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32.\" From: @(#)ifconfig.8 8.3 (Berkeley) 1/5/94
33.\" $FreeBSD: src/sbin/ifconfig/ifconfig.8,v 1.27.2.22 2003/01/26 03:33:56 keramida Exp $
dbbc569c 34.\" $DragonFly: src/sbin/ifconfig/ifconfig.8,v 1.4 2004/11/13 04:13:22 cpressey Exp $
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35.\"
36.Dd July 2, 2001
37.Dt IFCONFIG 8
38.Os
39.Sh NAME
40.Nm ifconfig
41.Nd configure network interface parameters
42.Sh SYNOPSIS
43.Nm
44.Op Fl L
45.Op Fl m
46.Ar interface
47.Op Cm create
48.Op Ar address_family
49.Oo
50.Ar address
51.Op Ar dest_address
52.Oc
53.Op Ar parameters
54.Nm
55.Ar interface
56.Cm destroy
57.Nm
58.Fl a
59.Op Fl L
60.Op Fl d
61.Op Fl m
62.Op Fl u
63.Op Ar address_family
64.Nm
65.Fl l
66.Op Fl d
67.Op Fl u
68.Op Ar address_family
69.Nm
70.Op Fl L
71.Op Fl d
72.Op Fl m
73.Op Fl u
74.Op Fl C
75.Sh DESCRIPTION
76The
77.Nm
78utility is used to assign an address
79to a network interface and/or configure
80network interface parameters.
81The
82.Nm
83utility must be used at boot time to define the network address
84of each interface present on a machine; it may also be used at
85a later time to redefine an interface's address
86or other operating parameters.
87.Pp
88The following options are available:
89.Bl -tag -width indent
90.It Ar address
91For the
92.Tn DARPA Ns -Internet
93family,
94the address is either a host name present in the host name data
95base,
96.Xr hosts 5 ,
97or a
98.Tn DARPA
99Internet address expressed in the Internet standard
100.Dq dot notation .
101.Pp
102It is also possible to use the CIDR notation (also known as the
103slash notation) to include the netmask.
104That is, one can specify an address like
105.Li 192.168.0.1/16 .
106.Pp
107For
108.Dq inet6
109family, it is also possible to specify the prefix length using the slash
110notation, like
111.Li ::1/128 .
112See the
113.Cm prefixlen
114parameter below for more information.
115.\" For the Xerox Network Systems(tm) family,
116.\" addresses are
117.\" .Ar net:a.b.c.d.e.f ,
118.\" where
119.\" .Ar net
120.\" is the assigned network number (in decimal),
121.\" and each of the six bytes of the host number,
122.\" .Ar a
123.\" through
124.\" .Ar f ,
125.\" are specified in hexadecimal.
126.\" The host number may be omitted on IEEE 802 protocol
127.\" (Ethernet, FDDI, and Token Ring) interfaces,
128.\" which use the hardware physical address,
129.\" and on interfaces other than the first.
130.\" For the
131.\" .Tn ISO
132.\" family, addresses are specified as a long hexadecimal string,
133.\" as in the Xerox family.
134.\" However, two consecutive dots imply a zero
135.\" byte, and the dots are optional, if the user wishes to (carefully)
136.\" count out long strings of digits in network byte order.
137.Pp
138The link-level
139.Pq Dq link
140address
141is specified as a series of colon-separated hex digits.
142This can be used to
143e.g. set a new MAC address on an ethernet interface, though the
144mechanism used is not ethernet-specific.
145If the interface is already
146up when this option is used, it will be briefly brought down and
147then brought back up again in order to ensure that the receive
148filter in the underlying ethernet hardware is properly reprogrammed.
149.It Ar address_family
150Specify the
151address family
152which affects interpretation of the remaining parameters.
153Since an interface can receive transmissions in differing protocols
154with different naming schemes, specifying the address family is recommended.
155The address or protocol families currently
156supported are
157.Dq inet ,
158.Dq inet6 ,
159.Dq atalk ,
160.Dq ipx ,
161.\" .Dq iso ,
162and
163.Dq link .
164.\" and
165.\" .Dq ns .
166The default is
167.Dq inet .
168.Dq ether
169and
170.Dq lladdr
171are synonyms for
172.Dq link .
173.It Ar dest_address
174Specify the address of the correspondent on the other end
175of a point to point link.
176.It Ar interface
177This
178parameter is a string of the form
179.Dq name unit ,
180for example,
181.Dq Li ed0 .
