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1.\" Copyright (c) 1988, 1993
2.\" The Regents of the University of California. All rights reserved.
3.\"
4.\" Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
5.\" modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
6.\" are met:
7.\" 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
8.\" notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
9.\" 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
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14.\" This product includes software developed by the University of
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17.\" may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
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20.\" THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE REGENTS AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND
21.\" ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
22.\" IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
23.\" ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE REGENTS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
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28.\" LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
29.\" OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
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31.\"
32.\" @(#)sail.6 8.2 (Berkeley) 12/30/93
33.\" $FreeBSD: src/games/sail/sail.6,v 1.5.2.1 2001/07/22 11:32:37 dd Exp $
1de703da 34.\" $DragonFly: src/games/sail/sail.6,v 1.2 2003/06/17 04:25:25 dillon Exp $
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35.\"
36.TH SAIL 6 "December 30, 1993"
37.UC 4
38.SH NAME
39sail \- multi-user wooden ships and iron men
40.SH SYNOPSIS
41.B sail
42[
43.B \-s
44[
45.B \-l
46] ] [
47.B \-x
48] [
49.B \-b
50] [
51.B num
52]
53.br
54.fi
55.SH DESCRIPTION
56.I Sail
57is a computer version of Avalon Hill's game of fighting sail
58originally developed by S. Craig Taylor.
59.PP
60Players of
61.I Sail
62take command of an old fashioned Man of War and fight other
63players or the computer. They may re-enact one of the many
64historical sea battles recorded in the game, or they can choose
65a fictional battle.
66.PP
67As a sea captain in the
68.I Sail
69Navy, the player has complete control over the workings of his ship.
70He must order every maneuver, change the set of his sails, and judge the
71right moment to let loose the terrible destruction of his broadsides.
72In addition to fighting the enemy, he must harness the powers of the wind
73and sea to make them work for him. The outcome of many battles during the
74age of sail was decided by the ability of one captain to hold the `weather
75gage.'
76.PP
77The flags are:
78.TP
79.B \-s
80Print the names and ships of the top ten sailors.
81.TP
82.B \-l
83Show the login name. Only effective with \fB-s\fP.
84.TP
85.B \-x
86Play the first available ship instead of prompting for a choice.
87.TP
88.B \-b
89No bells.
90.SH IMPLEMENTATION
91.I Sail
92is really two programs in one. Each player starts up a process which
93runs his own ship. In addition, a
94.I driver
95process is forked (by the first player) to run the computer ships
96and take care of global bookkeeping.
97.PP
98Because the
99.I driver
100must calculate moves for each ship it controls, the
101more ships the computer is playing, the slower the game will appear.
102.PP
103If a player joins a game in progress, he will synchronize
104with the other players (a rather slow process for everyone), and
105then he may play along with the rest.
106.PP
107To implement a multi-user game in Version 7 UNIX, which was the operating
108system
109.I Sail
110was first written under, the communicating processes must use a common
111temporary file as a place to read and write messages. In addition, a
112locking mechanism must be provided to ensure exclusive access to the
113shared file. For example,
114.I Sail
115uses a temporary file named /tmp/#sailsink.21 for scenario 21, and
116corresponding file names for the other scenarios. To provide exclusive
117access to the temporary file,
118.I Sail
119uses a technique stolen from an old game called "pubcaves" by Jeff Cohen.
120Processes do a busy wait in the loop
121.br
122.sp
123.ce 2
124 for (n = 0; link(sync_file, sync_lock) < 0 && n < 30; n++)
125 sleep(2);
126.br
127.sp
128until they are able to create a link to a file named "/tmp/#saillock.??".
129The "??" correspond to the scenario number of the game. Since UNIX
130guarantees that a link will point to only one file, the process that succeeds
131in linking will have exclusive access to the temporary file.
132.PP
133Whether or not this really works is open to speculation. When ucbmiro
134was rebooted after a crash, the file system check program found 3 links
135between the
136.I Sail
137temporary file and its link file.
138.SH CONSEQUENCES OF SEPARATE PLAYER AND DRIVER PROCESSES
139When players do something of global interest, such as moving or firing,
140the driver must coordinate the action with the other ships in the game.
141For example, if a player wants to move in a certain direction, he writes a
142message into the temporary file requesting the driver to move his ship.
143Each ``turn,'' the driver reads all the messages sent from the players and
144decides what happened. It then writes back into the temporary file new
145values of variables, etc.
