwise, \fIval\fP
241is added to or subtracted from the section address. See the comments
242under \fB\-\-change\-addresses\fP, above. If \fIsection\fP does not exist
243in the input file, a warning will be issued, unless
244\fB\-\-no\-change\-warnings\fP is used.
245.TP
246.B \fB\-\-change\-warnings\fR, \fB\-\-adjust\-warnings
247If \fB\-\-change\-section\-XXX\fP is used, and the named section does
248not exist, issue a warning. This is the default.
249.TP
250.B \fB\-\-no\-change\-warnings\fR, \fB\-\-no\-adjust\-warnings
251Do not issue a warning if \fB\-\-change\-section\-XXX\fP is used, even
252if the named section does not exist.
253.TP
254.B \fB\-\-set\-section\-flags\ \fIsection=flags
255Set the flags for the named section. The \fIflags\fP argument is a
256comma separated string of flag names. The recognized names are
257\fIalloc\fP, \fIcontents\fP, \fIload\fP, \fInoload\fP, \fIreadonly\fP,
258\fIcode\fP, \fIdata\fP, \fIrom\fP, \fIshare\fP, and \fIdebug\fP. Not
259all flags are meaningful for all object file formats.
260.TP
261.B \fB\-\-add\-section\ \fIsectionname=filename
262Add a new section named \fIsectionname\fR while copying the file. The
263contents of the new section are taken from the file \fIfilename\fR.
264The size of the section will be the size of the file. This option
265only works on file formats which can support sections with arbitrary
266names.
267.TP
268.B \-\-change\-leading\-char
269Some object file formats use special characters at the start of
270symbols. The most common such character is underscore, which compilers
271often add before every symbol. This option tells
272.B objcopy
273to change the leading character of every symbol when it converts
274between object file formats. If the object file formats use the same
275leading character, this option has no effect. Otherwise, it will add
276a character, or remove a character, or change a character, as
277appropriate.
278.TP
279.B \-\-remove\-leading\-char
280If the first character of a global symbol is a special symbol leading
281character used by the object file format, remove the character. The
282most common symbol leading character is underscore. This option will
283remove a leading underscore from all global symbols. This can be
284useful if you want to link together objects of different file formats
285with different conventions for symbol names. This is different from
286\fB\-\-change\-leading\-char\fP because it always changes the symbol name
287when appropriate, regardless of the object file format of the output
288.TP
289.B \fB\-\-srec\-len=\fIval
290Meaningful only for srec output. Set the length of the Srecords to \fIval\fP.
291This length covers both the address, data and crc fields.
292.TP
293.B \fB\-\-srec\-forceS3
294Meaningful only for srec output. Avoid generation of S1/S2 records, creating
295S3-only record format.
296.TP
297.B \-\-redefine\-sym\ \fIold=new
298Change the name of symbol \fIold\fR to \fInew\fR. This can be useful
299when one is trying link two things together for which you have no
300source, and there are name collisions.
301.TP
302.B \-\-weaken
303Change all global symbols in the file to be weak.
304.TP
305.B \-v\fR, \fB\-\-verbose
306Verbose output: list all object files modified. In the case of
307archives, "\fBobjcopy \-V\fR" lists all members of the archive.
308.TP
309.B \-V\fR, \fB\-\-version
310Show the version number of
311.B objcopy
312and exit.
313.TP
314.B \-\-help
315Show a summary of the options to
316.B objcopy
317and exit.
318.SH "SEE ALSO"
319.RB "`\|" binutils "\|'"
320entry in
321.B
322info\c
323\&;
324.I
325The GNU Binary Utilities\c
326\&, Roland H. Pesch (June 1993).
327
328.SH COPYING
329Copyright (c) 1993, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 1999, 2000 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
330.PP
331This document is distributed under the terms of the GNU Free
332Documentation License, version 1.1. That license is described in the
333sources for this manual page, but it is not displayed here in order to
334make this manual more consise. Copies of this license can also be
335obtained from: http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/.
