- Add noise floor in ieee80211_nodestats; return it as zero until we can
[dragonfly.git] / sbin / ifconfig / ifconfig.8
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1.\" Copyright (c) 1983, 1991, 1993
2.\" The Regents of the University of California. All rights reserved.
3.\"
4.\" Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
5.\" modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
6.\" are met:
7.\" 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
8.\" notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
9.\" 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
10.\" notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
11.\" documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
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12.\" 4. Neither the name of the University nor the names of its contributors
13.\" may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
14.\" without specific prior written permission.
15.\"
16.\" THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE REGENTS AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND
17.\" ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
18.\" IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
19.\" ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE REGENTS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
20.\" FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
21.\" DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
22.\" OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
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24.\" LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
25.\" OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
26.\" SUCH DAMAGE.
27.\"
28.\" From: @(#)ifconfig.8 8.3 (Berkeley) 1/5/94
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29.\" $FreeBSD: src/sbin/ifconfig/ifconfig.8,v 1.124 2006/10/10 09:44:08 ru Exp $
30.\" $DragonFly: src/sbin/ifconfig/ifconfig.8,v 1.12 2006/11/19 16:45:05 swildner Exp $
984263bc 31.\"
b16c423b 32.Dd November 19, 2006
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33.Dt IFCONFIG 8
34.Os
35.Sh NAME
36.Nm ifconfig
37.Nd configure network interface parameters
38.Sh SYNOPSIS
39.Nm
40.Op Fl L
55fc9f88 41.Op Fl k
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42.Op Fl m
43.Ar interface
44.Op Cm create
45.Op Ar address_family
46.Oo
47.Ar address
48.Op Ar dest_address
49.Oc
50.Op Ar parameters
51.Nm
52.Ar interface
53.Cm destroy
54.Nm
55.Fl a
56.Op Fl L
57.Op Fl d
58.Op Fl m
59.Op Fl u
55fc9f88 60.Op Fl v
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61.Op Ar address_family
62.Nm
63.Fl l
64.Op Fl d
65.Op Fl u
66.Op Ar address_family
67.Nm
68.Op Fl L
69.Op Fl d
55fc9f88 70.Op Fl k
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71.Op Fl m
72.Op Fl u
55fc9f88 73.Op Fl v
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74.Op Fl C
75.Sh DESCRIPTION
76The
77.Nm
78utility is used to assign an address
79to a network interface and/or configure
80network interface parameters.
81The
82.Nm
83utility must be used at boot time to define the network address
84of each interface present on a machine; it may also be used at
85a later time to redefine an interface's address
86or other operating parameters.
87.Pp
88The following options are available:
89.Bl -tag -width indent
90.It Ar address
91For the
92.Tn DARPA Ns -Internet
93family,
94the address is either a host name present in the host name data
95base,
96.Xr hosts 5 ,
97or a
98.Tn DARPA
99Internet address expressed in the Internet standard
100.Dq dot notation .
101.Pp
102It is also possible to use the CIDR notation (also known as the
103slash notation) to include the netmask.
104That is, one can specify an address like
105.Li 192.168.0.1/16 .
106.Pp
107For
108.Dq inet6
109family, it is also possible to specify the prefix length using the slash
110notation, like
111.Li ::1/128 .
112See the
113.Cm prefixlen
114parameter below for more information.
115.\" For the Xerox Network Systems(tm) family,
116.\" addresses are
117.\" .Ar net:a.b.c.d.e.f ,
118.\" where
119.\" .Ar net
120.\" is the assigned network number (in decimal),
121.\" and each of the six bytes of the host number,
122.\" .Ar a
123.\" through
124.\" .Ar f ,
125.\" are specified in hexadecimal.
126.\" The host number may be omitted on IEEE 802 protocol
127.\" (Ethernet, FDDI, and Token Ring) interfaces,
128.\" which use the hardware physical address,
129.\" and on interfaces other than the first.
130.\" For the
131.\" .Tn ISO
132.\" family, addresses are specified as a long hexadecimal string,
133.\" as in the Xerox family.
134.\" However, two consecutive dots imply a zero
135.\" byte, and the dots are optional, if the user wishes to (carefully)
136.\" count out long strings of digits in network byte order.
137.Pp
138The link-level
139.Pq Dq link
140address
141is specified as a series of colon-separated hex digits.
142This can be used to
b50e4759 143e.g.\& set a new MAC address on an ethernet interface, though the
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144mechanism used is not ethernet-specific.
145If the interface is already
146up when this option is used, it will be briefly brought down and
147then brought back up again in order to ensure that the receive
148filter in the underlying ethernet hardware is properly reprogrammed.
149.It Ar address_family
150Specify the
151address family
152which affects interpretation of the remaining parameters.
153Since an interface can receive transmissions in differing protocols
154with different naming schemes, specifying the address family is recommended.
155The address or protocol families currently
156supported are
157.Dq inet ,
158.Dq inet6 ,
159.Dq atalk ,
160.Dq ipx ,
161.\" .Dq iso ,
162and
163.Dq link .
164.\" and
165.\" .Dq ns .
166The default is
167.Dq inet .
168.Dq ether
169and
170.Dq lladdr
171are synonyms for
172.Dq link .
173.It Ar dest_address
174Specify the address of the correspondent on the other end
175of a point to point link.
176.It Ar interface
177This
178parameter is a string of the form
179.Dq name unit ,
180for example,
181.Dq Li ed0 .
182.El
183.Pp
184The following parameters may be set with
185.Nm :
186.Bl -tag -width indent
187.It Cm add
188Another name for the
189.Cm alias
190parameter.
191Introduced for compatibility
192with
193.Bsx .
194.It Cm alias
195Establish an additional network address for this interface.
196This is sometimes useful when changing network numbers, and
197one wishes to accept packets addressed to the old interface.
198If the address is on the same subnet as the first network address
199for this interface, a non-conflicting netmask must be given.
200Usually
201.Li 0xffffffff
202is most appropriate.
203.It Fl alias
b50e4759 204Remove the network address specified.
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205This would be used if you incorrectly specified an alias, or it
206was no longer needed.