182.El
183.Pp
184The following parameters may be set with
185.Nm :
186.Bl -tag -width indent
187.It Cm add
188Another name for the
189.Cm alias
190parameter.
191Introduced for compatibility
192with
193.Bsx .
194.It Cm alias
195Establish an additional network address for this interface.
196This is sometimes useful when changing network numbers, and
197one wishes to accept packets addressed to the old interface.
198If the address is on the same subnet as the first network address
199for this interface, a non-conflicting netmask must be given.
200Usually
201.Li 0xffffffff
202is most appropriate.
203.It Fl alias
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204Remove the specified network address from this interface
205(if none is specified, all network addresses for the interface
206are removed.)
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207This would be used if you incorrectly specified an alias, or it
208was no longer needed.
209If you have incorrectly set an NS address having the side effect
210of specifying the host portion, removing all NS addresses will
211allow you to respecify the host portion.
212.It Cm anycast
213(Inet6 only.)
214Specify that the address configured is an anycast address.
215Based on the current specification,
216only routers may configure anycast addresses.
217Anycast address will not be used as source address of any of outgoing
218IPv6 packets.
219.It Cm arp
220Enable the use of the Address Resolution Protocol
221.Pq Xr arp 4
222in mapping
223between network level addresses and link level addresses (default).
224This is currently implemented for mapping between
225.Tn DARPA
226Internet
227addresses and
228.Tn IEEE
229802 48-bit MAC addresses (Ethernet, FDDI, and Token Ring addresses).
230.It Fl arp
231Disable the use of the Address Resolution Protocol
232.Pq Xr arp 4 .
233.It Cm broadcast
234(Inet only.)
235Specify the address to use to represent broadcasts to the
236network.
237The default broadcast address is the address with a host part of all 1's.
238.It Cm debug
239Enable driver dependent debugging code; usually, this turns on
240extra console error logging.
241.It Fl debug
242Disable driver dependent debugging code.
243.It Cm promisc
244Put interface into permanently promiscuous mode.
245.It Fl promisc
246Disable permanently promiscuous mode.
247.It Cm delete
248Another name for the
249.Fl alias
250parameter.
251.It Cm down
252Mark an interface
253.Dq down .
254When an interface is marked
255.Dq down ,
256the system will not attempt to
257transmit messages through that interface.
258If possible, the interface will be reset to disable reception as well.
259This action does not automatically disable routes using the interface.
260.It Cm eui64
261(Inet6 only.)
262Fill interface index
263(lowermost 64bit of an IPv6 address)
264automatically.
265.\" .It Cm ipdst
266.\" This is used to specify an Internet host who is willing to receive
267.\" ip packets encapsulating NS packets bound for a remote network.
268.\" An apparent point to point link is constructed, and
269.\" the address specified will be taken as the NS address and network
270.\" of the destination.
271.\" IP encapsulation of
272.\" .Tn CLNP
273.\" packets is done differently.
274.It Cm media Ar type
275If the driver supports the media selection system, set the media type
276of the interface to
277.Ar type .
278Some interfaces support the mutually exclusive use of one of several
279different physical media connectors.
280For example, a 10Mb/s Ethernet
281interface might support the use of either
282.Tn AUI
283or twisted pair connectors.
284Setting the media type to
285.Dq 10base5/AUI
286would change the currently active connector to the AUI port.
287Setting it to
288.Dq 10baseT/UTP
289would activate twisted pair.
290Refer to the interfaces' driver
291specific documentation or man page for a complete list of the
292available types.
293.It Cm mediaopt Ar opts
294If the driver supports the media selection system, set the specified
295media options on the interface.
296The
297.Ar opts
298argument
299is a comma delimited list of options to apply to the interface.
300Refer to the interfaces' driver specific man page for a complete
301list of available options.
302.It Fl mediaopt Ar opts
303If the driver supports the media selection system, disable the
304specified media options on the interface.
305.It Cm tunnel Ar src_addr dest_addr
306(IP tunnel devices only.)
307Configure the physical source and destination address for IP tunnel
308interfaces
309.Pq Xr gif 4 .
310The arguments
311.Ar src_addr
312and
313.Ar dest_addr
314are interpreted as the outer source/destination for the encapsulating
315IPv4/IPv6 header.
316.It Cm deletetunnel
317Unconfigure the physical source and destination address for IP tunnel
318interfaces previously configured with
319.Cm tunnel .
