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32.\" From: @(#)ifconfig.8 8.3 (Berkeley) 1/5/94
33.\" $FreeBSD: src/sbin/ifconfig/ifconfig.8,v 1.27.2.22 2003/01/26 03:33:56 keramida Exp $
34.\"
35.Dd July 2, 2001
36.Dt IFCONFIG 8
37.Os
38.Sh NAME
39.Nm ifconfig
40.Nd configure network interface parameters
41.Sh SYNOPSIS
42.Nm
43.Op Fl L
44.Op Fl m
45.Ar interface
46.Op Cm create
47.Op Ar address_family
48.Oo
49.Ar address
50.Op Ar dest_address
51.Oc
52.Op Ar parameters
53.Nm
54.Ar interface
55.Cm destroy
56.Nm
57.Fl a
58.Op Fl L
59.Op Fl d
60.Op Fl m
61.Op Fl u
62.Op Ar address_family
63.Nm
64.Fl l
65.Op Fl d
66.Op Fl u
67.Op Ar address_family
68.Nm
69.Op Fl L
70.Op Fl d
71.Op Fl m
72.Op Fl u
73.Op Fl C
74.Sh DESCRIPTION
75The
76.Nm
77utility is used to assign an address
78to a network interface and/or configure
79network interface parameters.
80The
81.Nm
82utility must be used at boot time to define the network address
83of each interface present on a machine; it may also be used at
84a later time to redefine an interface's address
85or other operating parameters.
86.Pp
87The following options are available:
88.Bl -tag -width indent
89.It Ar address
90For the
91.Tn DARPA Ns -Internet
92family,
93the address is either a host name present in the host name data
94base,
95.Xr hosts 5 ,
96or a
97.Tn DARPA
98Internet address expressed in the Internet standard
99.Dq dot notation .
100.Pp
101It is also possible to use the CIDR notation (also known as the
102slash notation) to include the netmask.
103That is, one can specify an address like
104.Li 192.168.0.1/16 .
105.Pp
106For
107.Dq inet6
108family, it is also possible to specify the prefix length using the slash
109notation, like
110.Li ::1/128 .
111See the
112.Cm prefixlen
113parameter below for more information.
114.\" For the Xerox Network Systems(tm) family,
115.\" addresses are
116.\" .Ar net:a.b.c.d.e.f ,
117.\" where
118.\" .Ar net
119.\" is the assigned network number (in decimal),
120.\" and each of the six bytes of the host number,
121.\" .Ar a
122.\" through
123.\" .Ar f ,
124.\" are specified in hexadecimal.
125.\" The host number may be omitted on IEEE 802 protocol
126.\" (Ethernet, FDDI, and Token Ring) interfaces,
127.\" which use the hardware physical address,
128.\" and on interfaces other than the first.
129.\" For the
130.\" .Tn ISO
131.\" family, addresses are specified as a long hexadecimal string,
132.\" as in the Xerox family.
133.\" However, two consecutive dots imply a zero
134.\" byte, and the dots are optional, if the user wishes to (carefully)
135.\" count out long strings of digits in network byte order.
136.Pp
137The link-level
138.Pq Dq link
139address
140is specified as a series of colon-separated hex digits.
141This can be used to
142e.g. set a new MAC address on an ethernet interface, though the
143mechanism used is not ethernet-specific.
144If the interface is already
145up when this option is used, it will be briefly brought down and
146then brought back up again in order to ensure that the receive
147filter in the underlying ethernet hardware is properly reprogrammed.
148.It Ar address_family
149Specify the
150address family
151which affects interpretation of the remaining parameters.
152Since an interface can receive transmissions in differing protocols
153with different naming schemes, specifying the address family is recommended.
154The address or protocol families currently
155supported are
156.Dq inet ,
157.Dq inet6 ,
158.Dq atalk ,
159.Dq ipx ,
160.\" .Dq iso ,
161and
162.Dq link .
163.\" and
164.\" .Dq ns .
165The default is
166.Dq inet .
167.Dq ether
168and
169.Dq lladdr
170are synonyms for
171.Dq link .
172.It Ar dest_address
173Specify the address of the correspondent on the other end
174of a point to point link.
175.It Ar interface
176This
177parameter is a string of the form
178.Dq name unit ,
179for example,
180.Dq Li ed0 .
