binutils 2.22: Activate building in world
[dragonfly.git] / share / man / man7 / hier.7
CommitLineData
b638a263
SW
1.\" Copyright (c) 1990, 1993
2.\" The Regents of the University of California. All rights reserved.
3.\"
4.\" Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
5.\" modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
6.\" are met:
7.\" 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
8.\" notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
9.\" 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
10.\" notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
11.\" documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
12.\" 3. All advertising materials mentioning features or use of this software
13.\" must display the following acknowledgement:
14.\" This product includes software developed by the University of
15.\" California, Berkeley and its contributors.
16.\" 4. Neither the name of the University nor the names of its contributors
17.\" may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
18.\" without specific prior written permission.
19.\"
20.\" THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE REGENTS AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND
21.\" ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
22.\" IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
23.\" ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE REGENTS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
24.\" FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
25.\" DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
26.\" OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
27.\" HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
28.\" LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
29.\" OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
30.\" SUCH DAMAGE.
31.\"
32.\" @(#)hier.7 8.1 (Berkeley) 6/5/93
33.\" $FreeBSD: src/share/man/man7/hier.7,v 1.29.2.17 2003/01/13 21:43:50 ceri Exp $
34.\"
1c05bfaa 35.Dd April 2, 2011
b638a263
SW
36.Dt HIER 7
37.Os
38.Sh NAME
39.Nm hier
40.Nd layout of filesystems
41.Sh DESCRIPTION
42A sketch of the filesystem hierarchy.
43.Bl -tag -width ".Pa /modules/"
44.It Pa /
45root directory of the filesystem
46.It Pa /bin/
47user utilities fundamental to both single-user and multi-user environments
48.It Pa /boot/
49programs and configuration files used during operating system bootstrap
50.Pp
51.Bl -tag -width ".Pa defaults/" -compact
52.It Pa defaults/
53default bootstrapping configuration files; see
54.Xr loader.conf 5
55.It Pa kernel
56pure kernel executable (the operating system loaded into memory
57at boot time).
58.It Pa modules/
59loadable kernel modules;
60see
61.Xr kldstat 8
62.El
63.It Pa /dev/
64block and character device files
65.Pp
66.Bl -tag -width ".Pa fd/" -compact
67.It Pa fd/
68file descriptor files;
69see
70.Xr \&fd 4
71.El
72.It Pa /etc/
73system configuration files and scripts
74.Pp
75.Bl -tag -width ".Pa bluetooth/" -compact
76.It Pa bluetooth/
77bluetooth configuration files
78.It Pa defaults/
79default system configuration files;
80see
81.Xr rc 8
82.It Pa dma/
83.Xr dma 8
84configuration files
85.\".It Pa firmware/
86.\"Firmware image files;
87.\"see
88.\".Xr firmware 9
89.It Pa isdn/
90isdn4bsd configuration files;
91see
92.Xr isdnd 8
93.It Pa localtime
94local timezone information;