336
337\" .SH GNU Free Documentation License
338\" Version 1.1, March 2000
339
340\" Copyright (C) 2000 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
341\" 59 Temple Place, Suite 330, Boston, MA 02111-1307 USA
342
343\" Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim
344\" copies of this license document, but changing it is
345\" not allowed.
346\" .PP
347\" 0. PREAMBLE
348\" .PP
349\" The purpose of this License is to make a manual, textbook, or other
350\" written document "free" in the sense of freedom: to assure everyone
351\" the effective freedom to copy and redistribute it, with or without
352\" modifying it, either commercially or noncommercially. Secondarily,
353\" this License preserves for the author and publisher a way to get
354\" credit for their work, while not being considered responsible for
355\" modifications made by others.
356\" .PP
357\" This License is a kind of "copyleft", which means that derivative
358\" works of the document must themselves be free in the same sense. It
359\" complements the GNU General Public License, which is a copyleft
360\" license designed for free software.
361\" .PP
362\" We have designed this License in order to use it for manuals for free
363\" software, because free software needs free documentation: a free
364\" program should come with manuals providing the same freedoms that the
365\" software does. But this License is not limited to software manuals;
366\" it can be used for any textual work, regardless of subject matter or
367\" whether it is published as a printed book. We recommend this License
368\" principally for works whose purpose is instruction or reference.
369\" .PP
370\" 1. APPLICABILITY AND DEFINITIONS
371\" .PP
372\" This License applies to any manual or other work that contains a
373\" notice placed by the copyright holder saying it can be distributed
374\" under the terms of this License. The "Document", below, refers to any
375\" such manual or work. Any member of the public is a licensee, and is
376\" addressed as "you".
377\" .PP
378\" A "Modified Version" of the Document means any work containing the
379\" Document or a portion of it, either copied verbatim, or with
380\" modifications and/or translated into another language.
381\" .PP
382\" A "Secondary Section" is a named appendix or a front-matter section of
383\" the Document that deals exclusively with the relationship of the
384\" publishers or authors of the Document to the Document's overall subject
385\" (or to related matters) and contains nothing that could fall directly
386\" within that overall subject. (For example, if the Document is in part a
387\" textbook of mathematics, a Secondary Section may not explain any
388\" mathematics.) The relationship could be a matter of historical
389\" connection with the subject or with related matters, or of legal,
390\" commercial, philosophical, ethical or political position regarding
391\" them.
392\" .PP
393\" The "Invariant Sections" are certain Secondary Sections whose titles
394\" are designated, as being those of Invariant Sections, in the notice
395\" that says that the Document is released under this License.
396\" .PP
397\" The "Cover Texts" are certain short passages of text that are listed,
398\" as Front-Cover Texts or Back-Cover Texts, in the notice that says that
399\" the Document is released under this License.
400\" .PP
401\" A "Transparent" copy of the Document means a machine-readable copy,
402\" represented in a format whose specification is available to the
403\" general public, whose contents can be viewed and edited directly and
404\" straightforwardly with generic text editors or (for images composed of
405\" pixels) generic paint programs or (for drawings) some widely available
406\" drawing editor, and that is suitable for input to text formatters or
407\" for automatic translation to a variety of formats suitable for input
408\" to text formatters. A copy made in an otherwise Transparent file
409\" format whose markup has been designed to thwart or discourage
410\" subsequent modification by readers is not Transparent. A copy that is
411\" not "Transparent" is called "Opaque".
412\" .PP
413\" Examples of suitable formats for Transparent copies include plain
414\" ASCII without markup, Texinfo input format, LaTeX input format, SGML
415\" or XML using a publicly available DTD, and standard-conforming simple
416\" HTML designed for human modification. Opaque formats include
417\" PostScript, PDF, proprietary formats that can be read and edited only
418\" by proprietary word processors, SGML or XML for which the DTD and/or
419\" processing tools are not generally available, and the
420\" machine-generated HTML produced by some word processors for output
421\" purposes only.
422\" .PP
423\" The "Title Page" means, for a printed book, the title page itself,
424\" plus such following pages as are needed to hold, legibly, the material
425\" this License requires to appear in the title page. For works in
426\" formats which do not have any title page as such, "Title Page" means
427\" the text near the most prominent appearance of the work's title,
428\" preceding the beginning of the body of the text.
