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1.\" Copyright (c) 1997, 1998, 1999
2.\" Bill Paul <wpaul@ctr.columbia.edu>. All rights reserved.
3.\"
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5.\" modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
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14.\" This product includes software developed by Bill Paul.
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31.\" $FreeBSD: src/share/man/man4/wi.4,v 1.9.4.12 2003/03/03 18:59:15 trhodes Exp $
5ebe6762 32.\" $DragonFly: src/share/man/man4/wi.4,v 1.9 2008/02/01 08:18:36 hasso Exp $
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33.\" $OpenBSD: wi.4tbl,v 1.14 2002/04/29 19:53:50 jsyn Exp $
34.\"
35.Dd May 2, 2002
36.Dt WI 4
37.Os
38.Sh NAME
39.Nm wi
40.Nd "WaveLAN/IEEE, PRISM-II and Spectrum24 802.11DS wireless network driver"
41.Sh SYNOPSIS
42.Cd "device wi"
43.Sh DESCRIPTION
44The
45.Nm
46driver provides support for wireless network adapters based around
47the Lucent Hermes, Intersil PRISM-II, Intersil PRISM-2.5, and Symbol
48Spectrum24 chipsets.
49All four chipsets provide a similar interface to the driver.
50.Pp
51All host/device interaction is via programmed I/O.
52Supported features include 802.11 and 802.3 frames, power management, BSS,
53IBSS, WDS and old-style Lucent ad-hoc operation modes.
54Cards based on the Intersil PRISM-II and PRISM-2.5 chips also support a
55host-based access point mode which allows a card to act as a normal access
56point (with some assistance from the
57.Nm
58driver).
59The Lucent Hermes and Symbol Spectrum24 chipsets do not contain this
60functionality.
61PRISM-II and PRISM-2.5 chips do not support the WDS functionality.
62.Pp
63The
64.Nm
65driver encapsulates all IP and ARP traffic as 802.11 frames, however
66it can receive either 802.11 or 802.3 frames.
67Transmit speed is selectable between 1Mbps fixed, 2Mbps fixed, 2Mbps
68with auto fallback, 5.5Mbps, 8Mbps, or 11Mbps depending on your hardware.
69The Lucent WaveLAN/IEEE Silver and Gold cards as well as the Intersil
70and Symbol cards have support for WEP encryption.
71The WaveLAN Gold as well as newer Intersil and Symbol cards support
72104bit keys, the others only accept 40bit keys.
73The Lucent WaveLAN/IEEE Bronze cards do not support WEP at all.
74To enable encryption, use the
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75.Xr ifconfig 8
76as shown below.
77.Pp
78By default, the
79.Nm
80driver configures the card for BSS operation (aka infrastructure
81mode).
82This mode requires the use of an access point (base station).
83.Pp
84The
85.Nm
86driver also supports a point-to-point mode where the ssid is
87ignored and stations can communicate amongst themselves without the
88aid of an access point.
89Note that there are two possible point-to-point modes.
90One mode, referred to as
91.Dq "ad-hoc demo mode" ,
92or
93.Dq "legacy Lucent ad-hoc mode" ,
94predates the IEEE 802.11 specification and so may not interoperate
95with cards from different vendors.
96The standardized point-to-point mode, is called IBSS (or confusingly
97just ad-hoc mode), but is not supported by cards with very old
98firmware revisions.
99If your cards supports IBSS mode, it is recommended that you use it in
100preference to the
101.Dq "ad-hoc demo mode"
102in new installations.
103.Pp
104Cards based on the Intersil PRISM-II and PRISM-2.5 chips also
105have a host-based access point mode which allows the card to
106act as an access point (base station).
107Access points are different than operating in IBSS mode.
108They operate in BSS mode.
109They allow for easier roaming and bridge all ethernet traffic such
110that machines connected via an access point appear to be on the local
111ethernet segment.
112.Pp
113For more information on configuring this device, see
114.Xr ifconfig 8 .