207If you have incorrectly set an NS address having the side effect
208of specifying the host portion, removing all NS addresses will
209allow you to respecify the host portion.
210.It Cm anycast
211(Inet6 only.)
212Specify that the address configured is an anycast address.
213Based on the current specification,
214only routers may configure anycast addresses.
215Anycast address will not be used as source address of any of outgoing
216IPv6 packets.
217.It Cm arp
218Enable the use of the Address Resolution Protocol
219.Pq Xr arp 4
220in mapping
221between network level addresses and link level addresses (default).
222This is currently implemented for mapping between
223.Tn DARPA
224Internet
225addresses and
226.Tn IEEE
227802 48-bit MAC addresses (Ethernet, FDDI, and Token Ring addresses).
228.It Fl arp
229Disable the use of the Address Resolution Protocol
230.Pq Xr arp 4 .
231.It Cm broadcast
232(Inet only.)
233Specify the address to use to represent broadcasts to the
234network.
235The default broadcast address is the address with a host part of all 1's.
236.It Cm debug
237Enable driver dependent debugging code; usually, this turns on
238extra console error logging.
239.It Fl debug
240Disable driver dependent debugging code.
241.It Cm promisc
242Put interface into permanently promiscuous mode.
243.It Fl promisc
244Disable permanently promiscuous mode.
245.It Cm delete
246Another name for the
247.Fl alias
248parameter.
249.It Cm down
250Mark an interface
251.Dq down .
252When an interface is marked
253.Dq down ,
254the system will not attempt to
255transmit messages through that interface.
256If possible, the interface will be reset to disable reception as well.
257This action does not automatically disable routes using the interface.
258.It Cm eui64
259(Inet6 only.)
260Fill interface index
261(lowermost 64bit of an IPv6 address)
262automatically.
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263.It Cm ipdst
264This is used to specify an Internet host who is willing to receive
265IP packets encapsulating IPX packets bound for a remote network.
266An apparent point to point link is constructed, and
267the address specified will be taken as the IPX address and network
268of the destination.
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269.It Cm media Ar type
270If the driver supports the media selection system, set the media type
271of the interface to
272.Ar type .
273Some interfaces support the mutually exclusive use of one of several
274different physical media connectors.
b16c423b 275For example, a 10Mbit/s Ethernet
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276interface might support the use of either
277.Tn AUI
278or twisted pair connectors.
279Setting the media type to
b16c423b 280.Cm 10base5/AUI
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281would change the currently active connector to the AUI port.
282Setting it to
b16c423b 283.Cm 10baseT/UTP
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284would activate twisted pair.
285Refer to the interfaces' driver
286specific documentation or man page for a complete list of the
287available types.
288.It Cm mediaopt Ar opts
289If the driver supports the media selection system, set the specified
290media options on the interface.
291The
292.Ar opts
293argument
294is a comma delimited list of options to apply to the interface.
295Refer to the interfaces' driver specific man page for a complete
296list of available options.
297.It Fl mediaopt Ar opts
298If the driver supports the media selection system, disable the
299specified media options on the interface.
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300.It Cm mode Ar mode
301If the driver supports the media selection system, set the specified
302operating mode on the interface to
303.Ar mode .
304For IEEE 802.11 wireless interfaces that support multiple operating modes
305this directive is used to select between 802.11a
b16c423b 306.Pq Cm 11a ,
b50e4759 307802.11b
b16c423b 308.Pq Cm 11b ,
b50e4759 309and 802.11g
b16c423b 310.Pq Cm 11g
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311operating modes.
312.It Cm name Ar name
313Set the interface name to
314.Ar name .
315.It Cm rxcsum , txcsum
316If the driver supports user-configurable checksum offloading,
317enable receive (or transmit) checksum offloading on the interface.
318Some drivers may not be able to enable these flags independently
319of each other, so setting one may also set the other.
320The driver will offload as much checksum work as it can reliably
321support, the exact level of offloading varies between drivers.
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322.It Fl rxcsum , txcsum
323If the driver supports user-configurable checksum offloading,
324disable receive (or transmit) checksum offloading on the interface.
325These settings may not always be independent of each other.
326.It Cm vlanmtu , vlanhwtag
327If the driver offers user-configurable VLAN support, enable
328reception of extended frames or tag processing in hardware,
329respectively.
330Note that this must be issued on a physical interface associated with
331.Xr vlan 4 ,
332not on a
333.Xr vlan 4
334interface itself.
335.It Fl vlanmtu , vlanhwtag
336If the driver offers user-configurable VLAN support, disable
337reception of extended frames or tag processing in hardware,
338respectively.
339.It Cm polling
340Turn on
341.Xr polling 4
342feature and disable interrupts on the interface, if the driver supports
343this mode.
344.It Fl polling
345Turn off
346.Xr polling 4
347feature and enable interrupt mode on the interface.
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348.It Cm create
349Create the specified network pseudo-device.
350If the interface is given without a unit number, try to create a new
351device with an arbitrary unit number.
352If creation of an arbitrary device is successful, the new device name is
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353printed to standard output unless the interface is renamed or destroyed
354in the same
355.Nm
356invocation.
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357.It Cm destroy
358Destroy the specified network pseudo-device.
359.It Cm plumb
360Another name for the
361.Cm create
362parameter.
363Included for
364.Tn Solaris
365compatibility.
366.It Cm unplumb
367Another name for the
368.Cm destroy
369parameter.
370Included for
371.Tn Solaris
372compatibility.
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373.It Cm metric Ar n
374Set the routing metric of the interface to
375.Ar n ,
376default 0.
377The routing metric is used by the routing protocol
378.Pq Xr routed 8 .
379Higher metrics have the effect of making a route
b16c423b 380less favorable; metrics are counted as additional hops
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381to the destination network or host.
382.It Cm mtu Ar n
383Set the maximum transmission unit of the interface to
384.Ar n ,
385default is interface specific.
386The MTU is used to limit the size of packets that are transmitted on an
387interface.
388Not all interfaces support setting the MTU, and some interfaces have
389range restrictions.
390.It Cm netmask Ar mask
391.\" (Inet and ISO.)
392(Inet only.)
393Specify how much of the address to reserve for subdividing
394networks into sub-networks.