429\" .PP
430\" 2. VERBATIM COPYING
431\" .PP
432\" You may copy and distribute the Document in any medium, either
433\" commercially or noncommercially, provided that this License, the
434\" copyright notices, and the license notice saying this License applies
435\" to the Document are reproduced in all copies, and that you add no other
436\" conditions whatsoever to those of this License. You may not use
437\" technical measures to obstruct or control the reading or further
438\" copying of the copies you make or distribute. However, you may accept
439\" compensation in exchange for copies. If you distribute a large enough
440\" number of copies you must also follow the conditions in section 3.
441\" .PP
442\" You may also lend copies, under the same conditions stated above, and
443\" you may publicly display copies.
444\" .PP
445\" 3. COPYING IN QUANTITY
446\" .PP
447\" If you publish printed copies of the Document numbering more than 100,
448\" and the Document's license notice requires Cover Texts, you must enclose
449\" the copies in covers that carry, clearly and legibly, all these Cover
450\" Texts: Front-Cover Texts on the front cover, and Back-Cover Texts on
451\" the back cover. Both covers must also clearly and legibly identify
452\" you as the publisher of these copies. The front cover must present
453\" the full title with all words of the title equally prominent and
454\" visible. You may add other material on the covers in addition.
455\" Copying with changes limited to the covers, as long as they preserve
456\" the title of the Document and satisfy these conditions, can be treated
457\" as verbatim copying in other respects.
458\" .PP
459\" If the required texts for either cover are too voluminous to fit
460\" legibly, you should put the first ones listed (as many as fit
461\" reasonably) on the actual cover, and continue the rest onto adjacent
462\" pages.
463\" .PP
464\" If you publish or distribute Opaque copies of the Document numbering
465\" more than 100, you must either include a machine-readable Transparent
466\" copy along with each Opaque copy, or state in or with each Opaque copy
467\" a publicly-accessible computer-network location containing a complete
468\" Transparent copy of the Document, free of added material, which the
469\" general network-using public has access to download anonymously at no
470\" charge using public-standard network protocols. If you use the latter
471\" option, you must take reasonably prudent steps, when you begin
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475\" copy (directly or through your agents or retailers) of that edition to
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477\" .PP
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479\" Document well before redistributing any large number of copies, to give
480\" them a chance to provide you with an updated version of the Document.
481\" .PP
482\" 4. MODIFICATIONS
483\" .PP
484\" You may copy and distribute a Modified Version of the Document under
485\" the conditions of sections 2 and 3 above, provided that you release
486\" the Modified Version under precisely this License, with the Modified
487\" Version filling the role of the Document, thus licensing distribution
488\" and modification of the Modified Version to whoever possesses a copy
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490\" .PP
491\" A. Use in the Title Page (and on the covers, if any) a title distinct
492\" from that of the Document, and from those of previous versions
493\" (which should, if there were any, be listed in the History section
494\" of the Document). You may use the same title as a previous version
495\" if the original publisher of that version gives permission.
496\" .PP
497\" B. List on the Title Page, as authors, one or more persons or entities
498\" responsible for authorship of the modifications in the Modified
499\" Version, together with at least five of the principal authors of the
500\" Document (all of its principal authors, if it has less than five).
501\" .PP
502\" C. State on the Title page the name of the publisher of the
503\" Modified Version, as the publisher.
504\" .PP
505\" D. Preserve all the copyright notices of the Document.
506\" .PP
507\" E. Add an appropriate copyright notice for your modifications
508\" adjacent to the other copyright notices.
509\" .PP
510\" F. Include, immediately after the copyright notices, a license notice
511\" giving the public permission to use the Modified Version under the
512\" terms of this License, in the form shown in the Addendum below.
513\" Preserve in that license notice the full lists of Invariant Sections
514\" and required Cover Texts given in the Document's license notice.
515\" .PP
516\" H. Include an unaltered copy of this License.