146.PP
147The most noticeable effect this communication has on the game is the
148delay in moving. Suppose a player types a move for his ship and hits
149return. What happens then? The player process saves up messages to
150be written to the temporary file in a buffer. Every 7 seconds or so, the
151player process gets exclusive access to the temporary file and writes
152out its buffer to the file. The driver, running asynchronously, must
153read in the movement command, process it, and write out the results. This
154takes two exclusive accesses to the temporary file. Finally, when the player
155process gets around to doing another 7 second update, the results of the
156move are displayed on the screen. Hence, every movement requires four
157exclusive accesses to the temporary file (anywhere from 7 to 21 seconds
158depending upon asynchrony) before the player sees the results of his moves.
159.PP
160In practice, the delays are not as annoying as they would appear. There
161is room for "pipelining" in the movement. After the player writes out
162a first movement message, a second movement command can then be issued.
163The first message will be in the temporary file waiting for the driver, and
164the second will be in the file buffer waiting to be written to the file.
165Thus, by always typing moves a turn ahead of the time, the player can
166sail around quite quickly.
167.PP
168If the player types several movement commands between two 7 second updates,
169only the last movement command typed will be seen by the driver. Movement
170commands within the same update "overwrite" each other, in a sense.
171.SH THE HISTORY OF SAIL
172I wrote the first version of
173.I Sail
174on a PDP 11/70 in the fall of 1980. Needless to say, the code was horrendous,
175not portable in any sense of the word, and didn't work. The program was not
176very modular and had fseeks() and fwrites() every few lines. After a
177tremendous rewrite from the top down, I got the first working version up by
1781981. There were several annoying bugs concerning firing broadsides and
179finding angles.
180.I Sail
181uses no floating point, by the way, so the direction routines are rather
182tricky.
183Ed Wang rewrote my angle() routine in 1981 to be more correct (although
184it still doesn't work perfectly), and he added code to let a player select
185which ship he wanted at the start of the game (instead of the first one
186available).
187.PP
188Captain Happy (Craig Leres) is responsible for making
189.I Sail
190portable for the first time. This was no easy task, by the way. Constants
191like 2 and 10 were very frequent in the code. I also became famous for
192using "Riggle Memorial Structures" in
193.I Sail.
194Many of my structure references are so long that they run off the line
195printer page. Here is an example, if you promise not to laugh.
196.br
197.sp
198.ce
199specs[scene[flog.fgamenum].ship[flog.fshipnum].shipnum].pts
200.br
201.sp
202.PP
203.I Sail
204received its fourth and most thorough rewrite in the summer and fall
205of 1983. Ed Wang rewrote and modularized the code (a monumental feat)
206almost from scratch. Although he introduced many new bugs, the final
207result was very much cleaner and (?) faster. He added window movement
208commands and find ship commands.
209.SH HISTORICAL INFO
210Old Square Riggers were very maneuverable ships capable of intricate
211sailing. Their only disadvantage was an inability to sail very
212close to the wind. The design of a wooden ship allowed only for the
213guns to bear to the left and right sides. A few guns of small
214aspect (usually 6 or 9 pounders) could point forward, but their
215effect was small compared to a 68 gun broadside of 24 or 32 pounders.
216The guns bear approximately like so:
217.nf
218
219 \\
220 b----------------
221 ---0
222 \\
223 \\
224 \\ up to a range of ten (for round shot)
225 \\
226 \\
227 \\
228
229.fi
230An interesting phenomenon occurred when a broadside was fired
231down the length of an enemy ship. The shot tended to bounce along
232the deck and did several times more damage. This phenomenon was called
233a rake. Because the bows of a ship are very strong and present a smaller
234target than the stern, a stern rake (firing from the stern to the bow) causes
235more damage than a bow rake.
236.nf
237
238 b
239 00 ---- Stern rake!
240 a
241
242.fi
243Most ships were equipped with carronades, which were very large, close
244range cannons. American ships from the revolution until the War of 1812
245were almost entirely armed with carronades.
246.PP
247The period of history covered in
248.I Sail
249is approximately from the 1770's until the end of Napoleonic France in 1815.
250There are many excellent books about the age of sail. My favorite author
251is Captain Frederick Marryat. More contemporary authors include C.S. Forester
252and Alexander Kent.
253.PP
254Fighting ships came in several sizes classed by armament. The mainstays of
255any fleet were its "Ships of the Line", or "Line of Battle Ships". They
256were so named because these ships fought together in great lines. They were
257close enough for mutual support, yet every ship could fire both its broadsides.
258We get the modern words "ocean liner," or "liner," and "battleship" from
259"ship of the line." The most common size was the 74 gun two decked
260ship of the line. The two gun decks usually mounted 18 and 24 pounder guns.