181.El
182.Pp
183The following parameters may be set with
184.Nm :
185.Bl -tag -width indent
186.It Cm add
187Another name for the
188.Cm alias
189parameter.
190Introduced for compatibility
191with
192.Bsx .
193.It Cm alias
194Establish an additional network address for this interface.
195This is sometimes useful when changing network numbers, and
196one wishes to accept packets addressed to the old interface.
197If the address is on the same subnet as the first network address
198for this interface, a non-conflicting netmask must be given.
199Usually
200.Li 0xffffffff
201is most appropriate.
202.It Fl alias
203Remove the network address specified.
204This would be used if you incorrectly specified an alias, or it
205was no longer needed.
206If you have incorrectly set an NS address having the side effect
207of specifying the host portion, removing all NS addresses will
208allow you to respecify the host portion.
209.It Cm anycast
210(Inet6 only.)
211Specify that the address configured is an anycast address.
212Based on the current specification,
213only routers may configure anycast addresses.
214Anycast address will not be used as source address of any of outgoing
215IPv6 packets.
216.It Cm arp
217Enable the use of the Address Resolution Protocol
218.Pq Xr arp 4
219in mapping
220between network level addresses and link level addresses (default).
221This is currently implemented for mapping between
222.Tn DARPA
223Internet
224addresses and
225.Tn IEEE
226802 48-bit MAC addresses (Ethernet, FDDI, and Token Ring addresses).
227.It Fl arp
228Disable the use of the Address Resolution Protocol
229.Pq Xr arp 4 .
230.It Cm broadcast
231(Inet only.)
232Specify the address to use to represent broadcasts to the
233network.
234The default broadcast address is the address with a host part of all 1's.
235.It Cm debug
236Enable driver dependent debugging code; usually, this turns on
237extra console error logging.
238.It Fl debug
239Disable driver dependent debugging code.
240.It Cm promisc
241Put interface into permanently promiscuous mode.
242.It Fl promisc
243Disable permanently promiscuous mode.
244.It Cm delete
245Another name for the
246.Fl alias
247parameter.
248.It Cm down
249Mark an interface
250.Dq down .
251When an interface is marked
252.Dq down ,
253the system will not attempt to
254transmit messages through that interface.
255If possible, the interface will be reset to disable reception as well.
256This action does not automatically disable routes using the interface.
257.It Cm eui64
258(Inet6 only.)
259Fill interface index
260(lowermost 64bit of an IPv6 address)
261automatically.
262.\" .It Cm ipdst
263.\" This is used to specify an Internet host who is willing to receive
264.\" ip packets encapsulating NS packets bound for a remote network.
265.\" An apparent point to point link is constructed, and
266.\" the address specified will be taken as the NS address and network
267.\" of the destination.
268.\" IP encapsulation of
269.\" .Tn CLNP
270.\" packets is done differently.
271.It Cm media Ar type
272If the driver supports the media selection system, set the media type
273of the interface to
274.Ar type .
275Some interfaces support the mutually exclusive use of one of several
276different physical media connectors.
277For example, a 10Mb/s Ethernet
278interface might support the use of either
279.Tn AUI
280or twisted pair connectors.
281Setting the media type to
282.Dq 10base5/AUI
283would change the currently active connector to the AUI port.
284Setting it to
285.Dq 10baseT/UTP
286would activate twisted pair.
287Refer to the interfaces' driver
288specific documentation or man page for a complete list of the
289available types.
290.It Cm mediaopt Ar opts
291If the driver supports the media selection system, set the specified
292media options on the interface.
293The
294.Ar opts
295argument
296is a comma delimited list of options to apply to the interface.
297Refer to the interfaces' driver specific man page for a complete
298list of available options.
299.It Fl mediaopt Ar opts
300If the driver supports the media selection system, disable the
301specified media options on the interface.
302.It Cm tunnel Ar src_addr dest_addr
303(IP tunnel devices only.)
304Configure the physical source and destination address for IP tunnel
305interfaces
306.Pq Xr gif 4 .
307The arguments
308.Ar src_addr
309and
310.Ar dest_addr
311are interpreted as the outer source/destination for the encapsulating
312IPv4/IPv6 header.
313.It Cm deletetunnel
314Unconfigure the physical source and destination address for IP tunnel
315interfaces previously configured with
316.Cm tunnel .
317.It Cm create
318Create the specified network pseudo-device.
319If the interface is given without a unit number, try to create a new
320device with an arbitrary unit number.