395The mask includes the network part of the local address
396and the subnet part, which is taken from the host field of the address.
397The mask can be specified as a single hexadecimal number
398with a leading
399.Ql 0x ,
400with a dot-notation Internet address,
401or with a pseudo-network name listed in the network table
402.Xr networks 5 .
403The mask contains 1's for the bit positions in the 32-bit address
404which are to be used for the network and subnet parts,
405and 0's for the host part.
406The mask should contain at least the standard network portion,
407and the subnet field should be contiguous with the network
408portion.
409.Pp
410The netmask can also be specified in CIDR notation after the address.
411See the
412.Ar address
413option above for more information.
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414.It Cm autoconf
415(Inet6 only.)
416Enable autoconfiguration.
417.It Fl autoconf
418Disable autoconfiguration.
419.It Cm pltime Ar n
420(Inet6 only.)
421Set preferred lifetime for the address.
422.It Cm vltime Ar n
423(Inet6 only.)
424Set valid lifetime for the address.
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425.It Cm prefixlen Ar len
426(Inet6 only.)
427Specify that
428.Ar len
429bits are reserved for subdividing networks into sub-networks.
430The
431.Ar len
432must be integer, and for syntactical reason it must be between 0 to 128.
433It is almost always 64 under the current IPv6 assignment rule.
434If the parameter is omitted, 64 is used.
435.Pp
436The prefix can also be specified using the slash notation after the address.
437See the
438.Ar address
439option above for more information.
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440.It Cm deprecated
441(Inet6 only.)
442Set the IPv6 deprecated address bit.
443.It Fl deprecated
444(Inet6 only.)
445Clear the IPv6 deprecated address bit.
446.It Cm tentative
447(Inet6 only.)
448Set the IPv6 tentative address bit.
449.It Fl tentative
450(Inet6 only.)
451Clear the IPv6 tentative address bit.
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452.\" see
453.\" Xr eon 5 .
454.\" .It Cm nsellength Ar n
455.\" .Pf ( Tn ISO
456.\" only)
457.\" This specifies a trailing number of bytes for a received
458.\" .Tn NSAP
459.\" used for local identification, the remaining leading part of which is
460.\" taken to be the
461.\" .Tn NET
462.\" (Network Entity Title).
463.\" The default value is 1, which is conformant to US
464.\" .Tn GOSIP .
465.\" When an ISO address is set in an ifconfig command,
466.\" it is really the
467.\" .Tn NSAP
468.\" which is being specified.
469.\" For example, in
470.\" .Tn US GOSIP ,
471.\" 20 hex digits should be
472.\" specified in the
473.\" .Tn ISO NSAP
474.\" to be assigned to the interface.
475.\" There is some evidence that a number different from 1 may be useful
476.\" for
477.\" .Tn AFI
478.\" 37 type addresses.
479.It Cm range Ar netrange
480Under appletalk, set the interface to respond to a
481.Ar netrange
482of the form
483.Ar startnet Ns - Ns Ar endnet .
484Appletalk uses this scheme instead of
485netmasks though
b50e4759 486.Fx
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487implements it internally as a set of netmasks.
488.It Cm remove
489Another name for the
490.Fl alias
491parameter.
492Introduced for compatibility
493with
494.Bsx .
495.It Cm phase
496The argument following this specifies the version (phase) of the
497Appletalk network attached to the interface.
498Values of 1 or 2 are permitted.
499.Sm off
500.It Cm link Op Cm 0 No - Cm 2
501.Sm on
502Enable special processing of the link level of the interface.
503These three options are interface specific in actual effect, however,
504they are in general used to select special modes of operation.
505An example
506of this is to enable SLIP compression, or to select the connector type
507for some Ethernet cards.
508Refer to the man page for the specific driver
509for more information.
510.Sm off
511.It Fl link Op Cm 0 No - Cm 2
512.Sm on
513Disable special processing at the link level with the specified interface.
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514.It Cm compress
515Another name for the
516.Cm link0
517parameter.
518.It Cm normal
519Another name for the
520.Fl link0
521parameter.
522.It Cm noicmp
523Another name for the
524.Cm link1
525parameter.
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526.\".It Cm monitor
527.\"Put the interface in monitor mode.
528.\"No packets are transmitted, and received packets are discarded after
529.\".Xr bpf 4
530.\"processing.
531.\".It Fl monitor
532.\"Take the interface out of monitor mode.
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533.It Cm up
534Mark an interface
535.Dq up .
536This may be used to enable an interface after an
537.Dq Nm Cm down .
538It happens automatically when setting the first address on an interface.
539If the interface was reset when previously marked down,
540the hardware will be re-initialized.
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541.El
542.Pp
543The following parameters are specific to IEEE 802.11 wireless interfaces:
544.Bl -tag -width indent
545.It Cm apbridge
546When operating as an access point, pass packets between
547wireless clients directly (default).
548To instead let them pass up through the
549system and be forwarded using some other mechanism, use
550.Fl apbridge .
551Disabling the internal bridging
552is useful when traffic is to be processed with
553packet filtering.
984263bc 554.It Cm authmode Ar mode
55fc9f88 555Set the desired authentication mode in infrastructure mode.
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556Not all adaptors support all modes.
557The set of
558valid modes is
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559.Cm none , open , shared
560(shared key),
561.Cm 8021x
562(IEEE 802.1x),
563and
564.Cm wpa
565(IEEE WPA/WPA2/802.11i).
566The
567.Cm 8021x
984263bc 568and
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569.Cm wpa
570modes are only useful when using an authentication service
571(a supplicant for client operation or an authenticator when
572operating as an access point).
984263bc 573Modes are case insensitive.
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574.It Cm bintval Ar interval
575Set the interval at which beacon frames are sent when operating in
576ad-hoc or ap mode.
577The
578.Ar interval
579parameter is specified in TU's (1/1024 msecs).
580By default beacon frames are transmitted every 100 TU's.
581.It Cm bssid Ar address
582Specify the MAC address of the access point to use when operating
583as a station in a BSS network.
584This overrides any automatic selection done by the system.
585To disable a previously selected access point, supply
586.Cm any , none ,
587or
588.Cm -
589for the address.
b16c423b 590This option is useful when more than one access point uses the same SSID.