95see
96.Xr ctime 3
97.It Pa mail/
98Sendmail control files
99.It Pa mtree/
100mtree configuration files;
101see
102.Xr mtree 8
103.It Pa pam.d/
104configuration files for the Pluggable Authentication Modules (PAM)
105library
106.It Pa periodic/
107scripts that are run daily, weekly, and monthly, via
108.Xr cron 8 ;
109see
110.Xr periodic 8
111.It Pa ppp/
112ppp configuration files;
113see
114.Xr ppp 8
115.It Pa rc.d/
116System and daemon startup/control scripts;
117see
118.Xr rc 8
119.It Pa ssh/
120OpenSSH configuration files;
121see
122.Xr ssh 1
123.It Pa ssl/
124OpenSSL configuration files
125.It Pa upgrade/
126Files relevant to system upgrades
127.It Pa uucp/
128uucp configuration files;
129see
130.Xr uucp 1
131.El
132.It Pa /home/
133HOME directories of non-root users
134.It Pa /mnt/
135empty directory commonly used by
136system administrators as a temporary mount point
137.It Pa /pfs/
138pseudo file system directory (on
139.Xr hammer 5
140root file systems)
141.It Pa /proc/
142process file system;
143see
144.Xr procfs 5 ,
145.Xr mount_procfs 8
146.It Pa /root/
147root's HOME directory
148.It Pa /sbin/
149system programs and administration utilities
150fundamental to both single-user and multi-user environments
151.It Pa /sys/
152the kernel's source code (usually a symbolic link to
153.Pa /usr/src/sys )
154.It Pa /tmp/
155temporary files that are not guaranteed to persist across system reboots
156.It Pa /usr/
157contains the majority of user utilities and applications
158.Pp
159.Bl -tag -width ".Pa libdata/" -compact
160.It Pa bin/
161common utilities, programming tools, and applications
162.It Pa games/
163useful and semi-frivolous programs
164.It Pa include/
165standard C include files
166.Pp
167.Bl -tag -width ".Pa libmilter/" -compact
168.It Pa arpa/
169C include files for Internet service protocols
170.It Pa c++/
171C++ include files
172.It Pa cam/
173C include files for the Common Access Methods Layer
174.Pp
175.Bl -tag -width ".Pa scsi/" -compact
176.It Pa scsi/
177The SCSI device on top of CAM
178.El
179.Pp
180.It Pa dev/
181C include files for programming various
182.Dx
183devices
184.It Pa emulation/
185Include Files for various emulation layers
186.It Pa fs/
187.Pp
188.Bl -tag -width ".Pa smbfs/" -compact
189.It Pa smbfs/
190SMB/CIFS filesystem
191.El
192.Pp
193.It Pa isofs/
194.Pp
195.Bl -tag -width ".Pa cd9660/" -compact
196.It Pa cd9660/
197iso9660 filesystem
198.El
199.Pp
200.It Pa libmilter/
201C include files for libmilter,
202the sendmail mail filter API
203.It Pa libprop/
204C include files for libprop
205.It Pa machine/
206machine-specific C include files
207.It Pa msdosfs/
208MS-DOS file system
209.It Pa net/
210misc network C include files
b638a263
SW
211.It Pa netatm/
212ATM include files;
213see
214.Xr atm 8
215.It Pa netinet/
216C include files for Internet standard protocols;
217see
218.Xr inet 4
219.It Pa netinet6/
220C include files for Internet protocol version 6;
221see
222.Xr inet6 4
223.It Pa netipx/
224IPX/SPX protocol stacks
225.It Pa netkey/
226kernel key-management service
227.It Pa netnatm/
228NATM include files;
229see
230.Xr natm 4
231.It Pa netsmb/
232SMB/CIFS requester
233.It Pa nfs/
234C include files for NFS (Network File System)
235.It Pa objc/
236Objective C include files
237.It Pa openssl/
238OpenSSL (Cryptography/SSL toolkit) headers
239.It Pa pcap/