115.Pp
116Cards supported by the
117.Nm
118driver come in a variety of packages, though the most common
119are of the PCMCIA type.
120In many cases, the PCI version of a wireless card is simply
121a PCMCIA card bundled with a PCI adapter.
122The PCI adapters come in two flavors: true PCMCIA bridges and
123dumb PCMCIA bridges.
124A true PCMCIA bridge (such as those sold by Lucent) will attach
125as a real PCMCIA controller.
126The wireless card will then attach to the PCMCIA bus.
127Wireless cards in PCMCIA slots may be inserted and ejected on the fly.
128.Pp
129A dumb bridge, on the other hand, does not show up as a true PCMCIA bus.
130The wireless card will simply appear to the host as a normal PCI
131device and will not require any PCMCIA support.
132Cards in this type of adapter should only be removed when the
133machine is powered down.
134.Pp
135The following cards are among those supported by the
136.Nm
137driver:
138.Pp
139.Bl -column -compact "Linksys Instant Wireless WPC11 2.5" "Spectrum24" "PCI or PCMCIA"
140.Em "Card Chip Bus"
1413Com AirConnect 3CRWE737A Spectrum24 PCMCIA
1423Com AirConnect 3CRWE777A Prism-II PCI
143ACTIONTEC HWC01170 Prism-2.5 PCMCIA
144Addtron AWP-100 Prism-II PCMCIA
145Adtec Adlink/340C Prism-II PCMCIA
146Agere Orinoco Hermes PCMCIA
147Avaya Wireless Prism-II PCMCIA
148Blue Concentric Circle WL-379F PRISM-II CF
149BreezeNet Wireless Prism-II PCMCIA
150Buffalo WLI-PCM-S11 Prism-II PCMCIA
151Buffalo WLI-PCM-L11G Hermes PCMCIA
152Buffalo WLI-CF-S11G Prism-II CF
153Cabletron RoamAbout Hermes PCMCIA
154Compaq Agency NC5004 Prism-II PCMCIA
155Compaq WL100 Prism-II PCMCIA
156Compaq WL110 Prism-II PCMCIA
157Compaq WL200 Prism-II PCMCIA
158Contec FLEXLAN/FX-DS110-PCC Prism-II PCMCIA
159Corega PCC-11 Prism-II PCMCIA
160Corega PCCA-11 Prism-II PCMCIA
161Corega PCCB-11 Prism-II PCMCIA
162Corega CGWLPCIA11 Prism-II PCI
163Dell TrueMobile 1150 Hermes PCMCIA
164Dlink DWL520 Prism-2.5 PCI
165Dlink DWL650 Prism-2.5 PCMCIA
166ELSA XI300 Prism-II PCMCIA
167ELSA XI800 Prism-II CF
168EMTAC A2424i Prism-II PCMCIA
169Ericsson Wireless LAN CARD C11 Spectrum24 PCMCIA
170Farallon Skyline Prism-II PCMCIA
171Gemtek WL-311 Prism-2.5 PCMCIA
172Hawking Technology WE110P Prism-2.5 PCMCIA
173Home Wireless Networks Prism-II PCMCIA
174IBM High Rate Wireless Hermes PCMCIA
175ICOM SL-1100 Prism-II PCMCIA
176I-O DATA WN-B11/PCM Prism-II PCMCIA
177Intel PRO/Wireless 2011 Spectrum24 PCMCIA
178Intersil Prism II Prism-II PCMCIA
179Intersil Mini-PCI Prism-2.5 PCI
180Linksys Instant Wireless WPC11 Prism-II PCMCIA
181Linksys Instant Wireless WPC11 2.5 Prism-2.5 PCMCIA
182Linksys Instant Wireless WPC11 3.0 Prism-3 PCMCIA
183Lucent WaveLAN Hermes PCMCIA
184Melco Airconnect Prism-II PCMCIA
