libpthread: simplify parens usage in function arguments
[dragonfly.git] / lib / libpthread / pthread.3
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1.\" Copyright (c) 1996 John Birrell <jb@cimlogic.com.au>.
2.\" All rights reserved.
3.\"
4.\" Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
5.\" modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
6.\" are met:
7.\" 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
8.\" notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
9.\" 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
10.\" notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
11.\" documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
12.\" 3. All advertising materials mentioning features or use of this software
13.\" must display the following acknowledgement:
14.\" This product includes software developed by John Birrell.
15.\" 4. Neither the name of the author nor the names of any co-contributors
16.\" may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
17.\" without specific prior written permission.
18.\"
19.\" THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY JOHN BIRRELL AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND
20.\" ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
21.\" IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
22.\" ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE REGENTS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
23.\" FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
24.\" DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
25.\" OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
26.\" HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
27.\" LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
28.\" OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
29.\" SUCH DAMAGE.
30.\"
15acf97d 31.\" $FreeBSD: src/share/man/man3/pthread.3,v 1.33 2009/04/01 08:08:25 trhodes Exp $
984263bc 32.\"
70ef9d89 33.Dd August 6, 2013
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34.Dt PTHREAD 3
35.Os
36.Sh NAME
37.Nm pthread
38.Nd POSIX thread functions
1bc160bc 39.Sh LIBRARY
183d29cf 40.Lb libpthread
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41.Sh SYNOPSIS
42.In pthread.h
43.Sh DESCRIPTION
44POSIX threads are a set of functions that support applications with
45requirements for multiple flows of control, called
15acf97d 46.Em threads ,
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47within a process.
48Multithreading is used to improve the performance of a
49program.
50.Pp
51The POSIX thread functions are summarized in this section in the following
52groups:
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53.Pp
54.Bl -bullet -offset indent -compact
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55.It
56Thread Routines
57.It
58Attribute Object Routines
59.It
60Mutex Routines
61.It
62Condition Variable Routines
63.It
64Read/Write Lock Routines
65.It
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66Barrier Routines
67.It
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68Per-Thread Context Routines
69.It
70Cleanup Routines
71.El
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72.Ss Thread Routines
73.Bl -tag -width indent
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74.It Xo
75.Ft int
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76.Fo pthread_create
77.Fa "pthread_t *thread" "const pthread_attr_t *attr"
13e675a8 78.Fa "void *(*start_routine)(void *)" "void *arg"
15acf97d 79.Fc
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80.Xc
81Creates a new thread of execution.
82.It Xo
83.Ft int
84.Fn pthread_cancel "pthread_t thread"
85.Xc
86Cancels execution of a thread.
87.It Xo
88.Ft int
89.Fn pthread_detach "pthread_t thread"
90.Xc
91Marks a thread for deletion.
92.It Xo
93.Ft int
94.Fn pthread_equal "pthread_t t1" "pthread_t t2"
95.Xc
96Compares two thread IDs.
97.It Xo
98.Ft void
99.Fn pthread_exit "void *value_ptr"
100.Xc
101Terminates the calling thread.
102.It Xo
103.Ft int
104.Fn pthread_join "pthread_t thread" "void **value_ptr"
105.Xc
106Causes the calling thread to wait for the termination of the specified thread.
107.It Xo
108.Ft int
109.Fn pthread_kill "pthread_t thread" "int sig"
110.Xc
111Delivers a signal to a specified thread.
112.It Xo
113.Ft int
13e675a8 114.Fn pthread_once "pthread_once_t *once_control" "void (*init_routine)(void)"
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115.Xc
116Calls an initialization routine once.
117.It Xo
118.Ft pthread_t
119.Fn pthread_self void
120.Xc
121Returns the thread ID of the calling thread.
122.It Xo
123.Ft int
124.Fn pthread_setcancelstate "int state" "int *oldstate"
125.Xc
126Sets the current thread's cancelability state.
127.It Xo
128.Ft int
129.Fn pthread_setcanceltype "int type" "int *oldtype"
130.Xc
131Sets the current thread's cancelability type.