261.PP
262The pride of the fleet were the first rates. These were huge three decked
263ships of the line mounting 80 to 136 guns. The guns in the three tiers
264were usually 18, 24, and 32 pounders in that order from top to bottom.
265.PP
266Various other ships came next. They were almost all "razees," or ships
267of the line with one deck sawed off. They mounted 40-64 guns and were
268a poor cross between a frigate and a line of battle ship. They neither
269had the speed of the former nor the firepower of the latter.
270.PP
271Next came the "eyes of the fleet." Frigates came in many sizes mounting
272anywhere from 32 to 44 guns. They were very handy vessels. They could
273outsail anything bigger and outshoot anything smaller. Frigates didn't
274fight in lines of battle as the much bigger 74's did. Instead, they
275harassed the enemy's rear or captured crippled ships. They were much
276more useful in missions away from the fleet, such as cutting out expeditions
277or boat actions. They could hit hard and get away fast.
278.PP
279Lastly, there were the corvettes, sloops, and brigs. These were smaller
280ships mounting typically fewer than 20 guns. A corvette was only slightly
281smaller than a frigate, so one might have up to 30 guns. Sloops were used
282for carrying dispatches or passengers. Brigs were something you built for
283land-locked lakes.
284.SH SAIL PARTICULARS
285Ships in
286.I Sail
287are represented by two characters. One character represents the bow of
288the ship, and the other represents the stern. Ships have nationalities
289and numbers. The first ship of a nationality is number 0, the second
290number 1, etc. Therefore, the first British ship in a game would be
291printed as "b0". The second Brit would be "b1", and the fifth Don
292would be "s4".
293.PP
294Ships can set normal sails, called Battle Sails, or bend on extra canvas
295called Full Sails. A ship under full sail is a beautiful sight indeed,
296and it can move much faster than a ship under Battle Sails. The only
297trouble is, with full sails set, there is so much tension on sail and
298rigging that a well aimed round shot can burst a sail into ribbons where
299it would only cause a little hole in a loose sail. For this reason,
300rigging damage is doubled on a ship with full sails set. Don't let
301that discourage you from using full sails. I like to keep them up
302right into the heat of battle. A ship
303with full sails set has a capital letter for its nationality. E.g.,
304a Frog, "f0", with full sails set would be printed as "F0".
305.PP
306When a ship is battered into a listing hulk, the last man aboard "strikes
307the colors." This ceremony is the ship's formal surrender. The nationality
308character
309of a surrendered ship is printed as "!". E.g., the Frog of our last example
310would soon be "!0".
311.PP
312A ship has a random chance of catching fire or sinking when it reaches the
313stage of listing hulk. A sinking ship has a "~" printed for its nationality,
314and a ship on fire and about to explode has a "#" printed.
315.PP
316Captured ships become the nationality of the prize crew. Therefore, if
317an American ship captures a British ship, the British ship will have an
318"a" printed for its nationality. In addition, the ship number is changed
319to "&","'", "(", ,")", "*", or "+" depending upon the original number,
320be it 0,1,2,3,4, or 5. E.g., the "b0" captured by an American becomes the
321"a&". The "s4" captured by a Frog becomes the "f*".
322.PP
323The ultimate example is, of course, an exploding Brit captured by an
324American: "#&".
325.SH MOVEMENT
326Movement is the most confusing part of
327.I Sail
328to many. Ships can head in 8 directions:
329.nf
330
331 0 0 0
332 b b b0 b b b 0b b
333 0 0 0
334
335.fi
336The stern of a ship moves when it turns. The bow remains stationary.
337Ships can always turn, regardless of the wind (unless they are becalmed).
338All ships drift when they lose headway. If a ship doesn't move forward
339at all for two turns, it will begin to drift. If a ship has begun to
340drift, then it must move forward before it turns, if it plans to do
341more than make a right or left turn, which is always possible.
342.PP
343Movement commands to
344.I Sail
345are a string of forward moves and turns. An example is "l3". It will
346turn a ship left and then move it ahead 3 spaces. In the drawing above,
347the "b0" made 7 successive left turns. When
348.I Sail
349prompts you for a move, it prints three characters of import. E.g.,
350.nf
351 move (7, 4):
352.fi
353The first number is the maximum number of moves you can make,
354including turns. The second number is the maximum number of turns
355you can make. Between the numbers is sometimes printed a quote "'".
356If the quote is present, it means that your ship has been drifting, and
357you must move ahead to regain headway before you turn (see note above).
