Revert "binutils 2.22: Activate building in world"
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1.\" Copyright (c) 1990, 1993
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32.\" @(#)hier.7 8.1 (Berkeley) 6/5/93
33.\" $FreeBSD: src/share/man/man7/hier.7,v 1.29.2.17 2003/01/13 21:43:50 ceri Exp $
34.\"
1c05bfaa 35.Dd April 2, 2011
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36.Dt HIER 7
37.Os
38.Sh NAME
39.Nm hier
40.Nd layout of filesystems
41.Sh DESCRIPTION
42A sketch of the filesystem hierarchy.
43.Bl -tag -width ".Pa /modules/"
44.It Pa /
45root directory of the filesystem
46.It Pa /bin/
47user utilities fundamental to both single-user and multi-user environments
48.It Pa /boot/
49programs and configuration files used during operating system bootstrap
50.Pp
51.Bl -tag -width ".Pa defaults/" -compact
52.It Pa defaults/
53default bootstrapping configuration files; see
54.Xr loader.conf 5
55.It Pa kernel
56pure kernel executable (the operating system loaded into memory
57at boot time).
58.It Pa modules/
59loadable kernel modules;
60see
61.Xr kldstat 8
62.El
63.It Pa /dev/
64block and character device files
65.Pp
66.Bl -tag -width ".Pa fd/" -compact
67.It Pa fd/
68file descriptor files;
69see
70.Xr \&fd 4
71.El
72.It Pa /etc/
73system configuration files and scripts
74.Pp
75.Bl -tag -width ".Pa bluetooth/" -compact
76.It Pa bluetooth/
77bluetooth configuration files
78.It Pa defaults/
79default system configuration files;
80see
81.Xr rc 8
82.It Pa dma/
83.Xr dma 8
84configuration files
85.\".It Pa firmware/
86.\"Firmware image files;
87.\"see
88.\".Xr firmware 9
89.It Pa isdn/
90isdn4bsd configuration files;
91see
92.Xr isdnd 8
93.It Pa localtime
94local timezone information;
95see
96.Xr ctime 3
97.It Pa mail/
98Sendmail control files
99.It Pa mtree/
100mtree configuration files;
101see
102.Xr mtree 8
103.It Pa pam.d/
104configuration files for the Pluggable Authentication Modules (PAM)
105library
106.It Pa periodic/
107scripts that are run daily, weekly, and monthly, via
108.Xr cron 8 ;
109see
110.Xr periodic 8
111.It Pa ppp/
112ppp configuration files;
113see
114.Xr ppp 8
115.It Pa rc.d/
116System and daemon startup/control scripts;
117see
118.Xr rc 8
119.It Pa ssh/
120OpenSSH configuration files;
121see
122.Xr ssh 1
123.It Pa ssl/
124OpenSSL configuration files
125.It Pa upgrade/
126Files relevant to system upgrades
127.It Pa uucp/
128uucp configuration files;
129see
130.Xr uucp 1
131.El
132.It Pa /home/
133HOME directories of non-root users
134.It Pa /mnt/
135empty directory commonly used by
136system administrators as a temporary mount point
137.It Pa /pfs/
138pseudo file system directory (on
139.Xr hammer 5
140root file systems)
141.It Pa /proc/
142process file system;
143see
144.Xr procfs 5 ,
145.Xr mount_procfs 8
146.It Pa /root/
147root's HOME directory
148.It Pa /sbin/
149system programs and administration utilities
150fundamental to both single-user and multi-user environments
151.It Pa /sys/
152the kernel's source code (usually a symbolic link to
153.Pa /usr/src/sys )
154.It Pa /tmp/
155temporary files that are not guaranteed to persist across system reboots
156.It Pa /usr/
157contains the majority of user utilities and applications
158.Pp
159.Bl -tag -width ".Pa libdata/" -compact
160.It Pa bin/
161common utilities, programming tools, and applications
162.It Pa games/
163useful and semi-frivolous programs
164.It Pa include/
165standard C include files
166.Pp
167.Bl -tag -width ".Pa libmilter/" -compact
168.It Pa arpa/
169C include files for Internet service protocols
170.It Pa c++/
171C++ include files
172.It Pa cam/
173C include files for the Common Access Methods Layer
174.Pp
175.Bl -tag -width ".Pa scsi/" -compact
176.It Pa scsi/
177The SCSI device on top of CAM
178.El
179.Pp
180.It Pa dev/
181C include files for programming various
182.Dx
183devices
184.It Pa emulation/