240Packet Capture (libpcap) headers;
241see
242.Xr pcap 3
243.It Pa pccard/
244PC-CARD controllers
245.It Pa protocols/
246C include files for Berkeley service protocols
247.It Pa readline/
248get a line from a user, with editing;
249see
250.Xr readline 3
251.It Pa rpc/
252remote procedure calls;
253see
254.Xr rpc 3
255.It Pa rpcsvc/
256definition of RPC service structures; see
257.Xr rpc 3
258.It Pa security/
259PAM; see
260.Xr pam 8
261.It Pa sys/
262system C include files (kernel data structures)
263.It Pa ufs/
264C include files for UFS (The U-word File System)
265.Pp
266.Bl -tag -width ".Pa ffs/" -compact
267.It Pa ffs/
268Fast filesystem
269.It Pa mfs/
270memory file system;
271see
272.Xr mount_mfs 8
273.It Pa ufs/
274UFS filesystem
275.El
276.Pp
277.It Pa vm/
278virtual memory;
279see
280.Xr vmstat 8
281.El
282.Pp
283.It Pa lib/
284archive libraries
285.Pp
286.Bl -tag -width ".Pa compat/" -compact
287.It Pa aout/
288a.out archive libraries
289.It Pa compat/
290shared libraries for compatibility
291.Pp
292.Bl -tag -width ".Pa aout/" -compact
293.It Pa aout/
294a.out backward compatibility libraries
295.El
296.It Pa engines/
297OpenSSL dynamic engines
298.El
299.Pp
300.It Pa libdata/
301misc. utility data files
302.Pp
303.Bl -tag -width ".Pa stallion/" -compact
304.It Pa doscmd/
305files used by doscmd (drivers, fonts, etc.);
306see
307.Xr doscmd 1
308.Pp
309.Bl -tag -width ".Pa fonts/" -compact
310.It Pa fonts/
311fonts used by doscmd
312.El
313.Pp
314.It Pa lint/
315various prebuilt lint libraries;
316see
317.Xr lint 1
318.It Pa stallion/
319holds the download firmware images
320.El
321.Pp
322.It Pa libexec/
323system daemons & system utilities (executed by other programs)
324.Pp
b638a263
SW
325.It Pa binutils221/
326.Pp
327.Bl -tag -width ".Pa ldscripts/" -compact
328.It Pa ldscripts/
329linker scripts;
330see
331.Xr ld 1
332.El
333.Pp
37c5a0db
JM
334.It Pa binutils222/
335.Pp
336.Bl -tag -width ".Pa ldscripts/" -compact
337.It Pa ldscripts/
338linker scripts;
339see
340.Xr ld 1
341.El
342.Pp
b638a263
SW
343.It Pa lpr/
344utilities and filters for LP print system;
345see
346.Xr lpr 1
347.It Pa sendmail/
348the sendmail binary;
349see
350.Xr mailwrapper 8
351and
352.Xr sendmail 8
353.It Pa sm.bin/
354restricted shell for sendmail;
355see
356.Xr smrsh 8
357.It Pa uucp/
358uucp utilities;
359see
360.Xr uucp 1
361.El
362.Pp
363.It Pa local/
364local executables, libraries, etc.
365Within
366.Pa local/ ,
367the general layout sketched out by
368.Xr hier 7
369for
370.Pa /usr
371should be used.
372Exceptions are the
373.Pa man/
374directory (directly under
375.Pa local/
376rather than under
377.Pa local/share/ ) ,
378documentation (in
379.Pa share/doc/<app>/ ) ,
380and
381.Pa /usr/local/etc
382.Pf ( mimics
383.Pa /etc ) .
384.It Pa obj/
385architecture-specific target tree produced by building the
386.Pa /usr/src
387tree
388.It Pa pkg/
389default destination directory for the
390.Xr pkgsrc 7
391collection.
392Within
393.Pa pkg/ ,
394the general layout sketched out by
395.Xr hier 7
396for
397.Pa /usr
398should be used.
399Exceptions are the
400.Pa man/
401directory (directly under
402.Pa pkg/
403rather than under
404.Pa pkg/share/ ) ,
405documentation (in
406.Pa share/doc/<pkg>/ ) ,
407and
408.Pa /usr/pkg/etc
409.Pf ( mimics
410.Pa /etc ) .
411.It Pa pkgsrc/
412The
413.Xr pkgsrc 7
414collection (optional).