358Some of the possible moves for the example above are as follows:
359.nf
360
361 move (7, 4): 7
362 move (7, 4): 1
363 move (7, 4): d /* drift, or do nothing */
364 move (7, 4): 6r
365 move (7, 4): 5r1
366 move (7, 4): 4r1r
367 move (7, 4): l1r1r2
368 move (7, 4): 1r1r1r1
369
370.fi
371Because square riggers performed so poorly sailing into the wind, if at
372any point in a movement command you turn into the wind, the movement stops
373there. E.g.,
374.nf
375
376 move (7, 4): l1l4
377 Movement Error;
378 Helm: l1l
379
380.fi
381Moreover, whenever you make a turn, your movement allowance drops to
382min(what's left, what you would have at the new attitude). In short,
383if you turn closer to the wind, you most likely won't be able to sail the
384full allowance printed in the "move" prompt.
385.PP
386Old sailing captains had to keep an eye constantly on the wind. Captains
387in
388.I Sail
389are no different. A ship's ability to move depends on its attitude to the
390wind. The best angle possible is to have the wind off your quarter, that is,
391just off the stern. The direction rose on the side of the screen gives the
392possible movements for your ship at all positions to the wind. Battle
393sail speeds are given first, and full sail speeds are given in parenthesis.
394.nf
395
396 0 1(2)
397 \\|/
398 -^-3(6)
399 /|\\
400 | 4(7)
401 3(6)
402
403.fi
404Pretend the bow of your ship (the "^") is pointing upward and the wind is
405blowing from the bottom to the top of the page. The
406numbers at the bottom "3(6)" will be your speed under battle or full
407sails in such a situation. If the wind is off your quarter, then you
408can move "4(7)". If the wind is off your beam, "3(6)". If the wind is
409off your bow, then you can only move "1(2)". Facing into the wind, you
410can't move at all. Ships facing into the wind were said to be "in irons".
411.SH WINDSPEED AND DIRECTION
412The windspeed and direction is displayed as a little weather vane on the
413side of the screen. The number in the middle of the vane indicates the wind
414speed, and the + to - indicates the wind direction. The wind blows from
415the + sign (high pressure) to the - sign (low pressure). E.g.,
416.nf
417
418 |
419 3
420 +
421
422.fi
423.PP
424The wind speeds are 0 = becalmed, 1 = light breeze, 2 = moderate breeze,
4253 = fresh breeze, 4 = strong breeze, 5 = gale, 6 = full gale, 7 = hurricane.
426If a hurricane shows up, all ships are destroyed.
427.SH GRAPPLING AND FOULING
428If two ships collide, they run the risk of becoming tangled together. This
429is called "fouling." Fouled ships are stuck together, and neither can move.
430They can unfoul each other if they want to. Boarding parties can only be
431sent across to ships when the antagonists are either fouled or grappled.
432.PP
433Ships can grapple each other by throwing grapnels into the rigging of
434the other.
435.PP
436The number of fouls and grapples you have are displayed on the upper
437right of the screen.
438.SH BOARDING
439Boarding was a very costly venture in terms of human life. Boarding parties
440may be formed in
441.I Sail
442to either board an enemy ship or to defend your own ship against attack.
443Men organized as Defensive Boarding Parties fight twice as hard to save
444their ship as men left unorganized.
445.PP
446The boarding strength of a crew depends upon its quality and upon the
447number of men sent.
448.SH CREW QUALITY
449The British seaman was world renowned for his sailing abilities. American
450sailors, however, were actually the best seamen in the world. Because the
451American Navy offered twice the wages of the Royal Navy, British seamen
452who liked the sea defected to America by the thousands.
453.PP
454In
455.I Sail,
456crew quality is quantized into 5 energy levels. "Elite" crews can outshoot
457and outfight all other sailors. "Crack" crews are next. "Mundane" crews
458are average, and "Green" and "Mutinous" crews are below average. A good
459rule of thumb is that "Crack" or "Elite" crews get one extra hit
460per broadside compared to "Mundane" crews. Don't expect too much from
461"Green" crews.
462.SH BROADSIDES
463Your two broadsides may be loaded with four kinds of shot: grape, chain,
464round, and double. You have guns and carronades in both the port and starboard
465batteries. Carronades only have a range of two, so you have to get in
466close to be able to fire them. You have the choice of firing at the hull
467or rigging of another ship. If the range of the ship is greater than 6,
468then you may only shoot at the rigging.
469.PP
470The types of shot and their advantages are:
471.SH ROUND
472Range of 10. Good for hull or rigging hits.
473.SH DOUBLE
474Range of 1. Extra good for hull or rigging hits.
475Double takes two turns to load.
476.SH CHAIN
477Range of 3. Excellent for tearing down rigging.
478Cannot damage hull or guns, though.
479.SH GRAPE
480Range of 1. Sometimes devastating against enemy crews.