321If creation of an arbitrary device is successful, the new device name is
322printed to standard output.
323.It Cm destroy
324Destroy the specified network pseudo-device.
325.It Cm plumb
326Another name for the
327.Cm create
328parameter.
329Included for
330.Tn Solaris
331compatibility.
332.It Cm unplumb
333Another name for the
334.Cm destroy
335parameter.
336Included for
337.Tn Solaris
338compatibility.
339.It Cm vlan Ar vlan_tag
340If the interface is a vlan pseudo interface, set the vlan tag value
341to
342.Ar vlan_tag .
343This value is a 16-bit number which is used to create an 802.1Q
344vlan header for packets sent from the vlan interface.
345Note that
346.Cm vlan
347and
348.Cm vlandev
349must both be set at the same time.
350.It Cm vlandev Ar iface
351If the interface is a vlan pseudo device, associate physical interface
352.Ar iface
353with it.
354Packets transmitted through the vlan interface will be
355diverted to the specified physical interface
356.Ar iface
357with 802.1Q vlan encapsulation.
358Packets with 802.1Q encapsulation received
359by the parent interface with the correct vlan tag will be diverted to
360the associated vlan pseudo-interface.
361The vlan interface is assigned a
362copy of the parent interface's flags and the parent's ethernet address.
363The
364.Cm vlandev
365and
366.Cm vlan
367must both be set at the same time.
368If the vlan interface already has
369a physical interface associated with it, this command will fail.
370To
371change the association to another physical interface, the existing
372association must be cleared first.
373.Pp
374Note: if the
375.Cm link0
376flag is set on the vlan interface, the vlan pseudo
377interface's behavior changes: the
378.Cm link0
379tells the vlan interface that the
380parent interface supports insertion and extraction of vlan tags on its
381own (usually in firmware) and that it should pass packets to and from
382the parent unaltered.
383.It Fl vlandev Ar iface
384If the driver is a vlan pseudo device, disassociate the physical interface
385.Ar iface
386from it.
387This breaks the link between the vlan interface and its parent,
388clears its vlan tag, flags and its link address and shuts the interface down.
389.It Cm metric Ar n
390Set the routing metric of the interface to
391.Ar n ,
392default 0.
393The routing metric is used by the routing protocol
394.Pq Xr routed 8 .
395Higher metrics have the effect of making a route
396less favorable; metrics are counted as addition hops
397to the destination network or host.
398.It Cm mtu Ar n
399Set the maximum transmission unit of the interface to
400.Ar n ,
401default is interface specific.
402The MTU is used to limit the size of packets that are transmitted on an
403interface.
404Not all interfaces support setting the MTU, and some interfaces have
405range restrictions.
406.It Cm netmask Ar mask
407.\" (Inet and ISO.)
408(Inet only.)
409Specify how much of the address to reserve for subdividing
410networks into sub-networks.
411The mask includes the network part of the local address
412and the subnet part, which is taken from the host field of the address.
413The mask can be specified as a single hexadecimal number
414with a leading
415.Ql 0x ,
416with a dot-notation Internet address,
417or with a pseudo-network name listed in the network table
418.Xr networks 5 .
419The mask contains 1's for the bit positions in the 32-bit address
420which are to be used for the network and subnet parts,
421and 0's for the host part.
422The mask should contain at least the standard network portion,
423and the subnet field should be contiguous with the network
424portion.
425.Pp
426The netmask can also be specified in CIDR notation after the address.
427See the
428.Ar address
429option above for more information.
430.It Cm prefixlen Ar len
431(Inet6 only.)
432Specify that
433.Ar len
434bits are reserved for subdividing networks into sub-networks.
435The
436.Ar len
437must be integer, and for syntactical reason it must be between 0 to 128.
438It is almost always 64 under the current IPv6 assignment rule.
439If the parameter is omitted, 64 is used.
440.Pp
441The prefix can also be specified using the slash notation after the address.
442See the
443.Ar address
444option above for more information.
445.\" see
446.\" Xr eon 5 .
447.\" .It Cm nsellength Ar n
448.\" .Pf ( Tn ISO
449.\" only)
450.\" This specifies a trailing number of bytes for a received
451.\" .Tn NSAP
452.\" used for local identification, the remaining leading part of which is
453.\" taken to be the
454.\" .Tn NET
455.\" (Network Entity Title).
456.\" The default value is 1, which is conformant to US
457.\" .Tn GOSIP .