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591Another name for the
592.Cm bssid
593parameter is
594.Cm ap .
595.It Cm burst
596Enable packet bursting.
597Packet bursting is a transmission technique whereby the wireless
598medium is acquired once to send multiple frames and the interframe
599spacing is reduced.
600This technique can significantly increase throughput by reducing
601transmission overhead.
602Packet bursting is supported by the 802.11e QoS specification
603and some devices that do not support QoS may still be capable.
604By default packet bursting is enabled if a device is capable
605of doing it.
606To disable packet bursting, use
607.Fl burst .
608.It Cm chanlist Ar channels
609Set the desired channels to use when scanning for access
610points, neighbors in an IBSS network, or looking for unoccupied
611channels when operating as an access point.
612The set of channels is specified as a comma-separated list with
613each element in the list representing either a single channel number or a range
614of the form
615.Dq Li a-b .
616Channel numbers must be in the range 1 to 255 and be permissible
617according to the operating characteristics of the device.
618.It Cm channel Ar number
619Set a single desired channel.
620Channels range from 1 to 255, but the exact selection available
621depends on the region your adaptor was manufactured for.
622Setting
623the channel to
624.Li 0 ,
625.Cm any ,
626or
627.Cm -
628will give you the default for your adaptor.
629Some
630adaptors ignore this setting unless you are in ad-hoc mode.
631Alternatively the frequency, in megahertz, may be specified
632instead of the channel number.
633.It Cm deftxkey Ar index
634Set the default key to use for transmission.
635Typically this is only set when using WEP encryption.
636The
637.Cm weptxkey
638is an alias for this request; it is provided for backwards compatibility.
639.It Cm dtimperiod Ar period
640Set the
641DTIM
642period for transmitting buffered multicast data frames when
643operating in ap mode.
644The
645.Ar period
646specifies the number of beacon intervals between DTIM
647and must be in the range 1 to 15.
648By default DTIM is 1 (i.e., DTIM occurs at each beacon).
649.It Cm fragthreshold Ar length
650Set the threshold for which transmitted frames are broken into fragments.
651The
652.Ar length
653argument is the frame size in bytes and must be in the range 256 to 2346.
654Setting
655.Ar length
656to
657.Li 2346 ,
658.Cm any ,
659or
660.Cm -
661disables transmit fragmentation.
662Not all adaptors honor the fragmentation threshold.
663.It Cm hidessid
664When operating as an access point, do not broadcast the SSID
665in beacon frames or respond to probe request frames unless
666they are directed to the ap (i.e., they include the ap's SSID).
667By default, the SSID is included in beacon frames and
668undirected probe request frames are answered.
669To re-enable the broadcast of the SSID etc., use
670.Fl hidessid .
671.It Cm list active
672Display the list of channels available for use taking into account
673any restrictions set with the
674.Cm chanlist
675directive.
676See the description of
677.Cm list chan
678for more information.
679.It Cm list caps
680Display the adaptor's capabilities, including the operating
681modes supported.
682.It Cm list chan
683Display the list of channels available for use.
684Channels are shown with their IEEE channel number, equivalent
685frequency, and usage modes.
686Channels identified as
687.Ql 11g
688are also usable in
689.Ql 11b
690mode.
691Channels identified as
692.Ql 11a Turbo
693may be used only for Atheros' Static Turbo mode
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694specified with
695.Cm mediaopt turbo ) .
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696Channels marked with a
697.Ql *
698have a regulatory constraint that they be passively scanned.
699This means a station is not permitted to transmit on the channel until
700it identifies the channel is being used for 802.11 communication;
701typically by hearing a beacon frame from an access point operating
702on the channel.
703.Cm list freq
704is another way of requesting this information.
705.It Cm list mac
706Display the current MAC Access Control List state.
707Each address is prefixed with a character that indicates the
708current policy applied to it:
709.Ql +
710indicates the address is allowed access,
711.Ql -
712indicates the address is denied access,
713.Ql *
714indicates the address is present but the current policy open
715(so the ACL is not consulted).
716.It Cm list scan
717Display the access points and/or ad-hoc neighbors
718located in the vicinity.
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719The
720.Fl v
721flag may be used to display long SSIDs.
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722This information may be updated automatically by the adaptor
723and/or with a
724.Cm scan
725request.
726.Cm list ap
727is another way of requesting this information.
728.It Cm list sta
729When operating as an access point display the stations that are
730currently associated.
731When operating in ad-hoc mode display stations identified as
732neighbors in the IBSS.
733.It Cm list wme
734Display the current parameters to use when operating in WME mode.
735When WME mode is enabled for an adaptor this information will be
736displayed with the regular status; this command is mostly useful
737for examining parameters when WME mode is disabled.
738See the description of the
739.Cm wme
740directive for information on the various parameters.
741.It Cm mcastrate Ar rate
742Set the rate for transmitting multicast/broadcast frames.
b16c423b 743Rates are specified as megabits/second in decimal; e.g.\& 5.5 for 5.5 Mbit/s.
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744This rate should be valid for the current operating conditions;
745if an invalid rate is specified drivers are free to chose an
746appropriate rate.
984263bc 747.It Cm powersave
55fc9f88
SZ
748Enable powersave operation.
749When operating as a client, the station will conserve power by
750periodically turning off the radio and listening for
751messages from the access point telling it there are packets waiting.
752The station must then retrieve the packets.
753When operating as an access point, the station must honor power
754save operation of associated clients.
755Not all devices support power save operation, either as a client
756or as an access point.
757Use
758.Fl powersave
759to disable powersave operation.
b16c423b
SW
760.It Cm powersavemode Ar mode
761Set powersave mode.
762The set of valid modes is
763.Cm off
764(same as
765.Fl powersave),
766.Cm on
767(same as
768.Cm powersave),
769and
770.Cm cam
771(same as
772.Cm powersave).
984263bc 773.It Cm powersavesleep Ar sleep
55fc9f88 774Set the desired max powersave sleep time in milliseconds.
b50e4759 775.It Cm protmode Ar technique
55fc9f88 776For interfaces operating in 802.11g, use the specified
b50e4759
MD
777.Ar technique
778for protecting OFDM frames in a mixed 11b/11g network.