185Include Files for various emulation layers
186.It Pa fs/
187.Pp
188.Bl -tag -width ".Pa smbfs/" -compact
189.It Pa smbfs/
190SMB/CIFS filesystem
191.El
192.Pp
193.It Pa isofs/
194.Pp
195.Bl -tag -width ".Pa cd9660/" -compact
196.It Pa cd9660/
197iso9660 filesystem
198.El
199.Pp
200.It Pa libmilter/
201C include files for libmilter,
202the sendmail mail filter API
203.It Pa libprop/
204C include files for libprop
205.It Pa machine/
206machine-specific C include files
207.It Pa msdosfs/
208MS-DOS file system
209.It Pa net/
210misc network C include files
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211.It Pa netatm/
212ATM include files;
213see
214.Xr atm 8
215.It Pa netinet/
216C include files for Internet standard protocols;
217see
218.Xr inet 4
219.It Pa netinet6/
220C include files for Internet protocol version 6;
221see
222.Xr inet6 4
223.It Pa netipx/
224IPX/SPX protocol stacks
225.It Pa netkey/
226kernel key-management service
227.It Pa netnatm/
228NATM include files;
229see
230.Xr natm 4
231.It Pa netsmb/
232SMB/CIFS requester
233.It Pa nfs/
234C include files for NFS (Network File System)
235.It Pa objc/
236Objective C include files
237.It Pa openssl/
238OpenSSL (Cryptography/SSL toolkit) headers
239.It Pa pcap/
240Packet Capture (libpcap) headers;
241see
242.Xr pcap 3
243.It Pa pccard/
244PC-CARD controllers
245.It Pa protocols/
246C include files for Berkeley service protocols
247.It Pa readline/
248get a line from a user, with editing;
249see
250.Xr readline 3
251.It Pa rpc/
252remote procedure calls;
253see
254.Xr rpc 3
255.It Pa rpcsvc/
256definition of RPC service structures; see
257.Xr rpc 3
258.It Pa security/
259PAM; see
260.Xr pam 8
261.It Pa sys/
262system C include files (kernel data structures)
263.It Pa ufs/
264C include files for UFS (The U-word File System)
265.Pp
266.Bl -tag -width ".Pa ffs/" -compact
267.It Pa ffs/
268Fast filesystem
269.It Pa mfs/
270memory file system;
271see
272.Xr mount_mfs 8
273.It Pa ufs/
274UFS filesystem
275.El
276.Pp
277.It Pa vm/
278virtual memory;
279see
280.Xr vmstat 8
281.El
282.Pp
283.It Pa lib/
284archive libraries
285.Pp
286.Bl -tag -width ".Pa compat/" -compact
287.It Pa aout/
288a.out archive libraries
289.It Pa compat/
290shared libraries for compatibility
291.Pp
292.Bl -tag -width ".Pa aout/" -compact
293.It Pa aout/
294a.out backward compatibility libraries
295.El
296.It Pa engines/
297OpenSSL dynamic engines
298.El
299.Pp
300.It Pa libdata/
301misc. utility data files
302.Pp
303.Bl -tag -width ".Pa stallion/" -compact
304.It Pa doscmd/
305files used by doscmd (drivers, fonts, etc.);
306see
307.Xr doscmd 1
308.Pp
309.Bl -tag -width ".Pa fonts/" -compact
310.It Pa fonts/
311fonts used by doscmd
312.El
313.Pp
314.It Pa lint/
315various prebuilt lint libraries;
316see
317.Xr lint 1
318.It Pa stallion/
319holds the download firmware images
320.El
321.Pp
322.It Pa libexec/
323system daemons & system utilities (executed by other programs)
324.Pp
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325.It Pa binutils221/
326.Pp
327.Bl -tag -width ".Pa ldscripts/" -compact
328.It Pa ldscripts/
329linker scripts;
330see
331.Xr ld 1
332.El
333.Pp
334.It Pa lpr/
335utilities and filters for LP print system;
336see
337.Xr lpr 1
338.It Pa sendmail/
339the sendmail binary;
340see
341.Xr mailwrapper 8
342and
343.Xr sendmail 8
344.It Pa sm.bin/
345restricted shell for sendmail;
346see
347.Xr smrsh 8
348.It Pa uucp/
349uucp utilities;
350see
351.Xr uucp 1
352.El
353.Pp
354.It Pa local/
355local executables, libraries, etc.
356Within
357.Pa local/ ,
358the general layout sketched out by
359.Xr hier 7
360for
361.Pa /usr
362should be used.
363Exceptions are the
364.Pa man/
365directory (directly under
366.Pa local/
367rather than under
368.Pa local/share/ ) ,
369documentation (in
370.Pa share/doc/<app>/ ) ,
371and
372.Pa /usr/local/etc
373.Pf ( mimics
374.Pa /etc ) .