517\" .PP
518\" I. Preserve the section entitled "History", and its title, and add to
519\" it an item stating at least the title, year, new authors, and
520\" publisher of the Modified Version as given on the Title Page. If
521\" there is no section entitled "History" in the Document, create one
522\" stating the title, year, authors, and publisher of the Document as
523\" given on its Title Page, then add an item describing the Modified
524\" Version as stated in the previous sentence.
525\" .PP
526\" J. Preserve the network location, if any, given in the Document for
527\" public access to a Transparent copy of the Document, and likewise
528\" the network locations given in the Document for previous versions
529\" it was based on. These may be placed in the "History" section.
530\" You may omit a network location for a work that was published at
531\" least four years before the Document itself, or if the original
532\" publisher of the version it refers to gives permission.
533\" .PP
534\" K. In any section entitled "Acknowledgements" or "Dedications",
535\" preserve the section's title, and preserve in the section all the
536\" substance and tone of each of the contributor acknowledgements
537\" and/or dedications given therein.
538\" .PP
539\" L. Preserve all the Invariant Sections of the Document,
540\" unaltered in their text and in their titles. Section numbers
541\" or the equivalent are not considered part of the section titles.
542\" .PP
543\" M. Delete any section entitled "Endorsements". Such a section
544\" may not be included in the Modified Version.
545\" .PP
546\" N. Do not retitle any existing section as "Endorsements"
547\" or to conflict in title with any Invariant Section.
548\" .PP
549\" If the Modified Version includes new front-matter sections or
550\" appendices that qualify as Secondary Sections and contain no material
551\" copied from the Document, you may at your option designate some or all
552\" of these sections as invariant. To do this, add their titles to the
553\" list of Invariant Sections in the Modified Version's license notice.
554\" These titles must be distinct from any other section titles.
555\" .PP
556\" You may add a section entitled "Endorsements", provided it contains
557\" nothing but endorsements of your Modified Version by various
558\" parties--for example, statements of peer review or that the text has
559\" been approved by an organization as the authoritative definition of a
560\" standard.
561\" .PP
562\" You may add a passage of up to five words as a Front-Cover Text, and a
563\" passage of up to 25 words as a Back-Cover Text, to the end of the list
564\" of Cover Texts in the Modified Version. Only one passage of
565\" Front-Cover Text and one of Back-Cover Text may be added by (or
566\" through arrangements made by) any one entity. If the Document already
567\" includes a cover text for the same cover, previously added by you or
568\" by arrangement made by the same entity you are acting on behalf of,
569\" you may not add another; but you may replace the old one, on explicit
570\" permission from the previous publisher that added the old one.
571\" .PP
572\" The author(s) and publisher(s) of the Document do not by this License
573\" give permission to use their names for publicity for or to assert or
574\" imply endorsement of any Modified Version.
575\" .PP
576
577\" 5. COMBINING DOCUMENTS
578\" .PP
579\" You may combine the Document with other documents released under this
580\" License, under the terms defined in section 4 above for modified
581\" versions, provided that you include in the combination all of the
582\" Invariant Sections of all of the original documents, unmodified, and
583\" list them all as Invariant Sections of your combined work in its
584\" license notice.
585\" .PP
586\" The combined work need only contain one copy of this License, and
587\" multiple identical Invariant Sections may be replaced with a single
588\" copy. If there are multiple Invariant Sections with the same name but
589\" different contents, make the title of each such section unique by
590\" adding at the end of it, in parentheses, the name of the original
591\" author or publisher of that section if known, or else a unique number.
592\" Make the same adjustment to the section titles in the list of
593\" Invariant Sections in the license notice of the combined work.
594\" .PP
595\" In the combination, you must combine any sections entitled "History"
596\" in the various original documents, forming one section entitled
597\" "History"; likewise combine any sections entitled "Acknowledgements",
598\" and any sections entitled "Dedications". You must delete all sections
599\" entitled "Endorsements."