779The set of valid techniques is
55fc9f88 780.Cm off , cts
b50e4759
MD
781(CTS to self),
782and
55fc9f88 783.Cm rtscts
b50e4759
MD
784(RTS/CTS).
785Technique names are case insensitive.
55fc9f88
SZ
786.It Cm pureg
787When operating as an access point in 802.11g mode allow only
78811g-capable stations to associate (11b-only stations are not
789permitted to associate).
790To allow both 11g and 11b-only stations to associate, use
791.Fl pureg .
792.It Cm roaming Ar mode
793When operating as a station, control how the system will
794behave when communication with the current access point
795is broken.
796The
797.Ar mode
798argument may be one of
799.Cm device
800(leave it to the hardware device to decide),
801.Cm auto
802(handle either in the device or the operating system\[em]as appropriate),
803.Cm manual
804(do nothing until explicitly instructed).
805By default, the device is left to handle this if it is
806capable; otherwise, the operating system will automatically
807attempt to reestablish communication.
808Manual mode is mostly useful when an application wants to
809control the selection of an access point.
b9334f94
SZ
810.It Cm ratectl Ar algorithm
811Set the TX rate control algorithm.
812The set of valid
813.Ar algorithm
814is
815.Cm onoe
816(Onoe TX rate control algorithm)
817and
818.Cm amrr
819(AMRR TX rate control algorithm).
820.Ar Algorithm
821names are case sensitive.
b50e4759 822.It Cm rtsthreshold Ar length
55fc9f88 823Set the threshold for which
b50e4759
MD
824transmitted frames are preceded by transmission of an
825RTS
826control frame.
827The
828.Ar length
829argument
55fc9f88
SZ
830is the frame size in bytes and must be in the range 1 to 2346.
831Setting
832.Ar length
833to
834.Li 2346 ,
835.Cm any ,
836or
837.Cm -
838disables transmission of RTS frames.
b50e4759 839Not all adaptors support setting the RTS threshold.
55fc9f88
SZ
840.It Cm ssid Ar ssid
841Set the desired Service Set Identifier (aka network name).
842The SSID is a string up to 32 characters
843in length and may be specified as either a normal string or in
844hexadecimal when preceded by
845.Ql 0x .
846Additionally, the SSID may be cleared by setting it to
847.Ql - .
848.It Cm scan
849Initiate a scan of neighboring stations, wait for it to complete, and
850display all stations found.
851Only the super-user can initiate a scan.
852Depending on the capabilities of the APs, the following
853flags can be included in the output:
854.Bl -tag -width 3n
b16c423b
SW
855.It Li A
856Channel Agility.
857Indicates that the station support channel hopping as described by the
858IEEE 802.11b specification.
859.It Li B
860Packet Binary Convolution Code (PBCC).
861A modulation alternative to the standard OFDM method.
862.It Dv C
863Pollreq
864.It Dv c
865Pollable
866.It Dv D
867Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum - Orthogonal Frequency Division
868Multiplexing (DSSS-OFDM).
869Indicates the the station supports DSSS-OFDM modulation.
55fc9f88
SZ
870.It Li E
871Extended Service Set (ESS).
872Indicates that the station is part of an infrastructure network
873(in contrast to an IBSS/ad-hoc network).
874.It Li I
875IBSS/ad-hoc network.
876Indicates that the station is part of an ad-hoc network
877(in contrast to an ESS network).
878.It Li P
879Privacy.
880Data confidentiality is required for all data frames
881exchanged within the BSS.
882This means that this BSS requires the station to
883use cryptographic means such as WEP, TKIP or AES-CCMP to
884encrypt/decrypt data frames being exchanged with others.
b16c423b
SW
885.It Dv R
886Robust Security Network (RSN).
887Indicates that the station supports the IEEE 802.11i authentication
888and key management protocol.
55fc9f88
SZ
889.It Li S
890Short Preamble.
891Indicates that the network is using short preambles (defined
892in 802.11b High Rate/DSSS PHY, short preamble utilizes a
89356 bit sync field in contrast to a 128 bit field used in long
894preamble mode).
895.It Li s
896Short slot time.
897Indicates that the network is using a short slot time.
898.El
899.Pp
900The
901.Cm list scan
902request can be used to show recent scan results without
903initiating a new scan.
b16c423b
SW
904.Pp
905The
906.Fl v
907flag may be used to prevent the shortening of long SSIDs.
55fc9f88
SZ
908.It Cm stationname Ar name
909Set the name of this station.
910It appears that the station name is not really part of the IEEE 802.11
911protocol though all interfaces seem to support it.
912As such it only
913seems to be meaningful to identical or virtually identical equipment.
914Setting the station name is identical in syntax to setting the SSID.
b50e4759 915.It Cm txpower Ar power
55fc9f88 916Set the power used to transmit frames.
b50e4759
MD
917The
918.Ar power
919argument
920is a unitless value in the range 0 to 100 that is interpreted
921by drivers to derive a device-specific value.
922Out of range values are truncated.
923Typically only a few discreet power settings are available and
924the driver will use the setting closest to the specified value.
925Not all adaptors support changing the transmit power.
984263bc 926.It Cm wepmode Ar mode
55fc9f88 927Set the desired WEP mode.
984263bc
MD
928Not all adaptors support all modes.
929The set of valid modes is
55fc9f88 930.Cm off , on ,
984263bc 931and
55fc9f88 932.Cm mixed .
b50e4759 933The
55fc9f88 934.Cm mixed
984263bc
MD
935mode explicitly tells the adaptor to allow association with access
936points which allow both encrypted and unencrypted traffic.
937On these adaptors,
55fc9f88 938.Cm on
984263bc
MD
939means that the access point must only allow encrypted connections.
940On other adaptors,
55fc9f88 941.Cm on
984263bc 942is generally another name for
55fc9f88 943.Cm mixed .
984263bc
MD
944Modes are case insensitive.
945.It Cm weptxkey Ar index
55fc9f88
SZ
946Set the WEP key to be used for transmission.
947This is the same as setting the default transmission key with
948.Cm deftxkey .