132.It Xo
133.Ft void
134.Fn pthread_testcancel void
135.Xc
136Creates a cancellation point in the calling thread.
137.It Xo
138.Ft void
139.Fn pthread_yield void
140.Xc
141Allows the scheduler to run another thread instead of the current one.
142.El
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143.Ss Attribute Object Routines
144.Bl -tag -width indent
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145.It Xo
146.Ft int
147.Fn pthread_attr_destroy "pthread_attr_t *attr"
148.Xc
149Destroy a thread attributes object.
150.It Xo
151.Ft int
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152.Fo pthread_attr_getinheritsched
153.Fa "const pthread_attr_t *attr" "int *inheritsched"
154.Fc
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155.Xc
156Get the inherit scheduling attribute from a thread attributes object.
157.It Xo
158.Ft int
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159.Fo pthread_attr_getschedparam
160.Fa "const pthread_attr_t *attr" "struct sched_param *param"
161.Fc
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162.Xc
163Get the scheduling parameter attribute from a thread attributes object.
164.It Xo
165.Ft int
166.Fn pthread_attr_getschedpolicy "const pthread_attr_t *attr" "int *policy"
167.Xc
168Get the scheduling policy attribute from a thread attributes object.
169.It Xo
170.Ft int
171.Fn pthread_attr_getscope "const pthread_attr_t *attr" "int *contentionscope"
172.Xc
173Get the contention scope attribute from a thread attributes object.
174.It Xo
175.Ft int
176.Fn pthread_attr_getstacksize "const pthread_attr_t *attr" "size_t *stacksize"
177.Xc
178Get the stack size attribute from a thread attributes object.
179.It Xo
180.Ft int
181.Fn pthread_attr_getstackaddr "const pthread_attr_t *attr" "void **stackaddr"
182.Xc
183Get the stack address attribute from a thread attributes object.
184.It Xo
185.Ft int
186.Fn pthread_attr_getdetachstate "const pthread_attr_t *attr" "int *detachstate"
187.Xc
188Get the detach state attribute from a thread attributes object.
189.It Xo
190.Ft int
191.Fn pthread_attr_init "pthread_attr_t *attr"
192.Xc
193Initialize a thread attributes object with default values.
194.It Xo
195.Ft int
196.Fn pthread_attr_setinheritsched "pthread_attr_t *attr" "int inheritsched"
197.Xc
198Set the inherit scheduling attribute in a thread attributes object.
199.It Xo
200.Ft int
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201.Fo pthread_attr_setschedparam
202.Fa "pthread_attr_t *attr" "const struct sched_param *param"
203.Fc
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204.Xc
205Set the scheduling parameter attribute in a thread attributes object.
206.It Xo
207.Ft int
208.Fn pthread_attr_setschedpolicy "pthread_attr_t *attr" "int policy"
209.Xc
210Set the scheduling policy attribute in a thread attributes object.
211.It Xo
212.Ft int
213.Fn pthread_attr_setscope "pthread_attr_t *attr" "int contentionscope"
214.Xc
215Set the contention scope attribute in a thread attributes object.
216.It Xo
217.Ft int
218.Fn pthread_attr_setstacksize "pthread_attr_t *attr" "size_t stacksize"
219.Xc
220Set the stack size attribute in a thread attributes object.
221.It Xo
222.Ft int
223.Fn pthread_attr_setstackaddr "pthread_attr_t *attr" "void *stackaddr"
224.Xc
225Set the stack address attribute in a thread attributes object.
226.It Xo
227.Ft int
228.Fn pthread_attr_setdetachstate "pthread_attr_t *attr" "int detachstate"
229.Xc
230Set the detach state in a thread attributes object.
231.El
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232.Ss Mutex Routines
233.Bl -tag -width indent
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234.It Xo
235.Ft int
236.Fn pthread_mutexattr_destroy "pthread_mutexattr_t *attr"
237.Xc
238Destroy a mutex attributes object.