185NANOSPEED ROOT-RZ2000 Prism-II PCMCIA
186NDC/Sohoware NCP130 Prism-II PCI
187NEC CMZ-RT-WP Prism-II PCMCIA
188NEC PK-WL001 Prism-II PCMCIA
189NEC PC-WL/11C PRISM-II PCMCIA
190Netgear MA401 Prism-II PCMCIA
191NTT-ME 11Mbps Wireless LAN Prism-II PCMCIA
192Planex GeoWave/GW-NS110 Prism-II PCMCIA
193Planex GW-NS11H Prism-II PCMCIA
194Proxim Harmony Prism-II PCMCIA
195Proxim RangeLAN-DS Prism-II PCMCIA
196Samsung MagicLAN SWL-2000N Prism-II PCMCIA
197SMC 2602 EZ Connect (3.3V) Prism-II PCI or PCMCIA
198SMC 2632 EZ Connect Prism-II PCMCIA
199Socket Low Power WLAN-CF Prism-II CF
200Sony PCWA-C100 Lucent PCMCIA
201Symbol Spectrum24 Spectrum24 PCMCIA
202Symbol LA-4100 Spectrum24 CF
203TDK LAK-CD011WL Prism-II PCMCIA
204Toshiba Wireless LAN Card Prism-II PCMCIA
205U.S. Robotics Wireless Card 2410 Prism-II PCMCIA
206.El
207.Pp
208Several vendors sell PCI adapters built around the PLX Technology 9050
209or 9052 chip.
210The following such adapters are supported or expected to work:
211.Pp
212.Bl -tag -compact
213.It 3Com AirConnect 3CRWE777A (3.3V)
214.It Belkin F5D6000 (a rebadged WL11000P)
215.It Eumitcom WL11000P
216.It Global Sun Technology GL24110P (untested)
217.It Global Sun Technology GL24110P02
218.It LinkSys WDT11 (a rebadged GL24110P02)
219.It Netgear MA301
220.It US Robotics 2415 (rebadged WL11000P)
221.El
222.Sh EXAMPLES
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223Join an existing BSS network (ie: connect to an access point):
224.Pp
225.Dl "ifconfig wi0 inet 192.168.0.20 netmask 0xffffff00"
226.Pp
227Join a specific BSS network with network name
228.Dq Li my_net :
229.Pp
230.Dl "ifconfig wi0 inet 192.168.0.20 netmask 0xffffff00 ssid my_net"
231.Pp
232Join a specific BSS network with WEP encryption:
233.Bd -literal -offset indent
234ifconfig wi0 inet 192.168.0.20 netmask 0xffffff00 ssid my_net \e
235 wepmode on wepkey 0x8736639624
236.Ed
237.Pp
238Join a Lucent legacy demo ad-hoc network with network name
239.Dq Li my_net :
240.Bd -literal -offset indent
241ifconfig wi0 inet 192.168.0.20 netmask 0xffffff00 ssid my_net \e
242 mediaopt adhoc
243.Ed
244.Pp
245Create an IBSS network with network name
246.Dq Li my_net :
247.Bd -literal -offset indent
248ifconfig wi0 inet 192.168.0.20 netmask 0xffffff00 ssid my_net \e
249 mediaopt ibss-master
250.Ed
251.Pp
252.Em Note :
253The infrastructure for
254.Cm mediaopt ibss-master
255has not been committed yet.
256.Pp
257Join an IBSS network with network name
258.Dq Li my_net :
259.Bd -literal -offset indent
260ifconfig wi0 inet 192.168.0.22 netmask 0xffffff00 ssid my_net \e
261 mediaopt ibss
262.Ed
263.Pp
264.Em Note :
265The infrastructure for
266.Cm mediaopt ibss
267has not been committed yet.