984263bc 949.It Cm wepkey Ar key Ns | Ns Ar index : Ns Ar key
55fc9f88 950Set the selected WEP key.
984263bc
MD
951If an
952.Ar index
953is not given, key 1 is set.
954A WEP key will be either 5 or 13
955characters (40 or 104 bits) depending of the local network and the
956capabilities of the adaptor.
957It may be specified either as a plain
55fc9f88 958string or as a string of hexadecimal digits preceded by
984263bc
MD
959.Ql 0x .
960For maximum portability, hex keys are recommended;
961the mapping of text keys to WEP encryption is usually driver-specific.
962In particular, the
963.Tn Windows
964drivers do this mapping differently to
b50e4759 965.Fx .
984263bc
MD
966A key may be cleared by setting it to
967.Ql - .
968If WEP is supported then there are at least four keys.
969Some adaptors support more than four keys.
970If that is the case, then the first four keys
971(1-4) will be the standard temporary keys and any others will be adaptor
972specific keys such as permanent keys stored in NVRAM.
55fc9f88
SZ
973.It Cm wme
974Enable Wireless Multimedia Extensions (WME) support, if available,
975for the specified interface.
976WME is a subset of the IEEE 802.11e standard to support the
977efficient communication of realtime and multimedia data.
978To disable WME support, use
979.Fl wme .
980.Pp
981The following parameters are meaningful only when WME support is in use.
982Parameters are specified per-AC (Access Category) and
983split into those that are used by a station when acting
984as an access point and those for client stations in the BSS.
985The latter are received from the access point and may not be changed
986(at the station).
987The following Access Categories are recognized:
988.Pp
989.Bl -tag -width ".Cm AC_BK" -compact
990.It Cm AC_BE
991(or
992.Cm BE )
993best effort delivery,
994.It Cm AC_BK
995(or
996.Cm BK )
997background traffic,
998.It Cm AC_VI
999(or
1000.Cm VI )
1001video traffic,
1002.It Cm AC_VO
1003(or
1004.Cm VO )
1005voice traffic.
1006.El
1007.Pp
1008AC parameters are case-insensitive.
1009Traffic classification is done in the operating system using the
1010vlan priority associated with data frames or the
1011ToS (Type of Service) indication in IP-encapsulated frames.
1012If neither information is present, traffic is assigned to the
1013Best Effort (BE) category.
1014.Bl -tag -width indent
1015.It Cm ack Ar ac
1016Set the ACK policy for QoS transmissions by the local station;
1017this controls whether or not data frames transmitted by a station
1018require an ACK response from the receiving station.
1019To disable waiting for an ACK use
1020.Fl ack .
1021This parameter is applied only to the local station.
1022.It Cm acm Ar ac
1023Enable the Admission Control Mandatory (ACM) mechanism
1024for transmissions by the local station.
1025To disable the ACM use
1026.Fl acm .
1027On stations in a BSS this parameter is read-only and indicates
1028the setting received from the access point.
1029NB: ACM is not supported right now.
1030.It Cm aifs Ar ac Ar count
1031Set the Arbitration Inter Frame Spacing (AIFS)
1032channel access parameter to use for transmissions
1033by the local station.
1034On stations in a BSS this parameter is read-only and indicates
1035the setting received from the access point.
1036.It Cm cwmin Ar ac Ar count
1037Set the CWmin channel access parameter to use for transmissions
1038by the local station.
1039On stations in a BSS this parameter is read-only and indicates
1040the setting received from the access point.
1041.It Cm cwmax Ar ac Ar count
1042Set the CWmax channel access parameter to use for transmissions
1043by the local station.
1044On stations in a BSS this parameter is read-only and indicates
1045the setting received from the access point.
1046.It Cm txoplimit Ar ac Ar limit
1047Set the Transmission Opportunity Limit channel access parameter
1048to use for transmissions by the local station.
1049This parameter defines an interval of time when a WME station
1050has the right to initiate transmissions onto the wireless medium.
1051On stations in a BSS this parameter is read-only and indicates
1052the setting received from the access point.
1053.It Cm bss:aifs Ar ac Ar count
1054Set the AIFS channel access parameter to send to stations in a BSS.
1055This parameter is meaningful only when operating in ap mode.
1056.It Cm bss:cwmin Ar ac Ar count
1057Set the CWmin channel access parameter to send to stations in a BSS.
1058This parameter is meaningful only when operating in ap mode.
1059.It Cm bss:cwmax Ar ac Ar count
1060Set the CWmax channel access parameter to send to stations in a BSS.
1061This parameter is meaningful only when operating in ap mode.
1062.It Cm bss:txoplimit Ar ac Ar limit
1063Set the TxOpLimit channel access parameter to send to stations in a BSS.
1064This parameter is meaningful only when operating in ap mode.
1065.El
1066.El
1067.Pp
1068The following parameters support an optional access control list
1069feature available with some adaptors when operating in ap mode; see
1070.Xr wlan_acl 4 .
1071This facility allows an access point to accept/deny association
1072requests based on the MAC address of the station.
1073Note that this feature does not significantly enhance security
1074as MAC address spoofing is easy to do.
1075.Bl -tag -width indent
1076.It Cm mac:add Ar address
1077Add the specified MAC address to the database.
1078Depending on the policy setting association requests from the
1079specified station will be allowed or denied.
1080.It Cm mac:allow
1081Set the ACL policy to permit association only by
1082stations registered in the database.
1083.It Cm mac:del Ar address
1084Delete the specified MAC address from the database.
1085.It Cm mac:deny
1086Set the ACL policy to deny association only by
1087stations registered in the database.
1088.It Cm mac:kick Ar address
1089Force the specified station to be deauthenticated.
1090This typically is done to block a station after updating the
1091address database.
1092.It Cm mac:open
1093Set the ACL policy to allow all stations to associate.
1094.It Cm mac:flush
1095Delete all entries in the database.
1096.El
1097.Pp
1098The following parameters are for compatibility with other systems:
1099.Bl -tag -width indent
1100.It Cm nwid Ar ssid
1101Another name for the
1102.Cm ssid
1103parameter.
1104Included for
1105.Nx
1106compatibility.
1107.It Cm station Ar name
1108Another name for the
1109.Cm stationname
1110parameter.
