libc: proper FreeBSD version and some Mt macros for mails
[dragonfly.git] / lib / libc / string / strerror.3
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32.\" @(#)strerror.3 8.1 (Berkeley) 6/9/93
0d5acd74 33.\" $FreeBSD: head/lib/libc/string/strerror.3 251069 2013-05-28 20:57:40Z emaste $
984263bc 34.\"
0d5acd74 35.Dd April 5, 2011
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36.Dt STRERROR 3
37.Os
38.Sh NAME
39.Nm perror ,
40.Nm strerror ,
41.Nm strerror_r ,
42.Nm sys_errlist ,
43.Nm sys_nerr
44.Nd system error messages
45.Sh LIBRARY
46.Lb libc
47.Sh SYNOPSIS
48.In stdio.h
49.Ft void
50.Fn perror "const char *string"
51.Vt extern const char * const sys_errlist[] ;
52.Vt extern const int sys_nerr ;
53.In string.h
54.Ft "char *"
55.Fn strerror "int errnum"
56.Ft int
57.Fn strerror_r "int errnum" "char *strerrbuf" "size_t buflen"
58.Sh DESCRIPTION
59The
60.Fn strerror ,
61.Fn strerror_r
62and
63.Fn perror
64functions look up the error message string corresponding to an
65error number.
66.Pp
67The
68.Fn strerror
69function accepts an error number argument
70.Fa errnum
71and returns a pointer to the corresponding
72message string.
73.Pp
74The
75.Fn strerror_r
76function renders the same result into
77.Fa strerrbuf
78for a maximum of
79.Fa buflen
80characters and returns 0 upon success.
81.Pp
82The
83.Fn perror
84function finds the error message corresponding to the current
85value of the global variable
86.Va errno
87.Pq Xr intro 2
88and writes it, followed by a newline, to the
89standard error file descriptor.
90If the argument
91.Fa string
92is
93.Pf non- Dv NULL
94and does not point to the null character,
95this string is prepended to the message
96string and separated from it by
97a colon and space
98.Pq Dq Li ":\ " ;
99otherwise, only the error message string is printed.
100.Pp
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101If the error number is not recognized, these functions return an error message
102string containing
984263bc 103.Dq Li "Unknown error:\ "
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104followed by the error number in decimal.
105The
106.Fn strerror
107and
984263bc 108.Fn strerror_r
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109functions return
110.Er EINVAL
111as a warning.
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112Error numbers recognized by this implementation fall in
113the range 0 <
114.Fa errnum
115<
116.Fa sys_nerr .
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117The number 0 is also recognized, although applications that take advantage of
118this are likely to use unspecified values of
119.Va errno .
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120.Pp
121If insufficient storage is provided in
122.Fa strerrbuf
123(as specified in
124.Fa buflen )
125to contain the error string,
126.Fn strerror_r
127returns
128.Er ERANGE
129and
130.Fa strerrbuf
131will contain an error message that has been truncated and
132.Dv NUL
133terminated to fit the length specified by
134.Fa buflen .
135.Pp
136The message strings can be accessed directly using the external
137array
138.Va sys_errlist .
139The external value
140.Va sys_nerr
141contains a count of the messages in
142.Va sys_errlist .
143The use of these variables is deprecated;
144.Fn strerror
145or
146.Fn strerror_r
147should be used instead.
148.Sh SEE ALSO
149.Xr intro 2 ,
0d5acd74 150.Xr err 3 ,
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151.Xr psignal 3
152.Sh STANDARDS
153The
154.Fn perror
155and
156.Fn strerror
157functions conform to
158.St -isoC-99 .
159The
160.Fn strerror_r
161function conforms to
162.St -p1003.1-2001 .
163.Sh HISTORY
164The
165.Fn strerror
166and
167.Fn perror
168functions first appeared in
169.Bx 4.4 .
170The
171.Fn strerror_r
172function was implemented in
173.Fx 4.4
174by
d118ff3c 175.An Wes Peters Aq Mt wes@FreeBSD.org .
984263bc 176.Sh BUGS
0d5acd74 177The
984263bc 178.Fn strerror
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179function returns its result in a static buffer which
180will be overwritten by subsequent calls.
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181.Pp
182The return type for
183.Fn strerror
184is missing a type-qualifier; it should actually be
185.Vt const char * .
186.Pp
187Programs that use the deprecated
188.Va sys_errlist
189variable often fail to compile because they declare it
190inconsistently.