375.It Pa obj/
376architecture-specific target tree produced by building the
377.Pa /usr/src
378tree
379.It Pa pkg/
380default destination directory for the
381.Xr pkgsrc 7
382collection.
383Within
384.Pa pkg/ ,
385the general layout sketched out by
386.Xr hier 7
387for
388.Pa /usr
389should be used.
390Exceptions are the
391.Pa man/
392directory (directly under
393.Pa pkg/
394rather than under
395.Pa pkg/share/ ) ,
396documentation (in
397.Pa share/doc/<pkg>/ ) ,
398and
399.Pa /usr/pkg/etc
400.Pf ( mimics
401.Pa /etc ) .
402.It Pa pkgsrc/
403The
404.Xr pkgsrc 7
405collection (optional).
406.It Pa sbin/
407system daemons & system utilities (executed by users)
408.It Pa share/
409architecture-independent files
410.Pp
411.Bl -tag -width ".Pa groff_font/" -compact
412.It Pa calendar/
413a variety of pre-fab calendar files;
414see
415.Xr calendar 1
416.It Pa dict/
417word lists;
418see
419.Xr look 1
420.Pp
421.Bl -tag -width ".Pa papers/" -compact
422.It Pa web2
423words from Webster's 2nd International
424.It Pa words
425common words
426.It Pa papers/
427reference databases;
428see
429.Xr refer 1
430.El
431.Pp
432.It Pa doc/
433miscellaneous documentation
434.Bl -tag -width ".Pa legal/" -compact
435.It Pa legal/
436License files for vendor supplied firmwares
437.El
438.Pp
439.It Pa examples/
440various examples for users and programmers
441.It Pa games/
442ASCII text files used by various games
443.It Pa groff_font/
444device description file for device name
445.It Pa i18n/
446internationalization databases; see
447.Xr iconv 3
448.It Pa info/
449GNU Info hypertext system
450.It Pa isdn/
451ISDN
452.It Pa libg++/
453libg++'s genclass prototype/template class files
454.It Pa locale/
455localization files;
456see
457.Xr setlocale 3
458.It Pa man/
459manual pages
460.It Pa me/
461macros for use with the me macro package;
462see
463.Xr me 7
464.It Pa misc/
465misc system-wide ASCII text files
466.Pp
467.Bl -tag -width ".Pa termcap" -compact
468.It Pa termcap
469terminal characteristics database;
470see
471.Xr termcap 5
472.El
473.Pp
474.It Pa mk/
475templates for make;
476see
477.Xr make 1
478.It Pa nls/
479national language support files;
480see
481.Xr mklocale 1
482.It Pa openssl/
483.Pp
484.Bl -tag -width ".Pa man/" -compact
485.It Pa man/
486OpenSSL manual pages
487.El
488.Pp
489.It Pa sendmail/
490sendmail configuration files;
491see
492.Xr sendmail 8
493.It Pa skel/
494example . (dot) files for new accounts
495.It Pa syscons/
496files used by
497.Xr syscons 4
498.Pp
499.Bl -tag -width ".Pa scrnmaps/" -compact
500.It Pa fonts/
501console fonts;
502see
503.Xr vidcontrol 1
504and
505.Xr vidfont 1
506.It Pa keymaps/
507console keyboard maps;
508see
509.Xr kbdcontrol 1
510and
511.Xr kbdmap 1
512.It Pa scrnmaps/
513console screen maps
514.El
515.Pp
516.It Pa tabset/
517tab description files for a variety of terminals; used in
518the termcap file;
519see
520.Xr termcap 5
521.It Pa tmac/
522text processing macros;
523see
524.Xr nroff 1
525and
526.Xr troff 1
527.It Pa vi/
528localization support and utilities for
529.Xr vi 1
530.It Pa zoneinfo/
531timezone configuration information;
532see
533.Xr tzfile 5
534.El
535.Pp
536.It Pa src/
537.Bx ,
538third-party, and/or local source files
539.Pp
540.Bl -tag -width ".Pa nrelease/" -compact
541.It Pa bin/
542source code for files in
543.Pa /bin
544.It Pa contrib/
545source code for contributed software
546.It Pa crypto/
547source code for contributed cryptography software
548.It Pa etc/
549source code for files in
550.Pa /etc
551.It Pa games/
552source code for files in
553.Pa /usr/games
554.It Pa gnu/
555Utilities covered by the GNU General Public License
556.It Pa include/
557source code for files in
558.Pa /usr/include
559.It Pa lib/
560source code for files in
561.Pa /usr/lib
562.It Pa libexec/
563source code for files in
564.Pa /usr/libexec
565.It Pa nrelease/
566files required to produce a