1111Included for
1112.Bsx
1113compatibility.
984263bc
MD
1114.It Cm wep
1115Another way of saying
1116.Cm wepmode on .
1117Included for
1118.Bsx
1119compatibility.
1120.It Fl wep
1121Another way of saying
1122.Cm wepmode off .
1123Included for
1124.Bsx
1125compatibility.
1126.It Cm nwkey key
1127Another way of saying:
984263bc 1128.Dq Li "wepmode on weptxkey 1 wepkey 1:key wepkey 2:- wepkey 3:- wepkey 4:-" .
984263bc
MD
1129Included for
1130.Nx
1131compatibility.
1132.It Cm nwkey Xo
1133.Sm off
1134.Ar n : k1 , k2 , k3 , k4
1135.Sm on
1136.Xc
1137Another way of saying
984263bc 1138.Dq Li "wepmode on weptxkey n wepkey 1:k1 wepkey 2:k2 wepkey 3:k3 wepkey 4:k4" .
984263bc
MD
1139Included for
1140.Nx
1141compatibility.
1142.It Fl nwkey
1143Another way of saying
1144.Cm wepmode off .
984263bc
MD
1145Included for
1146.Nx
1147compatibility.
55fc9f88
SZ
1148.El
1149.Pp
1150The following parameters are specific to bridge interfaces:
1151.Bl -tag -width indent
1152.It Cm addm Ar interface
1153Add the interface named by
1154.Ar interface
1155as a member of the bridge.
1156The interface is put into promiscuous mode
1157so that it can receive every packet sent on the network.
1158.It Cm deletem Ar interface
1159Remove the interface named by
1160.Ar interface
1161from the bridge.
1162Promiscuous mode is disabled on the interface when
1163it is removed from the bridge.
1164.It Cm maxaddr Ar size
1165Set the size of the bridge address cache to
1166.Ar size .
1167The default is 100 entries.
1168.It Cm timeout Ar seconds
1169Set the timeout of address cache entries to
1170.Ar seconds
1171seconds.
1172If
1173.Ar seconds
1174is zero, then address cache entries will not be expired.
1175The default is 240 seconds.
1176.It Cm addr
1177Display the addresses that have been learned by the bridge.
1178.It Cm static Ar interface-name Ar address
1179Add a static entry into the address cache pointing to
1180.Ar interface-name .
1181Static entries are never aged out of the cache or re-placed, even if the
1182address is seen on a different interface.
1183.It Cm deladdr Ar address
1184Delete
1185.Ar address
1186from the address cache.
1187.It Cm flush
1188Delete all dynamically-learned addresses from the address cache.
1189.It Cm flushall
1190Delete all addresses, including static addresses, from the address cache.
1191.It Cm discover Ar interface
1192Mark an interface as a
1193.Dq discovering
1194interface.
1195When the bridge has no address cache entry
1196(either dynamic or static)
1197for the destination address of a packet,
1198the bridge will forward the packet to all
1199member interfaces marked as
1200.Dq discovering .
1201This is the default for all interfaces added to a bridge.
b16c423b 1202.It Fl discover Ar interface
55fc9f88
SZ
1203Clear the
1204.Dq discovering
1205attribute on a member interface.
1206For packets without the
1207.Dq discovering
1208attribute, the only packets forwarded on the interface are broadcast
1209or multicast packets and packets for which the destination address
1210is known to be on the interface's segment.
1211.It Cm learn Ar interface
1212Mark an interface as a
1213.Dq learning
1214interface.
1215When a packet arrives on such an interface, the source
1216address of the packet is entered into the address cache as being a
1217destination address on the interface's segment.
1218This is the default for all interfaces added to a bridge.
b16c423b 1219.It Fl learn Ar interface
55fc9f88
SZ
1220Clear the
1221.Dq learning
1222attribute on a member interface.
b16c423b
SW
1223.It Cm span Ar interface
1224Add the interface named by
1225.Ar interface
1226as a span port on the bridge.
1227Span ports transmit a copy of every frame received by the bridge.
1228This is most useful for snooping a bridged network passively on
1229another host connected to one of the span ports of the bridge.
1230.It Fl span Ar interface
1231Delete the interface named by
1232.Ar interface
1233from the list of span ports of the bridge.
55fc9f88
SZ
1234.It Cm stp Ar interface
1235Enable Spanning Tree protocol on
1236.Ar interface .
1237The
1238.Xr bridge 4
1239driver has support for the IEEE 802.1D Spanning Tree protocol (STP).
1240Spanning Tree is used to detect and remove loops in a network topology.
b16c423b 1241.It Fl stp Ar interface
55fc9f88
SZ
1242Disable Spanning Tree protocol on
1243.Ar interface .
1244This is the default for all interfaces added to a bridge.
1245.It Cm maxage Ar seconds
1246Set the time that a Spanning Tree protocol configuration is valid.
1247The default is 20 seconds.
1248The minimum is 1 second and the maximum is 255 seconds.
1249.It Cm fwddelay Ar seconds
1250Set the time that must pass before an interface begins forwarding
1251packets when Spanning Tree is enabled.
1252The default is 15 seconds.
1253The minimum is 1 second and the maximum is 255 seconds.
1254.It Cm hellotime Ar seconds
1255Set the time between broadcasting of Spanning Tree protocol
1256configuration messages.
1257The default is 2 seconds.
1258The minimum is 1 second and the maximum is 255 seconds.
1259.It Cm priority Ar value
1260Set the bridge priority for Spanning Tree.
1261The default is 32768.
1262The minimum is 0 and the maximum is 65536.
1263.It Cm ifpriority Ar interface Ar value
1264Set the Spanning Tree priority of
1265.Ar interface
1266to
1267.Ar value .
1268The default is 128.
1269The minimum is 0 and the maximum is 255.
1270.It Cm ifpathcost Ar interface Ar value
1271Set the Spanning Tree path cost of
1272.Ar interface
1273to
1274.Ar value .
1275The default is 55.
1276The minimum is 0 and the maximum is 65535.