320.It Cm create
321Create the specified network pseudo-device.
322If the interface is given without a unit number, try to create a new
323device with an arbitrary unit number.
324If creation of an arbitrary device is successful, the new device name is
325printed to standard output.
326.It Cm destroy
327Destroy the specified network pseudo-device.
328.It Cm plumb
329Another name for the
330.Cm create
331parameter.
332Included for
333.Tn Solaris
334compatibility.
335.It Cm unplumb
336Another name for the
337.Cm destroy
338parameter.
339Included for
340.Tn Solaris
341compatibility.
342.It Cm vlan Ar vlan_tag
343If the interface is a vlan pseudo interface, set the vlan tag value
344to
345.Ar vlan_tag .
346This value is a 16-bit number which is used to create an 802.1Q
347vlan header for packets sent from the vlan interface.
348Note that
349.Cm vlan
350and
351.Cm vlandev
352must both be set at the same time.
353.It Cm vlandev Ar iface
354If the interface is a vlan pseudo device, associate physical interface
355.Ar iface
356with it.
357Packets transmitted through the vlan interface will be
358diverted to the specified physical interface
359.Ar iface
360with 802.1Q vlan encapsulation.
361Packets with 802.1Q encapsulation received
362by the parent interface with the correct vlan tag will be diverted to
363the associated vlan pseudo-interface.
364The vlan interface is assigned a
365copy of the parent interface's flags and the parent's ethernet address.
366The
367.Cm vlandev
368and
369.Cm vlan
370must both be set at the same time.
371If the vlan interface already has
372a physical interface associated with it, this command will fail.
373To
374change the association to another physical interface, the existing
375association must be cleared first.
376.Pp
377Note: if the
378.Cm link0
379flag is set on the vlan interface, the vlan pseudo
380interface's behavior changes: the
381.Cm link0
382tells the vlan interface that the
383parent interface supports insertion and extraction of vlan tags on its
384own (usually in firmware) and that it should pass packets to and from
385the parent unaltered.
386.It Fl vlandev Ar iface
387If the driver is a vlan pseudo device, disassociate the physical interface
388.Ar iface
389from it.
390This breaks the link between the vlan interface and its parent,
391clears its vlan tag, flags and its link address and shuts the interface down.
392.It Cm metric Ar n
393Set the routing metric of the interface to
394.Ar n ,
395default 0.
396The routing metric is used by the routing protocol
397.Pq Xr routed 8 .
398Higher metrics have the effect of making a route
399less favorable; metrics are counted as addition hops
400to the destination network or host.
401.It Cm mtu Ar n
402Set the maximum transmission unit of the interface to
403.Ar n ,
404default is interface specific.
405The MTU is used to limit the size of packets that are transmitted on an
406interface.
407Not all interfaces support setting the MTU, and some interfaces have
408range restrictions.
409.It Cm netmask Ar mask
410.\" (Inet and ISO.)
411(Inet only.)
412Specify how much of the address to reserve for subdividing
413networks into sub-networks.
414The mask includes the network part of the local address
415and the subnet part, which is taken from the host field of the address.
416The mask can be specified as a single hexadecimal number
417with a leading
418.Ql 0x ,
419with a dot-notation Internet address,
420or with a pseudo-network name listed in the network table
421.Xr networks 5 .
422The mask contains 1's for the bit positions in the 32-bit address
423which are to be used for the network and subnet parts,
424and 0's for the host part.
425The mask should contain at least the standard network portion,
426and the subnet field should be contiguous with the network
427portion.
428.Pp
429The netmask can also be specified in CIDR notation after the address.
430See the
431.Ar address
432option above for more information.
433.It Cm prefixlen Ar len
434(Inet6 only.)
435Specify that
436.Ar len
437bits are reserved for subdividing networks into sub-networks.
438The
439.Ar len
440must be integer, and for syntactical reason it must be between 0 to 128.
441It is almost always 64 under the current IPv6 assignment rule.
442If the parameter is omitted, 64 is used.
443.Pp
444The prefix can also be specified using the slash notation after the address.
445See the
446.Ar address
447option above for more information.
448.\" see
449.\" Xr eon 5 .
450.\" .It Cm nsellength Ar n
451.\" .Pf ( Tn ISO
452.\" only)
453.\" This specifies a trailing number of bytes for a received
454.\" .Tn NSAP
455.\" used for local identification, the remaining leading part of which is
456.\" taken to be the
457.\" .Tn NET
458.\" (Network Entity Title).