567.Dx
568release
569.It Pa sbin/
570source code for files in
571.Pa /sbin
572.It Pa secure/
573build directory for files in
574.Pa /usr/src/crypto
575.It Pa share/
576source for files in
577.Pa /usr/share
578.It Pa sys/
579kernel source code
580.It Pa tools/
581tools used for maintenance and testing of
582.Dx
583.It Pa usr.bin/
584source code for files in
585.Pa /usr/bin
586.It Pa usr.sbin/
587source code for files in
588.Pa /usr/sbin
589.El
590.El
591.It Pa /var/
592multi-purpose log, temporary, transient, and spool files
593.Pp
594.Bl -tag -width ".Pa preserve/" -compact
595.It Pa account/
596system accounting files
597.Pp
598.Bl -tag -width ".Pa acct" -compact
599.It Pa acct
600execution accounting file;
601see
602.Xr acct 5
603.El
604.Pp
605.It Pa at/
606timed command scheduling files;
607see
608.Xr \&at 1
609.Pp
610.Bl -tag -width ".Pa spool/" -compact
611.It Pa jobs/
612directory containing job files
613.It Pa spool/
614directory containing output spool files
615.El
616.Pp
617.It Pa backups/
618misc. backup files
619.It Pa crash/
620default directory to store kernel crash dumps; see
621.Xr crash 8
622and
623.Xr savecore 8
624.It Pa cron/
625files used by cron;
626see
627.Xr cron 8
628.Pp
629.Bl -tag -width ".Pa tabs/" -compact
630.It Pa tabs/
631crontab files;
632see
633.Xr crontab 5
634.El
635.Pp
636.It Pa db/
637misc. automatically generated system-specific database files
638.It Pa empty/
639empty directory used by
640.Xr sshd 8
641for privilege separation
642.It Pa games/
643misc. game status and score files
644.It Pa hammer/
645per PFS (pseudo file system) snapshots directory for
646.Xr hammer 5
647file systems
648.It Pa log/
649misc. system log files
650.Pp
651.Bl -tag -width ".Pa wtmp" -compact
652.It Pa wtmp
653login/logout log;
654see
655.Xr wtmp 5
656.El
657.Pp
658.It Pa mail/
659user mailbox files
660.It Pa msgs/
661system messages database;
662see
663.Xr msgs 1
664.It Pa preserve/
665temporary home of files preserved after an accidental death
666of an editor;
667see
668.Xr \&ex 1
669.It Pa quotas/
670filesystem quota information files
671.It Pa run/
672system information files describing various info about
673system since it was booted
674.Pp
675.Bl -tag -width ".Pa ppp/" -compact
676.It Pa ppp/
677writable by the
678.Dq network
679group for command connection sockets; see
680.Xr ppp 8
681.It Pa utmp
682database of current users;
683see
684.Xr utmp 5
685.El
686.Pp
687.It Pa rwho/
688rwho data files;
689see
690.Xr rwhod 8 ,
691.Xr rwho 1 ,
692and
693.Xr ruptime 1
694.It Pa spool/
695misc. printer and mail system spooling directories
696.Pp
697.Bl -tag -width ".Pa clientmqueue/" -compact
698.It Pa clientmqueue/
699undelivered submission mail queue;
700see
701.Xr sendmail 8
702.It Pa dma/
703undelivered mail queue;
704see
705.Xr dma 8
706.It Pa ftp/
707commonly
708.Pa ~ftp ;
709the anonymous ftp root directory
710.It Pa mqueue/
711undelivered mail queue;
712see
713.Xr sendmail 8
714.It Pa output/
715line printer spooling directories
716.It Pa uucp/
717uucp spool directory
718.It Pa uucppublic/
719commonly
720.Pa ~uucp ;
721public uucp temporary directory
722.El
723.Pp
724.It Pa tmp/
725temporary files that are kept between system reboots
726.Pp
727.Bl -tag -width ".Pa vi.recover/" -compact
728.It Pa vi.recover/
729the directory where recovery files are stored
730.El
731.Pp
732.It Pa yp/
733the NIS maps
734.El
735.El
736.Sh NOTES
737This manual page documents the default
738.Dx
739filesystem layout, but
740the actual hierarchy on a given system is defined at the system
741administrator's discretion.
742A well-maintained installation will include a customized version of
743this document.
744.Sh SEE ALSO
745.Xr apropos 1 ,
746.Xr find 1 ,
747.Xr finger 1 ,
748.Xr grep 1 ,
749.Xr ls 1 ,
750.Xr whatis 1 ,
751.Xr whereis 1 ,
752.Xr which 1 ,
753.Xr fsck 8
754.Sh HISTORY
755A
756.Nm
757manual page appeared in
758.At v7 .