415.It Pa sbin/
416system daemons & system utilities (executed by users)
417.It Pa share/
418architecture-independent files
419.Pp
420.Bl -tag -width ".Pa groff_font/" -compact
421.It Pa calendar/
422a variety of pre-fab calendar files;
423see
424.Xr calendar 1
425.It Pa dict/
426word lists;
427see
428.Xr look 1
429.Pp
430.Bl -tag -width ".Pa papers/" -compact
431.It Pa web2
432words from Webster's 2nd International
433.It Pa words
434common words
435.It Pa papers/
436reference databases;
437see
438.Xr refer 1
439.El
440.Pp
441.It Pa doc/
442miscellaneous documentation
443.Bl -tag -width ".Pa legal/" -compact
444.It Pa legal/
445License files for vendor supplied firmwares
446.El
447.Pp
448.It Pa examples/
449various examples for users and programmers
450.It Pa games/
451ASCII text files used by various games
452.It Pa groff_font/
453device description file for device name
454.It Pa i18n/
455internationalization databases; see
456.Xr iconv 3
457.It Pa info/
458GNU Info hypertext system
459.It Pa isdn/
460ISDN
461.It Pa libg++/
462libg++'s genclass prototype/template class files
463.It Pa locale/
464localization files;
465see
466.Xr setlocale 3
467.It Pa man/
468manual pages
469.It Pa me/
470macros for use with the me macro package;
471see
472.Xr me 7
473.It Pa misc/
474misc system-wide ASCII text files
475.Pp
476.Bl -tag -width ".Pa termcap" -compact
477.It Pa termcap
478terminal characteristics database;
479see
480.Xr termcap 5
481.El
482.Pp
483.It Pa mk/
484templates for make;
485see
486.Xr make 1
487.It Pa nls/
488national language support files;
489see
490.Xr mklocale 1
491.It Pa openssl/
492.Pp
493.Bl -tag -width ".Pa man/" -compact
494.It Pa man/
495OpenSSL manual pages
496.El
497.Pp
498.It Pa sendmail/
499sendmail configuration files;
500see
501.Xr sendmail 8
502.It Pa skel/
503example . (dot) files for new accounts
504.It Pa syscons/
505files used by
506.Xr syscons 4
507.Pp
508.Bl -tag -width ".Pa scrnmaps/" -compact
509.It Pa fonts/
510console fonts;
511see
512.Xr vidcontrol 1
513and
514.Xr vidfont 1
515.It Pa keymaps/
516console keyboard maps;
517see
518.Xr kbdcontrol 1
519and
520.Xr kbdmap 1
521.It Pa scrnmaps/
522console screen maps
523.El
524.Pp
525.It Pa tabset/
526tab description files for a variety of terminals; used in
527the termcap file;
528see
529.Xr termcap 5
530.It Pa tmac/
531text processing macros;
532see
533.Xr nroff 1
534and
535.Xr troff 1
536.It Pa vi/
537localization support and utilities for
538.Xr vi 1
539.It Pa zoneinfo/
540timezone configuration information;
541see
542.Xr tzfile 5
543.El
544.Pp
545.It Pa src/
546.Bx ,
547third-party, and/or local source files
548.Pp
549.Bl -tag -width ".Pa nrelease/" -compact
550.It Pa bin/
551source code for files in
552.Pa /bin
553.It Pa contrib/
554source code for contributed software
555.It Pa crypto/
556source code for contributed cryptography software
557.It Pa etc/
558source code for files in
559.Pa /etc
560.It Pa games/
561source code for files in
562.Pa /usr/games
563.It Pa gnu/
564Utilities covered by the GNU General Public License
565.It Pa include/
566source code for files in
567.Pa /usr/include
568.It Pa lib/
569source code for files in
570.Pa /usr/lib
571.It Pa libexec/
572source code for files in
573.Pa /usr/libexec
574.It Pa nrelease/
575files required to produce a
576.Dx
577release
578.It Pa sbin/
579source code for files in
580.Pa /sbin
581.It Pa secure/
582build directory for files in
583.Pa /usr/src/crypto
584.It Pa share/
585source for files in
586.Pa /usr/share
587.It Pa sys/
588kernel source code
589.It Pa tools/
590tools used for maintenance and testing of