268.Pp
269Create a host-based access point (Prism only):
270.Bd -literal -offset indent
271ifconfig wi0 inet 192.168.0.10 netmask 0xffffff00 ssid my_ap \e
272 mediaopt hostap
273.Ed
274.Pp
275Create a host-based access point with WEP enabled (Prism only):
276.Bd -literal -offset indent
277ifconfig wi0 inet 192.168.0.10 netmask 0xffffff00 ssid my_ap \e
278 wepmode on wepkey 0x1234567890 mediaopt hostap
279.Ed
280.Pp
281Create a host-based wireless bridge to fxp0 (Prism only):
282.Bd -literal -offset indent
283Add BRIDGE to the kernel config.
284ifconfig wi0 inet up ssid my_ap mediaopt hostap
285sysctl net.link.ether.bridge=1
286sysctl net.link.ether.bridge_cfg="wi0 fxp0"
287sysctl net.inet.ip.forwarding=1
288.Ed
289.Pp
290This will give you approximately the same functionality as an access
291point.
292.Sh DIAGNOSTICS
293.Bl -diag
294.It "wi%d: init failed"
295The WaveLAN card failed to come ready after an initialization command
296was issued.
297.It "wi%d: failed to allocate %d bytes on NIC"
298The driver was unable to allocate memory for transmit frames in the
299NIC's on-board RAM.
300.It "wi%d: device timeout"
301The WaveLAN failed to generate an interrupt to acknowledge a transmit
302command.
303.El
304.Sh SEE ALSO
305.Xr an 4 ,
306.Xr arp 4 ,
8985f72f 307.Xr ifmedia 4 ,
984263bc 308.Xr netintro 4 ,
01fe1724 309.Xr polling 4 ,
3effd507 310.Xr hostapd 8 ,
984263bc 311.Xr ifconfig 8 ,
227a2aee 312.Xr wpa_supplicant 8
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313.Rs
314.%T HCF Light programming specification
c0343e3e 315.%O http://web.archive.org/web/*/http://www.wavelan.com
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316.Re
317.Sh HISTORY
318The
319.Nm
320device driver first appeared in
321.Fx 3.0 .
322.Sh AUTHORS
323The
324.Nm
325driver was written by
326.An Bill Paul Aq wpaul@ctr.columbia.edu .
327This man page comes from
328.Ox .
329.Sh CAVEATS
330Different regulatory domains have different default channels for adhoc
331mode.
332See
333.Xr ifconfig 8
334for information on how to change the channel.
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335.Pp
336The Intersil Prism family of chips' host-based access point mode has
337bugs for station firmware versions prior to 0.8.3.
338The driver currently precludes hostap functionality older station
339firmware.
340The best version of the station firmware for the Prism family of chips
341seems to be 1.4.9.
342Some users of Prism-II and 2.5 based cards report that station firmware
343version 1.3.4 works better for them in hostap than 1.4.9.
344Older versions of the Prism station firmware have a number of issues
345with hostap mode.
346The IBSS/adhoc mode appears to work well on station firmware 1.3.1 and
347later.
348The IBSS/adhoc mode appears to have problems for some people with
349older versions of station firmware.
350.Pp
351Lucent cards prior to firmware version 6.0.4 do not support IBSS
352mode.
353These cards support only the pre 802.11 mode known as
354.Dq "demo ad-hoc mode"
355which does not interoperate with stations in IBSS mode.
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356.Sh BUGS
357Not all the new messages are documented here, and many of them are
358indications of transient errors that are not indications of serious
359problems.
360.Pp
361WL200 PCI wireless cards are based on a Cirrus Logic CL-PD6729 bridge
362chips glued to an intersil prism-II pcmcia chipset w/o the PC Card
363form factor being present.
364These chips are special and require special care to use properly.
365One must set
366.Va hw.pcic.pd6729_intr_path Ns = Ns Qq Li 2
367in
368.Pa /boot/loader.conf .
369This tells the pccard system to use PCI interrupts for this odd beast.
370It is not possible to know automatically which kind of interrupts to use.
371OLDCARD devices (pcic and card) support this device.