600\" .PP
601
602\" 6. COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS
603\" .PP
604\" You may make a collection consisting of the Document and other documents
605\" released under this License, and replace the individual copies of this
606\" License in the various documents with a single copy that is included in
607\" the collection, provided that you follow the rules of this License for
608\" verbatim copying of each of the documents in all other respects.
609\" .PP
610\" You may extract a single document from such a collection, and distribute
611\" it individually under this License, provided you insert a copy of this
612\" License into the extracted document, and follow this License in all
613\" other respects regarding verbatim copying of that document.
614\" .PP
615
616\" 7. AGGREGATION WITH INDEPENDENT WORKS
617\" .PP
618\" A compilation of the Document or its derivatives with other separate
619\" and independent documents or works, in or on a volume of a storage or
620\" distribution medium, does not as a whole count as a Modified Version
621\" of the Document, provided no compilation copyright is claimed for the
622\" compilation. Such a compilation is called an "aggregate", and this
623\" License does not apply to the other self-contained works thus compiled
624\" with the Document, on account of their being thus compiled, if they
625\" are not themselves derivative works of the Document.
626\" .PP
627\" If the Cover Text requirement of section 3 is applicable to these
628\" copies of the Document, then if the Document is less than one quarter
629\" of the entire aggregate, the Document's Cover Texts may be placed on
630\" covers that surround only the Document within the aggregate.
631\" Otherwise they must appear on covers around the whole aggregate.
632\" .PP
633
634\" 8. TRANSLATION
635\" .PP
636\" Translation is considered a kind of modification, so you may
637\" distribute translations of the Document under the terms of section 4.
638\" Replacing Invariant Sections with translations requires special
639\" permission from their copyright holders, but you may include
640\" translations of some or all Invariant Sections in addition to the
641\" original versions of these Invariant Sections. You may include a
642\" translation of this License provided that you also include the
643\" original English version of this License. In case of a disagreement
644\" between the translation and the original English version of this
645\" License, the original English version will prevail.
646\" .PP
647
648\" 9. TERMINATION
649\" .PP
650\" You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Document except
651\" as expressly provided for under this License. Any other attempt to
652\" copy, modify, sublicense or distribute the Document is void, and will
653\" automatically terminate your rights under this License. However,
654\" parties who have received copies, or rights, from you under this
655\" License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such
656\" parties remain in full compliance.
657\" .PP
658
659\" 10. FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE
660\" .PP
661\" The Free Software Foundation may publish new, revised versions
662\" of the GNU Free Documentation License from time to time. Such new
663\" versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may
664\" differ in detail to address new problems or concerns. See
665\" http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/.
666\" .PP
667\" Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version number.
668\" If the Document specifies that a particular numbered version of this
669\" License "or any later version" applies to it, you have the option of
670\" following the terms and conditions either of that specified version or
671\" of any later version that has been published (not as a draft) by the
672\" Free Software Foundation. If the Document does not specify a version
673\" number of this License, you may choose any version ever published (not
674\" as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation.
675\" .PP
676
677\" ADDENDUM: How to use this License for your documents
678\" .PP
679\" To use this License in a document you have written, include a copy of
680\" the License in the document and put the following copyright and
681\" license notices just after the title page:
682\" .PP
683\" Copyright (c) YEAR YOUR NAME.
684\" Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or
685\" modify this document under the terms of the GNU
686\" Free Documentation License, Version 1.1 or any later
687\" version published by the Free Software Foundation;
688\" with the Invariant Sections being LIST THEIR TITLES,
689\" with the Front-Cover Texts being LIST, and with the
690\" Back-Cover Texts being LIST. A copy of the license
691\" is included in the section entitled "GNU Free
692\" Documentation License".
693\" .PP
694\" If you have no Invariant Sections, write "with no Invariant Sections"
695\" instead of saying which ones are invariant. If you have no
696\" Front-Cover Texts, write "no Front-Cover Texts" instead of
697\" "Front-Cover Texts being LIST"; likewise for Back-Cover Texts.
698\" .PP
699\" If your document contains nontrivial examples of program code, we
700\" recommend releasing these examples in parallel under your choice of
701\" free software license, such as the GNU General Public License,
702\" to permit their use in free software.