591.Dx
592.It Pa usr.bin/
593source code for files in
594.Pa /usr/bin
595.It Pa usr.sbin/
596source code for files in
597.Pa /usr/sbin
598.El
599.El
600.It Pa /var/
601multi-purpose log, temporary, transient, and spool files
602.Pp
603.Bl -tag -width ".Pa preserve/" -compact
604.It Pa account/
605system accounting files
606.Pp
607.Bl -tag -width ".Pa acct" -compact
608.It Pa acct
609execution accounting file;
610see
611.Xr acct 5
612.El
613.Pp
614.It Pa at/
615timed command scheduling files;
616see
617.Xr \&at 1
618.Pp
619.Bl -tag -width ".Pa spool/" -compact
620.It Pa jobs/
621directory containing job files
622.It Pa spool/
623directory containing output spool files
624.El
625.Pp
626.It Pa backups/
627misc. backup files
628.It Pa crash/
629default directory to store kernel crash dumps; see
630.Xr crash 8
631and
632.Xr savecore 8
633.It Pa cron/
634files used by cron;
635see
636.Xr cron 8
637.Pp
638.Bl -tag -width ".Pa tabs/" -compact
639.It Pa tabs/
640crontab files;
641see
642.Xr crontab 5
643.El
644.Pp
645.It Pa db/
646misc. automatically generated system-specific database files
647.It Pa empty/
648empty directory used by
649.Xr sshd 8
650for privilege separation
651.It Pa games/
652misc. game status and score files
653.It Pa hammer/
654per PFS (pseudo file system) snapshots directory for
655.Xr hammer 5
656file systems
657.It Pa log/
658misc. system log files
659.Pp
660.Bl -tag -width ".Pa wtmp" -compact
661.It Pa wtmp
662login/logout log;
663see
664.Xr wtmp 5
665.El
666.Pp
667.It Pa mail/
668user mailbox files
669.It Pa msgs/
670system messages database;
671see
672.Xr msgs 1
673.It Pa preserve/
674temporary home of files preserved after an accidental death
675of an editor;
676see
677.Xr \&ex 1
678.It Pa quotas/
679filesystem quota information files
680.It Pa run/
681system information files describing various info about
682system since it was booted
683.Pp
684.Bl -tag -width ".Pa ppp/" -compact
685.It Pa ppp/
686writable by the
687.Dq network
688group for command connection sockets; see
689.Xr ppp 8
690.It Pa utmp
691database of current users;
692see
693.Xr utmp 5
694.El
695.Pp
696.It Pa rwho/
697rwho data files;
698see
699.Xr rwhod 8 ,
700.Xr rwho 1 ,
701and
702.Xr ruptime 1
703.It Pa spool/
704misc. printer and mail system spooling directories
705.Pp
706.Bl -tag -width ".Pa clientmqueue/" -compact
707.It Pa clientmqueue/
708undelivered submission mail queue;
709see
710.Xr sendmail 8
711.It Pa dma/
712undelivered mail queue;
713see
714.Xr dma 8
715.It Pa ftp/
716commonly
717.Pa ~ftp ;
718the anonymous ftp root directory
719.It Pa mqueue/
720undelivered mail queue;
721see
722.Xr sendmail 8
723.It Pa output/
724line printer spooling directories
725.It Pa uucp/
726uucp spool directory
727.It Pa uucppublic/
728commonly
729.Pa ~uucp ;
730public uucp temporary directory
731.El
732.Pp
733.It Pa tmp/
734temporary files that are kept between system reboots
735.Pp
736.Bl -tag -width ".Pa vi.recover/" -compact
737.It Pa vi.recover/
738the directory where recovery files are stored
739.El
740.Pp
741.It Pa yp/
742the NIS maps
743.El
744.El
745.Sh NOTES
746This manual page documents the default
747.Dx
748filesystem layout, but
749the actual hierarchy on a given system is defined at the system
750administrator's discretion.
751A well-maintained installation will include a customized version of
752this document.
753.Sh SEE ALSO
754.Xr apropos 1 ,
755.Xr find 1 ,
756.Xr finger 1 ,
757.Xr grep 1 ,
758.Xr ls 1 ,
759.Xr whatis 1 ,
760.Xr whereis 1 ,
761.Xr which 1 ,
762.Xr fsck 8
763.Sh HISTORY
764A
765.Nm
766manual page appeared in
767.At v7 .