239.It Xo
240.Ft int
241.Fn pthread_mutexattr_getprioceiling "pthread_mutexattr_t *attr" "int *ceiling"
242.Xc
243Obtain priority ceiling attribute of mutex attribute object.
244.It Xo
245.Ft int
246.Fn pthread_mutexattr_getprotocol "pthread_mutexattr_t *attr" "int *protocol"
247.Xc
248Obtain protocol attribute of mutex attribute object.
249.It Xo
250.Ft int
251.Fn pthread_mutexattr_gettype "pthread_mutexattr_t *attr" "int *type"
252.Xc
253Obtain the mutex type attribute in the specified mutex attributes object.
254.It Xo
255.Ft int
256.Fn pthread_mutexattr_init "pthread_mutexattr_t *attr"
257.Xc
258Initialize a mutex attributes object with default values.
259.It Xo
260.Ft int
261.Fn pthread_mutexattr_setprioceiling "pthread_mutexattr_t *attr" "int ceiling"
262.Xc
263Set priority ceiling attribute of mutex attribute object.
264.It Xo
265.Ft int
266.Fn pthread_mutexattr_setprotocol "pthread_mutexattr_t *attr" "int protocol"
267.Xc
268Set protocol attribute of mutex attribute object.
269.It Xo
270.Ft int
271.Fn pthread_mutexattr_settype "pthread_mutexattr_t *attr" "int type"
272.Xc
273Set the mutex type attribute that is used when a mutex is created.
274.It Xo
275.Ft int
276.Fn pthread_mutex_destroy "pthread_mutex_t *mutex"
277.Xc
278Destroy a mutex.
279.It Xo
280.Ft int
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281.Fo pthread_mutex_init
282.Fa "pthread_mutex_t *mutex" "const pthread_mutexattr_t *attr"
283.Fc
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284.Xc
285Initialize a mutex with specified attributes.
286.It Xo
287.Ft int
288.Fn pthread_mutex_lock "pthread_mutex_t *mutex"
289.Xc
290Lock a mutex and block until it becomes available.
291.It Xo
292.Ft int
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293.Fo pthread_mutex_timedlock
294.Fa "pthread_mutex_t *mutex" "const struct timespec *abstime"
295.Fc
296.Xc
297Lock a mutex and block until it becomes available or until the timeout expires.
298.It Xo
299.Ft int
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300.Fn pthread_mutex_trylock "pthread_mutex_t *mutex"
301.Xc
15acf97d 302Try to lock a mutex, but do not block if the mutex is locked by another thread,
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303including the current thread.
304.It Xo
305.Ft int
306.Fn pthread_mutex_unlock "pthread_mutex_t *mutex"
307.Xc
308Unlock a mutex.
309.El
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310.Ss Condition Variable Routines
311.Bl -tag -width indent
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312.It Xo
313.Ft int
314.Fn pthread_condattr_destroy "pthread_condattr_t *attr"
315.Xc
316Destroy a condition variable attributes object.
317.It Xo
318.Ft int
319.Fn pthread_condattr_init "pthread_condattr_t *attr"
320.Xc
321Initialize a condition variable attributes object with default values.
322.It Xo
323.Ft int
324.Fn pthread_cond_broadcast "pthread_cond_t *cond"
325.Xc
326Unblock all threads currently blocked on the specified condition variable.
327.It Xo
328.Ft int
329.Fn pthread_cond_destroy "pthread_cond_t *cond"
330.Xc
331Destroy a condition variable.
332.It Xo
333.Ft int
334.Fn pthread_cond_init "pthread_cond_t *cond" "const pthread_condattr_t *attr"
335.Xc
336Initialize a condition variable with specified attributes.
337.It Xo
338.Ft int
339.Fn pthread_cond_signal "pthread_cond_t *cond"
340.Xc
341Unblock at least one of the threads blocked on the specified condition variable.
342.It Xo
343.Ft int
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344.Fo pthread_cond_timedwait
345.Fa "pthread_cond_t *cond" "pthread_mutex_t *mutex"
346.Fa "const struct timespec *abstime"
347.Fc
984263bc 348.Xc
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349Wait no longer than the specified time for a condition
350and lock the specified mutex.