458.\" When an ISO address is set in an ifconfig command,
459.\" it is really the
460.\" .Tn NSAP
461.\" which is being specified.
462.\" For example, in
463.\" .Tn US GOSIP ,
464.\" 20 hex digits should be
465.\" specified in the
466.\" .Tn ISO NSAP
467.\" to be assigned to the interface.
468.\" There is some evidence that a number different from 1 may be useful
469.\" for
470.\" .Tn AFI
471.\" 37 type addresses.
472.It Cm range Ar netrange
473Under appletalk, set the interface to respond to a
474.Ar netrange
475of the form
476.Ar startnet Ns - Ns Ar endnet .
477Appletalk uses this scheme instead of
478netmasks though
479.Fx
480implements it internally as a set of netmasks.
481.It Cm remove
482Another name for the
483.Fl alias
484parameter.
485Introduced for compatibility
486with
487.Bsx .
488.It Cm phase
489The argument following this specifies the version (phase) of the
490Appletalk network attached to the interface.
491Values of 1 or 2 are permitted.
492.Sm off
493.It Cm link Op Cm 0 No - Cm 2
494.Sm on
495Enable special processing of the link level of the interface.
496These three options are interface specific in actual effect, however,
497they are in general used to select special modes of operation.
498An example
499of this is to enable SLIP compression, or to select the connector type
500for some Ethernet cards.
501Refer to the man page for the specific driver
502for more information.
503.Sm off
504.It Fl link Op Cm 0 No - Cm 2
505.Sm on
506Disable special processing at the link level with the specified interface.
507.It Cm up
508Mark an interface
509.Dq up .
510This may be used to enable an interface after an
511.Dq Nm Cm down .
512It happens automatically when setting the first address on an interface.
513If the interface was reset when previously marked down,
514the hardware will be re-initialized.
515.It Cm ssid Ar ssid
516For IEEE 802.11 wireless interfaces, set the desired Service Set
517Identifier (aka network name).
518The SSID is a string up to 32 characters
519in length and may be specified as either a normal string or in
520hexadecimal when proceeded by
521.Ql 0x .
522Additionally, the SSID may be cleared by setting it to
523.Ql - .
524.It Cm nwid Ar ssid
525Another name for the
526.Cm ssid
527parameter.
528Included for
529.Nx
530compatibility.
531.It Cm stationname Ar name
532For IEEE 802.11 wireless interfaces, set the name of this station.
533It appears that the station name is not really part of the IEEE 802.11
534protocol though all interfaces seem to support it.
535As such it only
536seems to be meaningful to identical or virtually identical equipment.
537Setting the station name is identical in syntax to setting the SSID.
538.It Cm station Ar name
539Another name for the
540.Cm stationname
541parameter.
542Included for
543.Bsx
544compatibility.
545.It Cm channel Ar number
546For IEEE 802.11 wireless interfaces, set the desired channel.
547Channels range from 1 to 14, but the exact selection available
548depends on the region your adaptor was manufactured for.
549Setting
550the channel to 0 will give you the default for your adaptor.
551Many
552adaptors ignore this setting unless you are in ad-hoc mode.
553.It Cm authmode Ar mode
554For IEEE 802.11 wireless interfaces, set the desired authentication mode
555in infrastructure mode.
556Not all adaptors support all modes.
557The set of
558valid modes is
559.Dq none ,
560.Dq open ,
561and
562.Dq shared .
563Modes are case insensitive.
564.It Cm powersave
565For IEEE 802.11 wireless interfaces, enable powersave mode.
566.It Fl powersave
567For IEEE 802.11 wireless interfaces, disable powersave mode.
568.It Cm powersavesleep Ar sleep
569For IEEE 802.11 wireless interfaces, set the desired max powersave sleep
570time in milliseconds.
571.It Cm wepmode Ar mode
572For IEEE 802.11 wireless interfaces, set the desired WEP mode.
573Not all adaptors support all modes.
574The set of valid modes is
575.Dq off ,
576.Dq on ,
577and
578.Dq mixed .
579.Dq Mixed
580mode explicitly tells the adaptor to allow association with access
581points which allow both encrypted and unencrypted traffic.
582On these adaptors,
583.Dq on
584means that the access point must only allow encrypted connections.
585On other adaptors,
586.Dq on
587is generally another name for
588.Dq mixed .