481.PP
482On the side of the screen is displayed some vital information about your
483ship:
484.nf
485
486 Load D! R!
487 Hull 9
488 Crew 4 4 2
489 Guns 4 4
490 Carr 2 2
491 Rigg 5 5 5 5
492
493.fi
494"Load" shows what your port (left) and starboard (right) broadsides are
495loaded with. A "!" after the type of shot indicates that it is an initial
496broadside. Initial broadside were loaded with care before battle and before
497the decks ran red with blood. As a consequence, initial broadsides are a
498little more effective than broadsides loaded later. A "*" after the type of
499shot indicates that the gun
500crews are still loading it, and you cannot fire yet. "Hull" shows how much
501hull you have left. "Crew" shows your three sections of crew. As your
502crew dies off, your ability to fire decreases. "Guns" and "Carr" show
503your port and starboard guns. As you lose guns, your ability to fire
504decreases. "Rigg" shows how much rigging you have on your 3 or 4 masts.
505As rigging is shot away, you lose mobility.
506.SH EFFECTIVENESS OF FIRE
507It is very dramatic when a ship fires its thunderous broadsides, but the
508mere opportunity to fire them does not guarantee any hits. Many factors
509influence the destructive force of a broadside. First of all, and the chief
510factor, is distance. It is harder to hit a ship at range ten than it is
511to hit one sloshing alongside. Next is raking. Raking fire, as
512mentioned before,
513can sometimes dismast a ship at range ten. Next, crew size and quality affects
514the damage done by a broadside. The number of guns firing also bears on the
515point,
516so to speak. Lastly, weather affects the accuracy of a broadside. If the
517seas are high (5 or 6), then the lower gunports of ships of the line can't
518even be opened to run out the guns. This gives frigates and other flush
519decked vessels an advantage in a storm. The scenario
520.I Pellew vs. The Droits de L'Homme
521takes advantage of this peculiar circumstance.
522.SH REPAIRS
523Repairs may be made to your Hull, Guns, and Rigging at the slow rate of
524two points per three turns. The message "Repairs Completed" will be
525printed if no more repairs can be made.
526.SH PECULIARITIES OF COMPUTER SHIPS
527Computer ships in
528.I Sail
529follow all the rules above with a few exceptions. Computer ships never
530repair damage. If they did, the players could never beat them. They
531play well enough as it is. As a consolation, the computer ships can fire double
532shot every turn. That fluke is a good reason to keep your distance. The
533.I
534Driver
535figures out the moves of the computer ships. It computes them with a typical
536A.I. distance function and a depth first search to find the maximum "score."
537It seems to work fairly well, although I'll be the first to admit it isn't
538perfect.
539.SH HOW TO PLAY
540Commands are given to
541.I Sail
542by typing a single character. You will then be prompted for further
543input. A brief summary of the commands follows.
544.br
545.SH COMMAND SUMMARY
546.nf
547
548 'f' Fire broadsides if they bear
549 'l' Reload
550 'L' Unload broadsides (to change ammo)
551 'm' Move
552 'i' Print the closest ship
553 'I' Print all ships
554 'F' Find a particular ship or ships (e.g. "a?" for all Americans)
555 's' Send a message around the fleet
556 'b' Attempt to board an enemy ship
557 'B' Recall boarding parties
558 'c' Change set of sail
559 'r' Repair
560 'u' Attempt to unfoul
561 'g' Grapple/ungrapple
562 'v' Print version number of game
563 '^L' Redraw screen
564 'Q' Quit
565
566 'C' Center your ship in the window
567 'U' Move window up
568 'D','N' Move window down
569 'H' Move window left
570 'J' Move window right
571 'S' Toggle window to follow your ship or stay where it is
572
573.fi
574.bg
575.SH SCENARIOS
576Here is a summary of the scenarios in
577.I Sail:
578
579.br
580.SH Ranger vs. Drake:
581.nf
582Wind from the N, blowing a fresh breeze.
583
584(a) Ranger 19 gun Sloop (crack crew) (7 pts)
585(b) Drake 17 gun Sloop (crack crew) (6 pts)
586.SH The Battle of Flamborough Head:
587.nf
588Wind from the S, blowing a fresh breeze.
589
590.fi
591This is John Paul Jones' first famous battle. Aboard the Bonhomme
592Richard, he was able to overcome the Serapis's greater firepower
593by quickly boarding her.
594.nf
595
596(a) Bonhomme Rich 42 gun Corvette (crack crew) (11 pts)
597(b) Serapis 44 gun Frigate (crack crew) (12 pts)
598.SH Arbuthnot and Des Touches:
599.nf
600Wind from the N, blowing a gale.