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351.It Xo
352.Ft int
353.Fn pthread_cond_wait "pthread_cond_t *" "pthread_mutex_t *mutex"
354.Xc
355Wait for a condition and lock the specified mutex.
356.El
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357.Ss Read/Write Lock Routines
358.Bl -tag -width indent
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359.It Xo
360.Ft int
361.Fn pthread_rwlock_destroy "pthread_rwlock_t *lock"
362.Xc
363Destroy a read/write lock object.
364.It Xo
365.Ft int
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366.Fo pthread_rwlock_init
367.Fa "pthread_rwlock_t *lock" "const pthread_rwlockattr_t *attr"
368.Fc
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369.Xc
370Initialize a read/write lock object.
371.It Xo
372.Ft int
373.Fn pthread_rwlock_rdlock "pthread_rwlock_t *lock"
374.Xc
375Lock a read/write lock for reading, blocking until the lock can be
376acquired.
377.It Xo
378.Ft int
379.Fn pthread_rwlock_tryrdlock "pthread_rwlock_t *lock"
380.Xc
381Attempt to lock a read/write lock for reading, without blocking if the
382lock is unavailable.
383.It Xo
384.Ft int
385.Fn pthread_rwlock_trywrlock "pthread_rwlock_t *lock"
386.Xc
387Attempt to lock a read/write lock for writing, without blocking if the
388lock is unavailable.
389.It Xo
390.Ft int
391.Fn pthread_rwlock_unlock "pthread_rwlock_t *lock"
392.Xc
393Unlock a read/write lock.
394.It Xo
395.Ft int
396.Fn pthread_rwlock_wrlock "pthread_rwlock_t *lock"
397.Xc
398Lock a read/write lock for writing, blocking until the lock can be
399acquired.
400.It Xo
401.Ft int
402.Fn pthread_rwlockattr_destroy "pthread_rwlockattr_t *attr"
403.Xc
404Destroy a read/write lock attribute object.
405.It Xo
406.Ft int
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407.Fo pthread_rwlockattr_getpshared
408.Fa "const pthread_rwlockattr_t *attr" "int *pshared"
409.Fc
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410.Xc
411Retrieve the process shared setting for the read/write lock attribute
412object.
413.It Xo
414.Ft int
415.Fn pthread_rwlockattr_init "pthread_rwlockattr_t *attr"
416.Xc
417Initialize a read/write lock attribute object.
418.It Xo
419.Ft int
420.Fn pthread_rwlockattr_setpshared "pthread_rwlockattr_t *attr" "int pshared"
421.Xc
422Set the process shared setting for the read/write lock attribute object.
423.El
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424.Ss Barrier Routines
425.Bl -tag -width indent
426.It Xo
427.Ft int
428.Fn pthread_barrier_destroy "pthread_barrier_t *barrier"
429.Xc
430Delete a barrier and its ressources.
431.It Xo
432.Ft int
433.Fn pthread_barrier_init "pthread_barrier_t *barrier" "const pthread_barrierattr_t *attr" "unsigned count"
434.Xc
435Initialize a barrier with the specified attribute object.
436.It Xo
437.Ft int
438.Fn pthread_barrier_wait "pthread_barrier_t *barrier"
439.Xc
440Block the calling threads until the barrier count is reached.
441.It Xo
442.Ft int
443.Fn pthread_barrierattr_destroy "pthread_barrierattr_t *attr"
444.Xc
445Destroy a barrier attribute object.
446.It Xo
447.Ft int
448.Fn pthread_barrierattr_getpshared "const pthread_barrierattr_t *attr" "int *pshared"
449.Xc
450Get the process-shared attribute from a barrier attribute object.
451.It Xo
452.Ft int
453.Fn pthread_barrierattr_init "pthread_barrierattr_t *attr"
454.Xc
455Initialize a barrier attribute object.