589Modes are case insensitive.
590.It Cm weptxkey Ar index
591For IEEE 802.11 wireless interfaces, set the WEP key to be used for
592transmission.
593.It Cm wepkey Ar key Ns | Ns Ar index : Ns Ar key
594For IEEE 802.11 wireless interfaces, set the selected WEP key.
595If an
596.Ar index
597is not given, key 1 is set.
598A WEP key will be either 5 or 13
599characters (40 or 104 bits) depending of the local network and the
600capabilities of the adaptor.
601It may be specified either as a plain
602string or as a string of hexadecimal digits proceeded by
603.Ql 0x .
604For maximum portability, hex keys are recommended;
605the mapping of text keys to WEP encryption is usually driver-specific.
606In particular, the
607.Tn Windows
608drivers do this mapping differently to
609.Fx .
610A key may be cleared by setting it to
611.Ql - .
612If WEP is supported then there are at least four keys.
613Some adaptors support more than four keys.
614If that is the case, then the first four keys
615(1-4) will be the standard temporary keys and any others will be adaptor
616specific keys such as permanent keys stored in NVRAM.
617.It Cm wep
618Another way of saying
619.Cm wepmode on .
620Included for
621.Bsx
622compatibility.
623.It Fl wep
624Another way of saying
625.Cm wepmode off .
626Included for
627.Bsx
628compatibility.
629.It Cm nwkey key
630Another way of saying:
631.Pp
632.Dq Li "wepmode on weptxkey 1 wepkey 1:key wepkey 2:- wepkey 3:- wepkey 4:-" .
633.Pp
634Included for
635.Nx
636compatibility.
637.It Cm nwkey Xo
638.Sm off
639.Ar n : k1 , k2 , k3 , k4
640.Sm on
641.Xc
642Another way of saying
643.Pp
644.Dq Li "wepmode on weptxkey n wepkey 1:k1 wepkey 2:k2 wepkey 3:k3 wepkey 4:k4" .
645.Pp
646Included for
647.Nx
648compatibility.
649.It Fl nwkey
650Another way of saying
651.Cm wepmode off .
652.Pp
653Included for
654.Nx
655compatibility.
656.El
657.Pp
658The
659.Nm
660utility displays the current configuration for a network interface
661when no optional parameters are supplied.
662If a protocol family is specified,
663.Nm
664will report only the details specific to that protocol family.
665.Pp
666If the driver does supports the media selection system, the supported
667media list will be included in the output.
668.Pp
669If the
670.Fl m
671flag is passed before an interface name,
672.Nm
673will display all
674of the supported media for the specified interface.
675If
676.Fl L
677flag is supplied, address lifetime is displayed for IPv6 addresses,
678as time offset string.
679.Pp
680Optionally, the
681.Fl a
682flag may be used instead of an interface name.
683This flag instructs
684.Nm
685to display information about all interfaces in the system.
686The
687.Fl d
688flag limits this to interfaces that are down, and
689.Fl u
690limits this to interfaces that are up.
691When no arguments are given,
692.Fl a
693is implied.
694.Pp
695The
696.Fl l
697flag may be used to list all available interfaces on the system, with
698no other additional information.
699Use of this flag is mutually exclusive
700with all other flags and commands, except for
701.Fl d
702(only list interfaces that are down)
703and
704.Fl u
705(only list interfaces that are up).
706.Pp
707The
708.Fl C
709flag may be used to list all of the interface cloners available on
710the system, with no additional information.
711Use of this flag is mutually exclusive with all other flags and commands.
712.Pp
713Only the super-user may modify the configuration of a network interface.
714.Sh NOTES
715The media selection system is relatively new and only some drivers support
716it (or have need for it).
717.Sh DIAGNOSTICS
718Messages indicating the specified interface does not exist, the
719requested address is unknown, or the user is not privileged and
720tried to alter an interface's configuration.
721.Sh BUGS
722IPv6 link-local addresses are required for several basic communication
723between IPv6 node.
724If they are deleted by
725.Nm
726manually, the kernel might show very strange behavior.
727So, such manual deletions are strongly discouraged.
728.Sh SEE ALSO
729.Xr netstat 1 ,
730.Xr netintro 4 ,
731.\" .Xr eon 5 ,
732.Xr rc 8 ,
733.Xr routed 8
734.Sh HISTORY
735The
736.Nm
737utility appeared in
738.Bx 4.2 .