984263bc
MD
1277.El
1278.Pp
b16c423b
SW
1279The following parameters are specific to IP tunnel interfaces,
1280.Xr gif 4 :
1281.Bl -tag -width indent
1282.It Cm tunnel Ar src_addr dest_addr
1283Configure the physical source and destination address for IP tunnel
1284interfaces.
1285The arguments
1286.Ar src_addr
1287and
1288.Ar dest_addr
1289are interpreted as the outer source/destination for the encapsulating
1290IPv4/IPv6 header.
1291.It Fl tunnel
1292Unconfigure the physical source and destination address for IP tunnel
1293interfaces previously configured with
1294.Cm tunnel .
1295.It Cm deletetunnel
1296Another name for the
1297.Fl tunnel
1298parameter.
1299.El
1300.Pp
1301The following parameters are specific to
1302.Xr vlan 4
1303interfaces:
1304.Bl -tag -width indent
1305.It Cm vlan Ar vlan_tag
1306Set the VLAN tag value to
1307.Ar vlan_tag .
1308This value is a 16-bit number which is used to create an 802.1Q
1309VLAN header for packets sent from the
1310.Xr vlan 4
1311interface.
1312Note that
1313.Cm vlan
1314and
1315.Cm vlandev
1316must both be set at the same time.
1317.It Cm vlandev Ar iface
1318Associate the physical interface
1319.Ar iface
1320with a
1321.Xr vlan 4
1322interface.
1323Packets transmitted through the
1324.Xr vlan 4
1325interface will be
1326diverted to the specified physical interface
1327.Ar iface
1328with 802.1Q VLAN encapsulation.
1329Packets with 802.1Q encapsulation received
1330by the parent interface with the correct VLAN tag will be diverted to
1331the associated
1332.Xr vlan 4
1333pseudo-interface.
1334The
1335.Xr vlan 4
1336interface is assigned a
1337copy of the parent interface's flags and the parent's ethernet address.
1338The
1339.Cm vlandev
1340and
1341.Cm vlan
1342must both be set at the same time.
1343If the
1344.Xr vlan 4
1345interface already has
1346a physical interface associated with it, this command will fail.
1347To
1348change the association to another physical interface, the existing
1349association must be cleared first.
1350.Pp
1351Note: if the hardware tagging capability
1352is set on the parent interface, the
1353.Xr vlan 4
1354pseudo
1355interface's behavior changes:
1356the
1357.Xr vlan 4
1358interface recognizes that the
1359parent interface supports insertion and extraction of VLAN tags on its
1360own (usually in firmware) and that it should pass packets to and from
1361the parent unaltered.
1362.It Fl vlandev Op Ar iface
1363If the driver is a
1364.Xr vlan 4
1365pseudo device, disassociate the parent interface from it.
1366This breaks the link between the
1367.Xr vlan 4
1368interface and its parent,
1369clears its VLAN tag, flags and its link address and shuts the interface down.
1370The
1371.Ar iface
1372argument is useless and hence deprecated.
1373.El
1374.Pp
984263bc
MD
1375The
1376.Nm
1377utility displays the current configuration for a network interface
1378when no optional parameters are supplied.
1379If a protocol family is specified,
1380.Nm
1381will report only the details specific to that protocol family.
1382.Pp
984263bc
MD
1383If the
1384.Fl m
1385flag is passed before an interface name,
1386.Nm
b50e4759 1387will display the capability list and all
984263bc
MD
1388of the supported media for the specified interface.
1389If
1390.Fl L
1391flag is supplied, address lifetime is displayed for IPv6 addresses,
1392as time offset string.
1393.Pp
1394Optionally, the
1395.Fl a
1396flag may be used instead of an interface name.
1397This flag instructs
1398.Nm
1399to display information about all interfaces in the system.
1400The
1401.Fl d
1402flag limits this to interfaces that are down, and
1403.Fl u
1404limits this to interfaces that are up.
1405When no arguments are given,
1406.Fl a
1407is implied.
1408.Pp
1409The
1410.Fl l
1411flag may be used to list all available interfaces on the system, with
1412no other additional information.
1413Use of this flag is mutually exclusive
1414with all other flags and commands, except for
1415.Fl d
1416(only list interfaces that are down)
1417and
1418.Fl u
1419(only list interfaces that are up).
1420.Pp
1421The
55fc9f88
SZ
1422.Fl v
1423flag may be used to get more verbose status for an interface.
1424.Pp
1425The
984263bc
MD
1426.Fl C
1427flag may be used to list all of the interface cloners available on
1428the system, with no additional information.
1429Use of this flag is mutually exclusive with all other flags and commands.
1430.Pp
55fc9f88
SZ
1431The
1432.Fl k
1433flag causes keying information for the interface, if available, to be
1434printed.
1435For example, the values of 802.11 WEP keys will be printed, if accessible to
1436the current user.
1437This information is not printed by default, as it may be considered
1438sensitive.
1439.Pp
984263bc
MD
1440Only the super-user may modify the configuration of a network interface.
1441.Sh NOTES
1442The media selection system is relatively new and only some drivers support
1443it (or have need for it).
1444.Sh DIAGNOSTICS
1445Messages indicating the specified interface does not exist, the
1446requested address is unknown, or the user is not privileged and
1447tried to alter an interface's configuration.
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1448.Sh SEE ALSO
1449.Xr netstat 1 ,
b16c423b 1450.Xr ifmedia 4 ,
984263bc 1451.Xr netintro 4 ,
b16c423b 1452.Xr polling 4 ,
b50e4759 1453.Xr vlan 4 ,
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1454.\" .Xr eon 5 ,
1455.Xr rc 8 ,
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1456.Xr routed 8 ,
1457.Xr sysctl 8
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1458.Sh HISTORY
1459The
1460.Nm
1461utility appeared in
1462.Bx 4.2 .
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1463.Sh BUGS
1464Basic IPv6 node operation requires a link-local address on each
1465interface configured for IPv6.
1466Normally, such an address is automatically configured by the
1467kernel on each interface added to the system; this behaviour may
1468be disabled by setting the sysctl MIB variable
1469.Va net.inet6.ip6.auto_linklocal
1470to 0.
1471.Pp
1472If you delete such an address using
1473.Nm ,
b16c423b 1474the kernel may act very odd.
d600454b 1475Do this at your own risk.