601
602(b) America 64 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (20 pts)
603(b) Befford 74 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (26 pts)
604(b) Adamant 50 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (17 pts)
605(b) London 98 gun 3 Decker SOL (crack crew) (28 pts)
606(b) Royal Oak 74 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (26 pts)
607(f) Neptune 74 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (24 pts)
608(f) Duc de Bourgogne 80 gun 3 Decker SOL (average crew) (27 pts)
609(f) Conquerant 74 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (24 pts)
610(f) Provence 64 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (18 pts)
611(f) Romulus 44 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (10 pts)
612.SH Suffren and Hughes:
613.nf
614
615Wind from the S, blowing a fresh breeze.
616
617(b) Monmouth 74 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (24 pts)
618(b) Hero 74 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (26 pts)
619(b) Isis 50 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (17 pts)
620(b) Superb 74 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (27 pts)
621(b) Burford 74 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (24 pts)
622(f) Flamband 50 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (14 pts)
623(f) Annibal 74 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (24 pts)
624(f) Severe 64 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (18 pts)
625(f) Brilliant 80 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (31 pts)
626(f) Sphinx 80 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (27 pts)
627.SH Nymphe vs. Cleopatre:
628.nf
629Wind from the S, blowing a fresh breeze.
630
631(b) Nymphe 36 gun Frigate (crack crew) (11 pts)
632(f) Cleopatre 36 gun Frigate (average crew) (10 pts)
633.SH Mars vs. Hercule:
634Wind from the S, blowing a fresh breeze.
635.nf
636(b) Mars 74 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (26 pts)
637(f) Hercule 74 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (23 pts)
638.SH Ambuscade vs. Baionnaise:
639.nf
640Wind from the N, blowing a fresh breeze.
641
642(b) Ambuscade 32 gun Frigate (average crew) (9 pts)
643(f) Baionnaise 24 gun Corvette (average crew) (9 pts)
644.SH Constellation vs. Insurgent:
645.nf
646Wind from the S, blowing a gale.
647
648(a) Constellation 38 gun Corvette (elite crew) (17 pts)
649(f) Insurgent 36 gun Corvette (average crew) (11 pts)
650.SH Constellation vs. Vengeance:
651.nf
652Wind from the S, blowing a fresh breeze.
653
654(a) Constellation 38 gun Corvette (elite crew) (17 pts)
655(f) Vengeance 40 gun Frigate (average crew) (15 pts)
656.SH The Battle of Lissa:
657.nf
658Wind from the S, blowing a fresh breeze.
659
660(b) Amphion 32 gun Frigate (elite crew) (13 pts)
661(b) Active 38 gun Frigate (elite crew) (18 pts)
662(b) Volage 22 gun Frigate (elite crew) (11 pts)
663(b) Cerberus 32 gun Frigate (elite crew) (13 pts)
664(f) Favorite 40 gun Frigate (average crew) (15 pts)
665(f) Flore 40 gun Frigate (average crew) (15 pts)
666(f) Danae 40 gun Frigate (crack crew) (17 pts)
667(f) Bellona 32 gun Frigate (green crew) (9 pts)
668(f) Corona 40 gun Frigate (green crew) (12 pts)
669(f) Carolina 32 gun Frigate (green crew) (7 pts)
670.SH Constitution vs. Guerriere:
671.nf
672Wind from the SW, blowing a gale.
673
674(a) Constitution 44 gun Corvette (elite crew) (24 pts)
675(b) Guerriere 38 gun Frigate (crack crew) (15 pts)
676.SH United States vs. Macedonian:
677.nf
678Wind from the S, blowing a fresh breeze.
679
680(a) United States 44 gun Frigate (elite crew) (24 pts)
681(b) Macedonian 38 gun Frigate (crack crew) (16 pts)
682.SH Constitution vs. Java:
683.nf
684Wind from the S, blowing a fresh breeze.
685
686(a) Constitution 44 gun Corvette (elite crew) (24 pts)
687(b) Java 38 gun Corvette (crack crew) (19 pts)
688.SH Chesapeake vs. Shannon:
689.nf
690Wind from the S, blowing a fresh breeze.
691
692(a) Chesapeake 38 gun Frigate (average crew) (14 pts)
693(b) Shannon 38 gun Frigate (elite crew) (17 pts)
694.SH The Battle of Lake Erie:
695.nf
696Wind from the S, blowing a light breeze.