456.It Xo
457.Ft int
458.Fn pthread_barrierattr_setpshared "pthread_barrierattr_t *attr" "int pshared"
459.Xc
460Set the process-shared attribute in a barrier attribute object.
461.El
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462.Ss Per-Thread Context Routines
463.Bl -tag -width indent
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464.It Xo
465.Ft int
13e675a8 466.Fn pthread_key_create "pthread_key_t *key" "void (*routine)(void *)"
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467.Xc
468Create a thread-specific data key.
469.It Xo
470.Ft int
471.Fn pthread_key_delete "pthread_key_t key"
472.Xc
473Delete a thread-specific data key.
474.It Xo
475.Ft "void *"
476.Fn pthread_getspecific "pthread_key_t key"
477.Xc
478Get the thread-specific value for the specified key.
479.It Xo
480.Ft int
481.Fn pthread_setspecific "pthread_key_t key" "const void *value_ptr"
482.Xc
483Set the thread-specific value for the specified key.
484.El
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485.Ss Cleanup Routines
486.Bl -tag -width indent
487.It Xo
488.Ft int
489.Fo pthread_atfork
13e675a8
FF
490.Fa "void (*prepare)(void)"
491.Fa "void (*parent)(void)"
492.Fa "void (*child)(void)"
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493.Fc
494.Xc
495Register fork handlers
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496.It Xo
497.Ft void
498.Fn pthread_cleanup_pop "int execute"
499.Xc
500Remove the routine at the top of the calling thread's cancellation cleanup
501stack and optionally invoke it.
502.It Xo
503.Ft void
13e675a8 504.Fn pthread_cleanup_push "void (*routine)(void *)" "void *routine_arg"
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505.Xc
506Push the specified cancellation cleanup handler onto the calling thread's
507cancellation stack.
508.El
15acf97d 509.Sh IMPLEMENTATION NOTES
984263bc 510The current
9bb2a92d 511.Dx
984263bc 512POSIX thread implementation is built in the library
d55e7aa5 513.Sy libthread_xu
984263bc 514which contains both thread-safe libc functions and the thread functions.
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515Another thread library,
516.Sy libc_r ,
517is available for testing purposes.
518.Pp
519In
520.Dx ,
521it is possible to switch the threading library used by dynamically linked
522binaries at execution time by re-linking
523.Pa /usr/lib/libpthread.so.x
524to a different library in
525.Pa /usr/lib/thread .
526At link time,
527.Xr ld 1
528reads the
529.Sy SONAME
530of
531.Pa libpthread.so ,
532which is set to
533.Pa libpthread.so.0
534(or a higher major, if there were ABI changes).
535For normal libraries
536.Pa libfoo.so
537is usually a symlink to
538.Pa libfoo.so.3
539which also has its
540.Sy SONAME
541set to
542.Pa libfoo.so.3 ,
543so that if
544.Pa libfoo.so.4
545is installed, programs will still continue to use
546.Pa libfoo.so.3
547and not follow the symlink
548.Pa libfoo.so
549to the newer (and possibly incompatible)
550.Pa libfoo.so.4 .
551What we do for
552.Pa libpthread.so
553is approximately the opposite:
554.Pa libpthread.so
555is not a symlink but nevertheless has its
556.Sy SONAME
557set to
558.Pa libpthread.so.0 .
559.Pa libpthread.so.0 ,
560however, is a symlink to the threading library of the user's choice.
561The linker will use the default threading library which
562.Pa libpthread.so
563is linked to, but the runtime linker will instead follow the symlink.
564.Pp
565.Pa libc.so
566defines all pthread functions as weak symbols except for
567.Fn pthread_create
568(which is defined by libpthread.so.x to satisfy
569.Xr ld 1 ) .
570At execution time,
571.Xr rtld 1
572will resolve all these references to the strong symbols from the thread
573library.
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574.Pp
575By default,
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576.Sy libc_r
577is built as part of a 'make buildworld'.