459.\" The default value is 1, which is conformant to US
460.\" .Tn GOSIP .
461.\" When an ISO address is set in an ifconfig command,
462.\" it is really the
463.\" .Tn NSAP
464.\" which is being specified.
465.\" For example, in
466.\" .Tn US GOSIP ,
467.\" 20 hex digits should be
468.\" specified in the
469.\" .Tn ISO NSAP
470.\" to be assigned to the interface.
471.\" There is some evidence that a number different from 1 may be useful
472.\" for
473.\" .Tn AFI
474.\" 37 type addresses.
475.It Cm range Ar netrange
476Under appletalk, set the interface to respond to a
477.Ar netrange
478of the form
479.Ar startnet Ns - Ns Ar endnet .
480Appletalk uses this scheme instead of
481netmasks though
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483implements it internally as a set of netmasks.
484.It Cm remove
485Another name for the
486.Fl alias
487parameter.
488Introduced for compatibility
489with
490.Bsx .
491.It Cm phase
492The argument following this specifies the version (phase) of the
493Appletalk network attached to the interface.
494Values of 1 or 2 are permitted.
495.Sm off
496.It Cm link Op Cm 0 No - Cm 2
497.Sm on
498Enable special processing of the link level of the interface.
499These three options are interface specific in actual effect, however,
500they are in general used to select special modes of operation.
501An example
502of this is to enable SLIP compression, or to select the connector type
503for some Ethernet cards.
504Refer to the man page for the specific driver
505for more information.
506.Sm off
507.It Fl link Op Cm 0 No - Cm 2
508.Sm on
509Disable special processing at the link level with the specified interface.
510.It Cm up
511Mark an interface
512.Dq up .
513This may be used to enable an interface after an
514.Dq Nm Cm down .
515It happens automatically when setting the first address on an interface.
516If the interface was reset when previously marked down,
517the hardware will be re-initialized.
518.It Cm ssid Ar ssid
519For IEEE 802.11 wireless interfaces, set the desired Service Set
520Identifier (aka network name).
521The SSID is a string up to 32 characters
522in length and may be specified as either a normal string or in
523hexadecimal when proceeded by
524.Ql 0x .
525Additionally, the SSID may be cleared by setting it to
526.Ql - .
527.It Cm nwid Ar ssid
528Another name for the
529.Cm ssid
530parameter.
531Included for
532.Nx
533compatibility.
534.It Cm stationname Ar name
535For IEEE 802.11 wireless interfaces, set the name of this station.
536It appears that the station name is not really part of the IEEE 802.11
537protocol though all interfaces seem to support it.
538As such it only
539seems to be meaningful to identical or virtually identical equipment.
540Setting the station name is identical in syntax to setting the SSID.
541.It Cm station Ar name
542Another name for the
543.Cm stationname
544parameter.
545Included for
546.Bsx
547compatibility.
548.It Cm channel Ar number
549For IEEE 802.11 wireless interfaces, set the desired channel.
550Channels range from 1 to 14, but the exact selection available
551depends on the region your adaptor was manufactured for.
552Setting
553the channel to 0 will give you the default for your adaptor.
554Many
555adaptors ignore this setting unless you are in ad-hoc mode.
556.It Cm authmode Ar mode
557For IEEE 802.11 wireless interfaces, set the desired authentication mode
558in infrastructure mode.
559Not all adaptors support all modes.
560The set of
561valid modes is
562.Dq none ,
563.Dq open ,
564and
565.Dq shared .
566Modes are case insensitive.
567.It Cm powersave
568For IEEE 802.11 wireless interfaces, enable powersave mode.
569.It Fl powersave
570For IEEE 802.11 wireless interfaces, disable powersave mode.
571.It Cm powersavesleep Ar sleep
572For IEEE 802.11 wireless interfaces, set the desired max powersave sleep
573time in milliseconds.
574.It Cm wepmode Ar mode
575For IEEE 802.11 wireless interfaces, set the desired WEP mode.
576Not all adaptors support all modes.
577The set of valid modes is
578.Dq off ,
579.Dq on ,
580and
581.Dq mixed .
582.Dq Mixed
583mode explicitly tells the adaptor to allow association with access
584points which allow both encrypted and unencrypted traffic.
585On these adaptors,
586.Dq on
587means that the access point must only allow encrypted connections.
588On other adaptors,
589.Dq on
590is generally another name for
591.Dq mixed .