697
698(a) Lawrence 20 gun Sloop (crack crew) (9 pts)
699(a) Niagara 20 gun Sloop (elite crew) (12 pts)
700(b) Lady Prevost 13 gun Brig (crack crew) (5 pts)
701(b) Detroit 19 gun Sloop (crack crew) (7 pts)
702(b) Q. Charlotte 17 gun Sloop (crack crew) (6 pts)
703.SH Wasp vs. Reindeer:
704.nf
705Wind from the S, blowing a light breeze.
706
707(a) Wasp 20 gun Sloop (elite crew) (12 pts)
708(b) Reindeer 18 gun Sloop (elite crew) (9 pts)
709.SH Constitution vs. Cyane and Levant:
710.br
711Wind from the S, blowing a moderate breeze.
712
713(a) Constitution 44 gun Corvette (elite crew) (24 pts)
714(b) Cyane 24 gun Sloop (crack crew) (11 pts)
715(b) Levant 20 gun Sloop (crack crew) (10 pts)
716.br
717.SH Pellew vs. Droits de L'Homme:
718.nf
719Wind from the N, blowing a gale.
720
721(b) Indefatigable 44 gun Frigate (elite crew) (14 pts)
722(b) Amazon 36 gun Frigate (crack crew) (14 pts)
723(f) Droits L'Hom 74 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (24 pts)
724.SH Algeciras:
725.nf
726Wind from the SW, blowing a moderate breeze.
727
728(b) Caesar 80 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (31 pts)
729(b) Pompee 74 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (27 pts)
730(b) Spencer 74 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (26 pts)
731(b) Hannibal 98 gun 3 Decker SOL (crack crew) (28 pts)
732(s) Real-Carlos 112 gun 3 Decker SOL (green crew) (27 pts)
733(s) San Fernando 96 gun 3 Decker SOL (green crew) (24 pts)
734(s) Argonauta 80 gun Ship of the Line (green crew) (23 pts)
735(s) San Augustine 74 gun Ship of the Line (green crew) (20 pts)
736(f) Indomptable 80 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (27 pts)
737(f) Desaix 74 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (24 pts)
738.SH Lake Champlain:
739.nf
740Wind from the N, blowing a fresh breeze.
741
742(a) Saratoga 26 gun Sloop (crack crew) (12 pts)
743(a) Eagle 20 gun Sloop (crack crew) (11 pts)
744(a) Ticonderoga 17 gun Sloop (crack crew) (9 pts)
745(a) Preble 7 gun Brig (crack crew) (4 pts)
746(b) Confiance 37 gun Frigate (crack crew) (14 pts)
747(b) Linnet 16 gun Sloop (elite crew) (10 pts)
748(b) Chubb 11 gun Brig (crack crew) (5 pts)
749.SH Last Voyage of the USS President:
750.nf
751Wind from the N, blowing a fresh breeze.
752
753(a) President 44 gun Frigate (elite crew) (24 pts)
754(b) Endymion 40 gun Frigate (crack crew) (17 pts)
755(b) Pomone 44 gun Frigate (crack crew) (20 pts)
756(b) Tenedos 38 gun Frigate (crack crew) (15 pts)
757.SH Hornblower and the Natividad:
758.nf
759Wind from the E, blowing a gale.
760
761.fi
762A scenario for you Horny fans. Remember, he sank the Natividad
763against heavy odds and winds. Hint: don't try to board the Natividad,
764her crew is much bigger, albeit green.
765.nf
766
767(b) Lydia 36 gun Frigate (elite crew) (13 pts)
768(s) Natividad 50 gun Ship of the Line (green crew) (14 pts)
769.SH Curse of the Flying Dutchman:
770.nf
771Wind from the S, blowing a fresh breeze.
772
773Just for fun, take the Piece of cake.
774
775(s) Piece of Cake 24 gun Corvette (average crew) (9 pts)
776(f) Flying Dutchy 120 gun 3 Decker SOL (elite crew) (43 pts)
777.SH The South Pacific:
778.nf
779Wind from the S, blowing a strong breeze.
780
781(a) USS Scurvy 136 gun 3 Decker SOL (mutinous crew) (27 pts)
782(b) HMS Tahiti 120 gun 3 Decker SOL (elite crew) (43 pts)
783(s) Australian 32 gun Frigate (average crew) (9 pts)
784(f) Bikini Atoll 7 gun Brig (crack crew) (4 pts)
785.SH Hornblower and the battle of Rosas bay:
786.nf
787Wind from the E, blowing a fresh breeze.
788
789The only battle Hornblower ever lost. He was able to dismast one
790ship and stern rake the others though. See if you can do as well.