578To disable the build of
984263bc 579.Fa libc_r
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580you must supply the '-DNO_LIBC_R' option to
581.Xr make 1
582(or set it in
84c2229b 583.Xr make.conf 5 ) .
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584.Pp
585Another
586.Xr make.conf 5
587option,
588.Va THREAD_LIB ,
589can be used to override the system's default threading library.
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590.Pp
591A
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592.Dx
593specific option exists in
594.Xr gcc 1
595to simplify the linking of threaded processes.
d55e7aa5 596.Nm gcc Fl pthread
984263bc 597links a threaded process against
d75a013e 598.Pa libpthread.so
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599instead of
600.Fa libc .
601.Sh SEE ALSO
15acf97d 602.Xr pthread_atfork 3 ,
9ff34379 603.Xr pthread_barrierattr 3 ,
70ef9d89 604.Xr pthread_barrier_destroy 3 ,
15acf97d 605.Xr pthread_cancel 3 ,
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606.Xr pthread_cleanup_pop 3 ,
607.Xr pthread_cleanup_push 3 ,
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608.Xr pthread_condattr_destroy 3 ,
609.Xr pthread_condattr_init 3 ,
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610.Xr pthread_cond_broadcast 3 ,
611.Xr pthread_cond_destroy 3 ,
612.Xr pthread_cond_init 3 ,
613.Xr pthread_cond_signal 3 ,
614.Xr pthread_cond_timedwait 3 ,
615.Xr pthread_cond_wait 3 ,
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616.Xr pthread_create 3 ,
617.Xr pthread_detach 3 ,
618.Xr pthread_equal 3 ,
619.Xr pthread_exit 3 ,
620.Xr pthread_getspecific 3 ,
621.Xr pthread_join 3 ,
622.Xr pthread_key_delete 3 ,
623.Xr pthread_kill 3 ,
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624.Xr pthread_mutexattr_destroy 3 ,
625.Xr pthread_mutexattr_getprioceiling 3 ,
626.Xr pthread_mutexattr_getprotocol 3 ,
627.Xr pthread_mutexattr_gettype 3 ,
628.Xr pthread_mutexattr_init 3 ,
629.Xr pthread_mutexattr_setprioceiling 3 ,
630.Xr pthread_mutexattr_setprotocol 3 ,
631.Xr pthread_mutexattr_settype 3 ,
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632.Xr pthread_mutex_destroy 3 ,
633.Xr pthread_mutex_init 3 ,
634.Xr pthread_mutex_lock 3 ,
635.Xr pthread_mutex_trylock 3 ,
636.Xr pthread_mutex_unlock 3 ,
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637.Xr pthread_once 3 ,
638.Xr pthread_rwlockattr_destroy 3 ,
639.Xr pthread_rwlockattr_getpshared 3 ,
640.Xr pthread_rwlockattr_init 3 ,
641.Xr pthread_rwlockattr_setpshared 3 ,
642.Xr pthread_rwlock_destroy 3 ,
643.Xr pthread_rwlock_init 3 ,
644.Xr pthread_rwlock_rdlock 3 ,
645.Xr pthread_rwlock_unlock 3 ,
646.Xr pthread_rwlock_wrlock 3 ,
647.Xr pthread_self 3 ,
648.Xr pthread_setcancelstate 3 ,
649.Xr pthread_setcanceltype 3 ,
650.Xr pthread_setspecific 3 ,
651.Xr pthread_testcancel 3
652.Sh STANDARDS
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653The functions with the
654.Nm pthread_
984263bc 655prefix and not
15acf97d 656.Nm _np
984263bc 657suffix or
15acf97d 658.Nm pthread_rwlock
984263bc
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659prefix conform to
660.St -p1003.1-96 .
661.Pp
15acf97d
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662The functions with the
663.Nm pthread_
984263bc 664prefix and
15acf97d 665.Nm _np
984263bc
MD
666suffix are non-portable extensions to POSIX threads.
667.Pp
15acf97d
SW
668The functions with the
669.Nm pthread_rwlock
984263bc
MD
670prefix are extensions created by The Open Group as part of the
671.St -susv2 .