592Modes are case insensitive.
593.It Cm weptxkey Ar index
594For IEEE 802.11 wireless interfaces, set the WEP key to be used for
595transmission.
596.It Cm wepkey Ar key Ns | Ns Ar index : Ns Ar key
597For IEEE 802.11 wireless interfaces, set the selected WEP key.
598If an
599.Ar index
600is not given, key 1 is set.
601A WEP key will be either 5 or 13
602characters (40 or 104 bits) depending of the local network and the
603capabilities of the adaptor.
604It may be specified either as a plain
605string or as a string of hexadecimal digits proceeded by
606.Ql 0x .
607For maximum portability, hex keys are recommended;
608the mapping of text keys to WEP encryption is usually driver-specific.
609In particular, the
610.Tn Windows
611drivers do this mapping differently to
9bb2a92d 612.Dx .
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613A key may be cleared by setting it to
614.Ql - .
615If WEP is supported then there are at least four keys.
616Some adaptors support more than four keys.
617If that is the case, then the first four keys
618(1-4) will be the standard temporary keys and any others will be adaptor
619specific keys such as permanent keys stored in NVRAM.
620.It Cm wep
621Another way of saying
622.Cm wepmode on .
623Included for
624.Bsx
625compatibility.
626.It Fl wep
627Another way of saying
628.Cm wepmode off .
629Included for
630.Bsx
631compatibility.
632.It Cm nwkey key
633Another way of saying:
634.Pp
635.Dq Li "wepmode on weptxkey 1 wepkey 1:key wepkey 2:- wepkey 3:- wepkey 4:-" .
636.Pp
637Included for
638.Nx
639compatibility.
640.It Cm nwkey Xo
641.Sm off
642.Ar n : k1 , k2 , k3 , k4
643.Sm on
644.Xc
645Another way of saying
646.Pp
647.Dq Li "wepmode on weptxkey n wepkey 1:k1 wepkey 2:k2 wepkey 3:k3 wepkey 4:k4" .
648.Pp
649Included for
650.Nx
651compatibility.
652.It Fl nwkey
653Another way of saying
654.Cm wepmode off .
655.Pp
656Included for
657.Nx
658compatibility.
659.El
660.Pp
661The
662.Nm
663utility displays the current configuration for a network interface
664when no optional parameters are supplied.
665If a protocol family is specified,
666.Nm
667will report only the details specific to that protocol family.
668.Pp
669If the driver does supports the media selection system, the supported
670media list will be included in the output.
671.Pp
672If the
673.Fl m
674flag is passed before an interface name,
675.Nm
676will display all
677of the supported media for the specified interface.
678If
679.Fl L
680flag is supplied, address lifetime is displayed for IPv6 addresses,
681as time offset string.
682.Pp
683Optionally, the
684.Fl a
685flag may be used instead of an interface name.
686This flag instructs
687.Nm
688to display information about all interfaces in the system.
689The
690.Fl d
691flag limits this to interfaces that are down, and
692.Fl u
693limits this to interfaces that are up.
694When no arguments are given,
695.Fl a
696is implied.
697.Pp
698The
699.Fl l
700flag may be used to list all available interfaces on the system, with
701no other additional information.
702Use of this flag is mutually exclusive
703with all other flags and commands, except for
704.Fl d
705(only list interfaces that are down)
706and
707.Fl u
708(only list interfaces that are up).
709.Pp
710The
711.Fl C
712flag may be used to list all of the interface cloners available on
713the system, with no additional information.
714Use of this flag is mutually exclusive with all other flags and commands.
715.Pp
716Only the super-user may modify the configuration of a network interface.
717.Sh NOTES
718The media selection system is relatively new and only some drivers support
719it (or have need for it).
720.Sh DIAGNOSTICS
721Messages indicating the specified interface does not exist, the
722requested address is unknown, or the user is not privileged and
723tried to alter an interface's configuration.
724.Sh BUGS
725IPv6 link-local addresses are required for several basic communication
726between IPv6 node.
727If they are deleted by
728.Nm
729manually, the kernel might show very strange behavior.
730So, such manual deletions are strongly discouraged.
731.Sh SEE ALSO
732.Xr netstat 1 ,
733.Xr netintro 4 ,
734.\" .Xr eon 5 ,
735.Xr rc 8 ,
736.Xr routed 8
737.Sh HISTORY
738The
739.Nm
740utility appeared in
741.Bx 4.2 .