791.nf
792
793(b) Sutherland 74 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (26 pts)
794(f) Turenne 80 gun 3 Decker SOL (average crew) (27 pts)
795(f) Nightmare 74 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (24 pts)
796(f) Paris 112 gun 3 Decker SOL (green crew) (27 pts)
797(f) Napoleon 74 gun Ship of the Line (green crew) (20 pts)
798.SH Cape Horn:
799.nf
800Wind from the NE, blowing a strong breeze.
801
802(a) Concord 80 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (27 pts)
803(a) Berkeley 98 gun 3 Decker SOL (crack crew) (28 pts)
804(b) Thames 120 gun 3 Decker SOL (elite crew) (43 pts)
805(s) Madrid 112 gun 3 Decker SOL (green crew) (27 pts)
806(f) Musket 80 gun 3 Decker SOL (average crew) (27 pts)
807.SH New Orleans:
808.nf
809Wind from the SE, blowing a fresh breeze.
810
811Watch that little Cypress go!
812
813(a) Alligator 120 gun 3 Decker SOL (elite crew) (43 pts)
814(b) Firefly 74 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (27 pts)
815(b) Cypress 44 gun Frigate (elite crew) (14 pts)
816.SH Botany Bay:
817.nf
818Wind from the N, blowing a fresh breeze.
819
820(b) Shark 64 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (18 pts)
821(f) Coral Snake 44 gun Corvette (elite crew) (24 pts)
822(f) Sea Lion 44 gun Frigate (elite crew) (24 pts)
823.SH Voyage to the Bottom of the Sea:
824.nf
825Wind from the NW, blowing a fresh breeze.
826
827This one is dedicated to Richard Basehart and David Hedison.
828
829(a) Seaview 120 gun 3 Decker SOL (elite crew) (43 pts)
830(a) Flying Sub 40 gun Frigate (crack crew) (17 pts)
831(b) Mermaid 136 gun 3 Decker SOL (mutinous crew) (27 pts)
832(s) Giant Squid 112 gun 3 Decker SOL (green crew) (27 pts)
833.SH Frigate Action:
834.nf
835Wind from the E, blowing a fresh breeze.
836
837(a) Killdeer 40 gun Frigate (average crew) (15 pts)
838(b) Sandpiper 40 gun Frigate (average crew) (15 pts)
839(s) Curlew 38 gun Frigate (crack crew) (16 pts)
840.SH The Battle of Midway:
841.nf
842Wind from the E, blowing a moderate breeze.
843
844(a) Enterprise 80 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (31 pts)
845(a) Yorktown 80 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (27 pts)
846(a) Hornet 74 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (24 pts)
847(j) Akagi 112 gun 3 Decker SOL (green crew) (27 pts)
848(j) Kaga 96 gun 3 Decker SOL (green crew) (24 pts)
849(j) Soryu 80 gun Ship of the Line (green crew) (23 pts)
850
851.SH Star Trek:
852.nf
853Wind from the S, blowing a fresh breeze.
854
855(a) Enterprise 450 gun Ship of the Line (elite crew) (75 pts)
856(a) Yorktown 450 gun Ship of the Line (elite crew) (75 pts)
857(a) Reliant 450 gun Ship of the Line (elite crew) (75 pts)
858(a) Galileo 450 gun Ship of the Line (elite crew) (75 pts)
859(k) Kobayashi Maru 450 gun Ship of the Line (elite crew) (75 pts)
860(k) Klingon II 450 gun Ship of the Line (elite crew) (75 pts)
861(o) Red Orion 450 gun Ship of the Line (elite crew) (75 pts)
862(o) Blue Orion 450 gun Ship of the Line (elite crew) (75 pts)
863
864.SH CONCLUSION
865
866.I Sail
867has been a group effort.
868
869.SH AUTHOR
870Dave Riggle
871.SH CO-AUTHOR
872Ed Wang
873.SH REFITTING
874Craig Leres
875.SH CONSULTANTS
876.nf
877Chris Guthrie
878Captain Happy
879Horatio Nelson
880 and many valiant others...
881.fi
882.SH "REFERENCES"
883.nf
884Wooden Ships & Iron Men, by Avalon Hill
885Captain Horatio Hornblower Novels, (13 of them) by C.S. Forester
886Captain Richard Bolitho Novels, (12 of them) by Alexander Kent
887The Complete Works of Captain Frederick Marryat, (about 20) especially
888.in +6n
889Mr. Midshipman Easy
890Peter Simple
891Jacob Faithful
892Japhet in Search of a Father
893Snarleyyow, or The Dog Fiend
894Frank Mildmay, or The Naval Officer
895.in -6n
896.SH BUGS
897Probably a few, and please report them to "riggle@ernie.berkeley.edu" and
898"edward@ucbarpa.berkeley.edu"